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violence, as to occasion a severe contusion. He was, No. X. THE ENTRY INTO TOULOUSE.

in consequence, unable to cross the intersected

country in his front, in time to direct the movement NOTWITHSTANDING the repeated defeats which Soult of the different divisions in pursuit. But for this had experienced in his attempts to relieve the misfortune, the results of Orthes would probably fortresses of St. Sebastian's and Pamplona, he was have been even more decisive." unwilling, without a further struggle, to abandon the After this defeat, Soult was forced, by Lord Welhope of saving them from capture. Accordingly, on lington's manoeuvres, to retreat to St. Sever, upon the 31st of August, he made a desperate attack on the Adour, in the direction of Bourdeaux; but the the left wing of the allies, covering the siege of St. allies being compelled to halt by the unfavourableness Sebastian's; his efforts being directed entirely against of the weather, the Marshal took the opportunity of a corps of Spaniards, who were posted on the heights ascending the Adour, with the view of drawing near of St. Marcial. The French, despising their anta- the Pyrenees, and transferring the seat of war to that gonists, advanced with extreme confidence up the steep quarter. The road to Bourdeaux was thus left open acclivity; but the brave defenders, waiting till their to the allies; and Lord Wellington, assured that a assailants had nearly gained the summit, charged them powerful party existed in that city, in favour of the with the bayonet, and at once breaking their column, legitimate sovereign of France, despatched Marshal pursued them with slaughter. On the very day that Beresford, with a strong force, to drive out the French this attack was made, the town of St. Sebastian's military, and afford the inhabitants an opportunity was carried by assault, and the garrison driven into of declaring their sentiments. This object was accomthe castle, which held out for only a few days longer. plished without any resistance, and Marshal Beresford

The left wing of the allies being thus disengaged, entered the city on the 12th of March. Soult was preparations were made for the invasion of France. closely pressed by his opponent, and at length, on the It was not possible to act on the offensive upon a 24th, he retired into Toulouse, breaking down all the great scale, until the fall of Pamplona; but, on bridges as he passed. the 31st of October, the garrison of that fortress, Three days afterwards, the allies arrived in front of to the number of 4000, having exhausted the whole that city, on the left bank of the Garonne; and, of their provisions, surrendered prisoners of war, having succeeded, on the 4th of April, in throwing a and thus disengaged the right of the allies from the bridge across the river, prepared at once to act on the task of covering the blockade.

offensive. In the mean while Soult had been dili. The winter set in unusually wet and inclement; gently providing against the attack, neglecting no the low grounds, in the vicinity of the rivers means of defence of which he could avail himself. which separated the hostile armies, were become Toulouse possessed many local advantages; its walls, one continued marsh; and the troops on both though old, being of great thickness, and covered, on sides remained quiet in their cantonments. This three fourths of their extent, by the great canal of repose lasted, with scarcely any interruption, till Languedoc, or the waters of the Garonne. But the the middle of February, 1814, when, the weather French Marshal, considering their defences insufficient, becoming more favourable, Lord Wellington resolved had taken up a formidable position on a range of to take the field, and leaving a part of his army to heights, covering the approach to the eastern side of invest Bayonne, with the remainder to carry the war the city, which he had strongly fortified by intrenchinto the heart of France. By the 26th, a bridge of ments and redoubts. This it was absolutely necessary boats was laid down across the Adour (on the banks to attack; and, Lord Wellington having made his disof which Bayonne stands), about two miles and a positions for that purpose, they were carried into suchalf below that town, and scarcely a mile from the cessful execution on the 10th of April. The French sea. The operation was one of great disliculty, for were driven successively from all their redoubts; and the river is 270 yards broad, and the tide and ripple at night every one of their posts was withdrawn are so formidable as to preclude the use of any thing within their intrenched line, behind the cana!. Tousmaller than decked vessels of twenty or thirty tons louse was now enclosed on three sides, and a very short burden. The French had never thought of guarding time would have sufficed to enable the allies to comthis passage, deeming the width and depth of the plete its investment. Soult was suinmoned to surriver, and the rapidity of its current, to be obstacles render, but he replied that he would rather bury of too formidable a nature to be overcome; and the himself in the ruins of the city; yet he was too well town was thus blockaded on both sides of the Adour, aware of the difficulty of his situation to entertain without any serious resistance.

any hope of success. “ He had, however," says While the left of the allied army was thus occupied, Colonel Jones, "at his disposal 35,000 troops, and Lord Wellington was leading the remainder towards desperation might have given a force to his expiring the interior of the French territory, dislodging the efforts, which would have occasioned a severe loss to enemy from the positions which they occupied, as he the brave men who held him encaged; and as the advanced. Leaving Bayonne to its own resources, conclusion of peace, though not officially known, was Soult immediately concentrated his forces behind the too credibly reported to be doubted, the victor, deGave de Pau, at Orthes, and taking up a very strong sirous of avoiding an unnecessary esfusion of blood, position, appeared determined to await the issue of a permitted the French army, without molestation, to battle. On the 27th, the British attacked him, and file out of the town, in the night of the 11th, by the met with an obstinate resistance from his troops, road of Carcassone, passing within cannon-shot under who showed, on this occasion, a spirit more determined the heights of Pugada, crowned by his troops, and than ordinary ; but the enemy at length gave way, bristling with his artillery.” and fled with precipitation, but the victory was The allies entered Toulouse on the following mornmarked by an incident, "for the possible consequences ing, not as conquerors, but as friends and deliverers; of which," says the author of Annals of the Peninsular they were received with enthusiastic acclamations, Campaigns, “no success, however brilliant, could have and the white flag was hoisted by the inhabitants, in made compensation. During the engagement, Lord token of their allegiance to the ancient dynasty of Wellington was struck by a grape-shot, which drove the Bourbon kings. On the evening of the same the pommel of his sword against his side, with such day, messengers arrived from Paris, to inform Lord


Wellington that the Allied Sovereigns had declared | camp in front of the citadel of Bayonne, upon the they would enter into no fresh negotiations with position occupied by the allies. The assailants were Buonaparte, because of his bad faith ; that the senate driven back with great slaughter, but not without a had passed resolutions, declaring that he had forfeited loss to the blockading force of more than eight all right to the crown, and absolving the soldiers and hundred, in killed, wounded, and prisoners; Sir John the nation from their oaths of allegiance; finally, Hope himself being among the captured. It is that he had submitted to their decree, and was melancholy to think that so many brave men should allowed to retire to Elba, with the independent have been sacrificed to the incredulity of the French sovereignty of that island.

governor; and he has even been charged with having “It was in the theatre," says Mr. Southey, “that acted under a less cxcusable motive, and having this news was published, for the theatre was not planned the affair rather with the wish to gratify a closed that night: the dead were lying all around the bitter feeling of enmity towards the allies, than in walls; the hospitals, and many of the houses were the hope of attaining any inilitary object. At all filled with wounded, all of whom were not yet brought events his conduct contrasts strongly with the humane in. The inhabitants themselves had been, by the forbearance of the Duke of Wellington, in allowing mercy of Providence, spared from the horrors of an the French army to withdraw from Toulouse, when assault, of a blockade, which would speedily have he might have destroyed it. caused famine; and from the evils of fire and sword These events were quickly followed by a definiwhich they apprehended; and it was the theatre attive arrangement for the suspension of hostilities; Toulouse that was opened, not the churches !—But soon after which, the Portuguese and Spaniards rethe play was altered, and Richard Cæur de Lion was crossed the Pyrenees, and the British embarked for represented for the sake of its applicable passages England. Thus terminated the war which had now and songs. Nothing could exceed the cheering at these been waged for seven years in the Peninsula and the passages, except the bursts of applause with which South of France. Lord Wellington was received and greeted, whenever he moved; only those who know the French charac. READING makes a full man, conversation a ready man, ter, said one who was present, could imagine the ex

writing an exact man.-Bacon. cessive joy of the people,—they shouted and wept,

Words are like leares, and where they most abound, and shouted again."

Much fruit of sense beneath is rarely found. The officers who brought the news from Paris, passed through Bourdeaux, and a communication was made Pride is seldom delicate, it will please itself with very from thence to Sir John Hope, who commanded the mean advantages: and envy feels not its own happiness, force blockading Bayonne; but, the information not but when it may be compared with the misery of others.

JOHNSON. being official, Sir John did not think proper to notify it officially to General Thouvenot, the governor of the ARISTOTLE, when asked by what criterion we should judge garrison. He desired however that the officers on of the merit of a book, replied, When the author has said the out-posts should communicate the intelligence to every thing he ought, nothing but what he ought, and says the French officers at their advanced picquets

, in the that as he ought. hope that it might prevent any hostilities in the mean

LONDON: time. The intimation seems to have produced a very JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. different effect, for early on the morning of the 14th | PUBLIBBED IN WHIRLY NUMBERS, PRICE UNE PENNT, AND IX MONTHLY PARTS a sortie was made in great force, from the intrenched Sold by all Booksellers and Newsrenders in the Kingdum,

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Sr. PETERSBURGH, the modern capital of the Russian and on the adjacent bank of the river a small hut of the Empire, is situated on the coast of the Baltic Sea, at the same material was built for the residence of the czar himself. head of that part of it which is called the Gulf of Finland. But an event soon occurred which brought much joy to It is the most northerly metropolis of Europe, being placed Peter, and gave him fresh spirit to proceed in his underin the high latitude of nearly sixty degrees. It is a noble taking. “Five months." says a writer in the Family city, and one, the sight of which well repays the task of Library “had scarcely elapsed, when a report was brought visiting it; and its beauty is the more remarkable, on to the czar that a large ship, under Dutch colours, was account of the quickness of its growth, which occupied a standing into the river. It may be supposed that this was shorter space of time than has been needed for the erection a joyful piece of intelligence for the founder. It was of many single buildings. Without doubt, it is now enti nothing short of realizing the wish nearest his heart-to tled to rank among the finest cities of Europe, and in some open the Baltic for the nations of Europe to trade with his respects it must be allowed to surpass them; yet, scarcely dominions : it constituted them his neighbours; and he more than a hundred and thirty years have elapsed since at once anticipated the day when his ships would also float the ground on which it stands was covered by only the on his own waters; would beat the Swedish navy, and miserable huts of a few poor fishermen.

drive them from a sea in which they had long rode trium

phant with undivided sway. No sooner was the commuFOUNDATION AND HISTORY.

nication made, than the czar, with his usual rapidity, set off

to meet this welcome stranger. The skipper was invited to Tuis modern capital of Russia was founded by Peter the 'the house of Prince Menzikoff; he sat down at table; and, Great, whose name, indeed, it hears. The grand object of to his great astonishment, found that he was placed next the that celebrated monarch was to make his subjects a com- czar, and had actually been served by him. But not less mercial people; for he was fully sensible of their low rank in astonished and delighted was Peter, on learning that the ship the scale of civilized Europe, and well knew that nothing belonged to, and had been freighted by, an old Zaardam would more strongly conduce to their improvement than that friend, with whom he had resided, Cornelius Calf. Perintercourse with other countries which is consequent upon mission was immediately given to the skipper to land his traffic. But, to the attainment of his object, a free and unin- cargo, consisting of salt, wine, and other articles of proviterrupted communication with the ocean was essential; and sions, free of all duties. Nothing could be more acceptable this the Russians had not. The sea which bounded their to the inhabitants of the new city than this cargo, the territory in the cold regions of the north, was shut up whole of which was purchased by Peter, Menzikoff, and during half the year, besides being far distant and difficult the several oflicers; so that Auke Wybes, the skipper, of access at all times: and the Baltic was in the hands of made a most profitable adventure. On his departure he Peter's most powerful enemies, the Swedes, whose troops received a present of 500 ducats, and each man of the crew were masters of the provinees on its shores, while their 100 rix-dollars, as a premium for the first ship that had ships swept its waters in triumph. The Czar resolved, entered the port of St. Petersburgh. In the same year however, to gain a footing upon this sea, and it was not another Dutch ship arrived, with a cargo of hams, cheese, long before he accomplished his purpose.

butter, gin, &c., and received the same premium: and the At the beginning of the 18th century, he commenced third was given to an English ship which entered the port a war against Sweden, and in the course of two years his in the first year of the building of the city." efforts to drive her troops from the provinces of Ingria and A church was erected after the citadel > and priests were Carelia, on either side of the Gulf of Finland, were attended ordered to attend from Moscow. Merchants, mechanics, with considerable success. One of his exploits was the and tradesmen of various descriptions, were likewise dicapture of a fortress on the north bank of the Neva, near rected to repair to the new city; and no means were to the spot where St. Petersburgh now stands; and when neglected of hastening its improvement. At the end of this was accomplished, the czar called a council of war with twelve months it had reached a respectable size, and is a view to determine whether he should strengthen the said to have contained huts and houses to the number of fortifications of this new conquest, or look out for another thirty thousand. The price of this success was dreadful; position more extensive, and less distant from the sea. it is said to have included the sacrifice of a hundred The latter course was adopted, and the choice fell upon thousand lives. By degrees, however, matters went on more one of the islands, formed by the branches of the Neva, at prosperously, and the progress of the city became rapid in the spot where that river empties itself into the Gulf of proportion. In the year 1709 the first edifice of brick Finland. The fortress which thus arose was named St was built; and five years afterwards the czar ordered that Petersburgh; and from this beginning sprang the present all houses thenceforth erected should be constructed of capital of the Russian empire.

the same material. At the same time the nobility and The difficulties encountered by Peter in his attempt to principal merchants were commanded each to have a reerect a city on the spot which he had selected, were ex- sidence in St. Petersburgh; and every vessel navigating tremely great, and would certainly have deterred a less to the city was required to bring a certain quantity of stone obstinate man from persevering in it. The situation was for the use of the public works. highly unfavourable: the banks of the Neva, and the At one period of his life Peter had fixed on a regular islands at its mouth, were covered with brushwood and plan for the arrangement of his new capital; but he never swamps, while the country around was little else than an carried it into execution. He continued, however, till the immense marsh. But the czar's resolution was taken, and day of his death, carefully to watch over the progress of the he adhered to it with his characteristic pertinacity. Orders city; omitting no measures that might conduce to its imwere issued for the gathering of workmen from all parts of provement. His successors followed in the same path; his empire; Russians, Tartars, Cossacks, Calmueks, and and, among them, Catherine the Second is especially dispeasants of various races, in number many thousands, all tinguished for the zeal which she displayed in following repaired to the chosen spot to execute the designs of their out the designs of the great founder. despotic master. How Peter contrived, with such a motley crowd of unskilful labourers, to succeed in the accomplish

SITUATION AND EXTENT. ment of his scheme, is a matter of considerable wonder. St. Petersburgh is built partly on the banks of the Neva, The poor men suffered severe privations; throughout their and partly on some islands at its mouth; its circumference heavy task they were wholly unprovided with the necessary | is very extensive, somewhat exceeding eighteen English tools, not having even those which we regard as requisite miles. The most important division is that seated on the in the simplest operations of labour,--the common spade left bank; it includes the district which is called the and pickaxe. “Notwithstanding which," says a contem- Admiralty quarter, and which contains the naval establishporary writer, " the work went on with such expedition that ments, together with the palaces of the emperor and the t was surprising to see the fortress raised within less than principal public buildings. On the right bank stands the five months, though the earth, which is very scarce there- more ancient part of the city, presenting pretty much the abouts, was, for the greater part, carried by the labourers same appearance as in the days of its great founder; it is in the skirts of their clothes, and in bags made of rags and intersected with canals, and has narrow streets, with houses old mats; the use of wheelbarrows being then unknown." | chiefly of wood. Altogether it possesses considerable reWithin this fortress a few wooden habitations were erected; semblance to a Dutch town; and Peter indeed professedly built it in imitation of Amsterdam*. The islands which

THE NEVA. St. Petersburgh occupies are five in number, stwo large, The Neva forms a very prominent feature in St. Petersand three smaller ones:

the former are—the island of St. burgh, and the Russians have carefully availed themselves Petersburgh, on which Peter originally built his fortress, of the advantages which it offers for the improvement of and Vassileiostrow or the island of Vassilei; the latter, it is their capital. This river runs from the Lake Ladoga into unnecessary for us to particularize.

the Gulf of Finland ; its length scarcely exceeds thirty-five The whole of this capital is intersected with numerous canals, which, with their bridges and granite quays, contri- from 300 to 400 yards. Its appearance is

miles, and its breadth, as it flows through the city, varies bute much to its beauty. But these channels do not serve


very the purpose of ornament only; besides their use as drains, large metropolis ; its waters are perfectly pure, and of a

from that usually presented by a stream flowing through a they afford a receptacle, to a certain extent, for the accu- beautiful transparent blue colour. There is no permanent mulation of waters which a long-continued westerly wind produces at the head of the Gulf of Finland. We have bridge established over it; for its depth, and the rapidity before observed that the original site of this metropolis strong to withstand the vast masses of ice which come

of its current, prevent the erection of piers sufficiently was little better than one vast morass ; in the lapse of floating down in winter from the Lake Ladoga, while the years its features have of course been much changed, but lowness of its banks forms an obstacle to the application of ihe level of the city is still so low as to render it constantly the suspension principle. There are, however, three ponton liable to inundation. Indeed, on more than one occasion, bridges, by which the communication is maintained between it has been threatened with a total submersion; in the the northern and the southern districts of this capital; of year 1796, the water rose seventeen feet above the lev

of these the principal is the Isaac Bridge, which stretches the river. Many of our readers probably recollect the

across from the island of Vassilei to the centre of the inundation of 1824, which accompanied the tremendous Admiralty Quarter, opening directly into the space constorm; the loss of life and property then incurred was

taining the statue of Peter the Great. It is composed of considerable.

twenty large-decked boats, well fastened to each other, and GENERAL APPEARANCE.

firmly anchored; over these is a thick flooring of planks. THERE is scarcely a single subject on which the judgment Its length is 1050 feet, and its breadth 60; and it has two of travellers approaches so nearly to unanimity, as the drawbridges for ships to pass through. When the ice magnificence which characterizes the general appearance makes its appearance, one end of this chain of boats is of St. Petersburgh.. “It is not possible," says the late loosenedl; the whole line then swings over to the opposite Bishop James, “ to give an account capable of portraying side of the river, and there remains till the close of the faithfully the surprise and astonishment generally expe- winter-season. rienced by the stranger who, after the wild country he has But if the Nera can boast of no beautiful bridges, it just quitted, enters the city of Petersburgh: its effects certainly possesses a far more rare attraction in the noble would be stupendous even without the aid of this contrast: quay which lines its left bank for the distance of two whole whatever beauties may have been shadowed out by imagi- miles. This is built on piles, and its height is ten feet nary anticipation, every idea falls short of the excellence above the ordinary level of the water, which is here from of the original; and every former relation one has heard eight to ten feet deep; it has a good foot-pavement, and a seems to describe it in terms of admiration far too cold. parapet two feet and a half high towards the river. At It is a city of new-built palaces, where the residences of in- stated distances are double flights of steps communicating dividuals vie with the effusions of imperial magnificence; and with the water, and furnished with seats for the accommowhere the buildings destined for public works hold a rank of dation of passengers. The whole of this stupendous work ostentation still more striking, and are of a magnitude well is composed of hewn granite. agreeing with the mighty concerns of this vast empire.' It is a matter of regret that this superb quay should be

A more recent traveller, Mr. John Barrow, jun., interrupted about the middle of its length by the buildingspeaks to the same effect, though in simpler language. slips of the Admiralty, which cut it completely in two, "My first impression," he says, “ on landing, was that and obstruct all view of the one portion from the other. Petersburgh was a city of palaces, and unquestionably the The part immediately above the Admiralty is fronted by most splendid and magnificent in the whole world. Its massy the Winter-Palace of the Emperor, and the Hermitage, and and regular buildings, apparently of stone, overwhelm one bears the name of the Russian Quay; the part below that with wonder, by their extent and magnitude. Nothing structure is called the English Quay, because the houses that I had yet seen—and I have seen the principal cities in it, which are among the largest and the best in the city, of Europe-seemed to be deserving of a comparison; nor, were originally built and inhabited by English merchants. to say the truth, was this, my first impression, obliterated | They are still, for the most part, occupied by our countryby subsequent and closer examination."

men, and in one of them our late ambassador used to It seems, indeed, to be generally admitted, that in the reside. We have given a representation of it in page 216, number, the immensity, the solidity, and the elegance of and our readers will at once perceive how great an ornament its public buildings, St. Petersburgh surpasses every other it must be to the city. The view which it commands is city of Europe; they have been skilfully grouped together very pleasing ; for the extensive commerce carried on at in masses, and their concentrated effect is overwhelming: St. Petersburgh, gives the Neva a bustling appearance, But, on the other hand, this excellence is only partial, and Even when its waters are frozen, it affords an animated confined to particular districts ; and, taken as a whole, the picture; indeed, it is, perhaps, in the winter-season that Russian capital is pronounced decidedly inferior to London the river presents its gayest picture, for nothing can be or Paris. Its public edifices are not, individually speaking, more lively and diversified than the scenes which it then equal to those of our own metropolis ; and it cannot be presents.

The ice is covered with groups of persons, said to possess a single building fit to be compared with engaged in different sports and occupations; and the celeSt. Paul's, Westminster-abbey, Greenwich-hospital, or brated “hills" which are erected on its surface, afford a perhaps Somerset-house. The Cathedral church of Cazan highly-popular diversion to the inhabitants. An imitation is far inferior to St. Paul's; “indeed," says Mr. Morton, l of these machines has at various times been exhibited in “no comparison can be instituted between them. Where | England, under the title of “ Russian Mountains ;" we shall we find," continues the same writer, “in St. Peters- shall shortly describe the originals as used on the Neva t. burgh, an edifice equal to our venerable Westminster abbey? A scaffolding is raised in the river about thirty feet in The convent of St. Alexander Neuskoi cannot be put in height, baving a platform on the top, which is approached competition with it. The Post-office, in St. Martin's-le- by a flight of steps. From this summit a sloping frame of grand, is a striking and elegant piece of architecture: so, boards leads down to the level of the ice; and on this are in a less degree, is the Bank of England; while the Post- laid large blocks of ice, the interstices of which are filled office of the Russian metropolis has nothing in its exterior with snow. Water is then poured over the whole surface to recommend it; nor has the Assignation Bank; which, from the top to the bottom; and this, freezing, gives it the on the contrary, is a mean building. The Winter Palace is appearance of a solid compact pavement. There are genean immense structure, but cannot, in my opinion, be com- rally two of these “hills" or "mountains” placed parallel pared, as to its beauty, with Somerset-house. The only to each other, at a distance of ten or twelve feet, and edifice to which we have nothing similar is the palace of the having their starting-places at opposite ends. At the Etat Major; this is certainly a most splendid and magnifi- bottom of these inclined planes the snow is cleared away cent pile of building; but I venture to ask whether its great for about 200 yards, and the sides of this course, as well as ness be not the principal cause of the admiration it excites." those of the scaffolding and platform, are protected by * See the Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 34.

+ See also Saturday Magazine, Vcl. III., p. 237.

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