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A young farmer, who had begun well on a good estate

WATCH MAKING. that had descended to him from his ancestors, found, to his The origin of watch-making in Switzerland, as vexation, at the end of the first year, that he was poorer than when he started. His stock was less, and his purse

related by Mr. Osterwald, ancient banneret of Neunot heavier. We do not approve of idle fortune-tellers,

chatel, is extremely curious; and the truth of his but it happened that a Gipsy being in the neighbourhood,

account was confirmed to me by several artists, both our friend told her his sad tale; gave her à crown for of Locle and La Chaux de Fond. advice as to “how he might become better off by the end In 1679, one of the inhabitants brought with him of the next year," and promised to make the crown a from London, a watch, the first that had been seen pound, if by that time he should have met with fair success.

in these parts; which, happening to be out of order, The bargain having been struck,“ Take" said the wise woman, “this little cup, and drink from it every morning

he ventured to trust in the hands of one Daniel John of the water which you must get at such and such a

Richard, of La Sagne. Richard, after examining the spring. But remember! you must draw it yourself regu mechanism with great attention, conceived himself Jarly at five o'clock, or the charm will be broken." Accord capable, and was determined to attempt to make a ingly, the very first morning after this, as he proceeded watch from the model before him ; but to this end, across his fields, (for the spring was at the further end of he was destitute of every other assistance than the the estate,) he spied a neighbour's cows, which had broken through the fence, and were feeding on his pasture; of powers of his own native genius. Accordingly, he course he instantly turned them out, and had the hedge

employed a whole year in inventing, and in finishing mended. But the labourers were not at hand; they came

the several instruments previously necessary for loitering in after their proper time, and were startled at executing his purpose ; and in six months from that sceing “ Master" so early: “ Ob" said he, I see how

period, by the sole force of his own penetrating and this is; it comes of my not getting up in time.” In a few persevering talents, he produced a complete watch. mornings all went on as regularly as clock-work: his early rising became a pleasant habit: his walk and cup of water

His ambition and industry did not stop here ; gave him an appetite for his breakfast: the people about besides applying himself successfully to the invention his farm were all the better and happier for their leader's of several new instruments for the perfection of his punctuality; and when, at the close of the year, he saw work, he took a journey to Geneva, where he gained and rewarded his nut-brown adviser, it was allowed that considerable information in the art. He continued, her plan, like many an admirable invention, was as simple for some time, the only man in these parts who as it was efficacious.

could make a watch; but business increasing, he 45. Make the best of a bad bargain.

took in and instructed several associates, by whose Thus, even disappointments may be turned to good assistance he was enabled to supply, from his single account. We sbould try to keep our spirits from sinking shop, all the demands of his neighbouring country. under misfortunes, and use our best endeavours to lessen or remove the trouble: if this cannot be done, it is our

Towards the beginning of the eighteenth century, he duty to bear it with patience, which will in time make it removed to Locle, where he died in 1741, leaving more tolerable. “ How do you know” said some one, “but five sons, who all of them followed their father's it was a good thing for me that I broke my leg ?" What occupation. From these, the knowledge and practice can't be cured must be endured, is the plain language of of the art gradually spread itself, till, at length, it our English adage: and it is astonishing to see how griefs became almost the universal business of the inhaare lightened by the influence of a resigned, contented, and Christian spirit. When, in any bodily ailment, human skill bitants, and the principal cause of the populousness has done its utmost without a favourable effect, the sufferer of these mountains. may call to mind a cheerful proverb quoted hy Ray,

[Cove's Letters from Switzerland.] The best physicians are Dr. Diet, Dr. Quiet, and Dr. Merryman; as well as the soothing counsel offered by NATURE, as well as Christianity, teaches us, that we are Dr. Bland.

not born only for ourselves; and, therefore, as we ought Of all the sorrows that attend mankind,

to converse with the best men to acquire virtue and know With patience bear the lot to thee assigned;

ledge, so we must sometimes converse with others, that we Nor think it chance, nor murmur at the load;

may impart them: and though we do not find that our For know, what man calls fortune is from God.

conversation does immediately, and visibly reform those we M.

converse with, yet it will not follow, it altogether

ineffectual on them: for besides that the seeds of virtue All the ideas that man can form of the ways of Providence, and knowledge, as well as those of plants, may long scem of the employment of angels and spirits, must ever fall

to lie dead, even in those soils wherein they will after

wards flourish and fructify, there may be at present a good, short of the reality; but still it is right to think of them. though not a conspicuous effect of your discourse and What can have a more exalting intluence on the earthly life than in these first days of our existence, to make our

example.—BOYLE. selves conversant with the lives of the blessed, with the A CRIPPLE in the way out-travels a footman or a post out happy spirits whose society we shall hereafter enjoy? We should accustom ourselves to consider the spirits of Heaven

of the way.-BEN JOnson. always around us, observing all our steps, and witnessing «Be in reality what you would appear to be."—If you our most secret actions. Whoever is become familiar with these ideas, will find the most solitary place peopled with observe, you will find that all human virtues increase and the best society.-KLOPSTOCK.

strengthen themselves, by the practice and experience of

them. Take my advice, then, and labour to acquire them. The caterpillar, on being converted into an inert scaly mass, does not appear to be fitting itself for an inhabitant of the air, and can have no consciousness of the brilliancy

MYSTERIOUS Nothing! How shall I define of its future being. We are masters of the earth, but

Thy shapeless, baseless, placeless emptiness ? perhaps we are the slaves of some great and unknown

Nor form, nor colour, sound nor size are thine, beings. The fly that we crush with our finger, or feed with

Nor words, nor figures, can thy void express. our viands, has no knowledge of man, and no consciousness But though we cannot thee to ought compare, of his superiority. We suppose that we are acquainted To thee a thousand things may likened be; with matter and all its elements, yet we cannot even guess And though thou art nobody, and no where, at the cause of electricity, or explain the laws of the Yet half mankind devote themselves to thee. formation of the stones that fall from meteors. There How many books thy history contain ! may be beings, thinking beings, nearer surrounding us, How many heads thy mighty plans pursue! which we do not perceive, which we cannot imagine. We What labouring hands thy portion only gain! know very little, but in my opinion, we know enough to What busy men thy only doings do! hope for the immortality, the individual immortality of the To thee, the great, the proud, the giddy bend, better part of man.-SIR HUMPHRY DAyy,

And like my sonnet all in Nothing end.-Porson.



were constructed entirely of brick) seem to possess Our engraving of the interior of the Hall, or prin- the greatest antiquity. The foundation of the Guardcipal apartment of this ancient and interesting struc- chamber has been ascribed to Archbishop Arundel; ture, speaks far more forcibly of the desolation which the date of the chapel is quite unknown, but we find has fallen on its fortunes, than a page of verbal that it was greatly embellished and repaired by description. Once honoured with the oft-repeated Archbishops Laud and Juxon, who, with many of their presence of royalty; the resort of the high-born and successors, expended large sums of money on the the far-descended; the scene of olden hospitality; it edifice. The hall, of whose fallen condition we have is now appropriated to the purposes of an outhouse! already spoken, was built by Archbishop Stafford; We could moralize for an hour on such a subject,- and here it may not be uninteresting to say a few but let us turn to its changeful history.

words on this distinctive feature of old English The Manor of Croydon appears to have been at- residences. tached to the archbishopric of Canterbury at a very We may premise that the architects of the old early period. The Palace, or Manor-House, was long time seem to have had the principal feature of mothe occasional abode of the archbishops, particularly nastic establishments in view, in forming their designs during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who seems to for lay residences. The hall, which we need scarcely have delighted to visit this place. The queen held a remind our readers, has given its name to many of council here on the 30th of April, 1567; during our ancient mansions, was, in fact, the Refectory, or which year she twice visited Archbishop Parker, who dining-apartment, which in the hospitable times of then held the see, and was eminently distinguished our ancestors, when the head of the family, and all for his virtues and his learning. In July, 1573, the his retainers and dependants dined together, was queen and her whole court remained here seven days; necessarily constructed of large proportions. The passing the time with "jousts" and rejoicings. hall, with few exceptions, consisted of a lofty and

After the accession of Archbishop Whitgift to the undivided room, in form a parallelogram. At the see, he was frequently honoured with visits from his upper end, the floor was raised a step, which was sovereign, the last of which that we can find recorded called the dais, or high place, designed for the recepwas in 1600. When James the First, king of Scot- tion of the master of the house and his chief guests, land, was a prisoner in England, he was placed at who sat at a table placed parallel to the wall. At this Palace, under the custody of Archbishop Arundel. the opposite extremity of the apartment was an It is singular, however, that although many interest-elegantly enriched screen or partition of wood, behind ing events must have taken place at Croydon, so little which was a passage extending from side to side of its history remains to us; especially as almost all of the building, and the doors leading to the the archbishops, since we have any records of the see, “ kitchener's" department, buttery, &c. The wooden have dated some of their public acts here.

roof was the most striking part of the hall; from In the olden time, one hundred and seventy acres the richness of its carving, and boldness of its design. of “emparked ground" were attached to the Palace, One of the finest examples yet remaining is at and persons of note seem occasionally to have held Hampton-court Palace, and that at Eltham is highly the office of its keepers, amongst whom was the interesting. famous Sir William Walworth, in the reign of Richard The hearth, instead of being placed at the side, the Second. It is probable that the grounds were was in the middle of the room; the fagots (for wood thrown open and disparked during the disastrous was then the universal fuel) were placed against a times of the Commonwealth, when the whole of the sort of fire-iron called the rere-dosse; the smoke property was seized by the Parliament. A lease was escaping through the louver, a light open-work turret first granted by these spoliators to the Earl of Bur- in the roof, which, as may be seen by the beautiful lington, who did not hold it long; as shortly after example at Westminster Hall, generally formed a we find it in the hands of Sir William Brereton: “A highly ornamental feature in the exterior of the notable man,” says an old writer, “at a thanksgiving edifice, to which it gave a distinctive character. The dinner, having terrible long teeth, and a prodigious windows were placed at a considerable height from stomach, to turn the archbishop's palace into a kit- the floor, on one or both sides of the room, of which chen, and to swallow up that palace and lands at a the hall at Croydon affords an illustration. morsel.” Archbishop Juxon, therefore, found it in a Early in the sixteenth century, the alteration of very dilapidated state at the Restoration; but al. manners gradually led to the withdrawal of the though a considerable sum was subsequently expended family from the hall

, and to the introduction of the upon it, the Palace seems, after this period, never to dining-parlour or banquetting-room. We may rehave been a favourite residence; and, about the middle mark, that the halls at our Universities, especially at of the last century, was wholly abandoned.

dinner, furnish an excellent idea of the style, and In 1780, an Act of Parliament was at last obtained in a certain degree, of the customs of the times of for disposing of the structure, and fourteen acres of our ancestors. The following passage from the land attached to it—but a poor representative of the Aubrey MSS. describes the ancient hall. ancient demesne. The property was then purchased “ The lords of manours did eate in their great by Sir Abraham Pitches, for 25201., which was in-gothícque halls, at the high table or oreile, the folk vested in the funds, in aid of the erection of a new at the side tables. The meat was served up by palace for the archbishops of Canterbury. The pre- watchwords. Jacks are but an invention of the mises were subsequently used for the purposes of a other daye; the poor boys did turn the spits and calico-printing establishment and bleaching-ground; lick the dripping-pan, and grew to be great lusty and the chapel was converted into a School of In- knaves. The body of the servants were in the great dustry.

hall, as now in the guard-chamber, privy-chamber, Croydon Palace has evidently been built at different &c. The hearth was commonly in the midst, as periods. The precise date of the erection of the at colleges, whence the saying, 'round about our present structure has not been handed down; but it coal fire.' Here, in the halls, were the mummings, appears to have replaced the original palace, a wooden cob-loaf stealing, and great number of old Christedifice, about the middle of the fourteenth century. mas playes performed. In great houses, were lords The east and west sides of the principal court (which of misrule during the twelve dayes after Christmas.

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The halls of justices of peace were dreadful to behold. I the seats are free. The sum of 35001. was granted The screenes were garnished with corslets and helmets by the commissioners for building churches and gaping with open mouth, with coates of mail, lances, chapels, in aid of this most desirable object. pikes, halberts, brown-bills, battle-axes, and the At the latter end of the sixteenth century, an modern callevers, petronells, and (in King Charles's hospital was founded here by Archbishop Whitgift, time) muskets and pistolls."

at a cost of 27001., and endowed with lands of the The parish of Croydon is one of the most extensive annual value of 1851., for the support of a warden, in the kingdom, being thirty-six miles in circum- schoolmaster, and forty poor brethren and sisters, ference, and comprising within its limits more than if the income proved sufficient to support so large a 10,000 acres and eight hamlets. There is nothing number. The lands have since greatly improved in very remarkable in the history of Croydon, which is value. a considerable market-town, pleasantly situated in “sylvan Surrey," about ten miles to the south of London. The most memorable event in its annals, were contented to dwell in houses builded of sallow, willow,

EARLY INAABITANTS OF BRITAIN,- In times past, men is a battle which took place there during the disputes &c., so that the use of the oak was in a manner wholly between Henry the Third and his barons, when the dedicated unto churches, religious houses, princes' palaces, forces of the latter were defeated with great loss. navigation, &c.; but now sallow &c., are rejected, and

The ancient church, which is dedicated to St. John nothing but oak any where regarded: and yet see the the Baptist, is worthy of the notice of the lover of change: for when our houses were builded of willow, then hoar antiquity. The structure is distinguished by a made of oak, our men are not only become willow, but a

had we oaken men : but now our houses are come to be lofty square tower, built with stone and flint, and great many altogether of straw, which is a sore alteration. adorned with pinnacles. The nave is separated from In them the courage of the owner was a sufficient defence the north and south aisles by clustered columns, and to keep the house in safety: but now the assurance of the pointed arches of elegant proportion, between which timber must defend the men from robbing. Now have we are several grotesque ornaments and rude heads. many chimneys; and yet our tender lines complain of Some remarkable monuments are to be found here. rheums, catarrhs, and poses, then had we none but rereThe eastern end of the north aisle is called Heron's for the timber of the house, so it was reputed a far better

dosses, and our heads did never ache. For as hardening Chapel. On either side of the north and west doors medicine to keep the good man and his family from the are the arms of Archbishops Courtney and Chichele, quack or pose, wherewith, as then, very few were acquainted. who are supposed to be the founders of the edifice. -HOLLINGSHED. In consequence of the increasing population of the parish, a new church, in the early pointed style of

LONDON: architecture, was built in 1827, from a design by Mr. JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. Wallace. This beautiful structure is calculated to

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The county of Caernarvon is, in almost every living chiefly upon the produce of their dairies. “The respect, the most interesting district in Wales. For bread of the peasantry,” says a recent writer, in centuries the scene of one of the noblest struggles Welch called bara ceirch, is of oats, and their prinfor national independence which has ever been cipal beverages whey and buttermilk, with a few recorded—its history abounds with stirring recol- bottles of cwrw, or ale, preserved as a cordial in lections. The magnificent mountain-range of “Snow. cases of illness. One daily meal throughout the donia," (so called from its central and highest eleva- year consists of a very wholesome vegetable mucition, Snowdon,) which covers so large a portion of lage, called llymru, in English flummery,) which is its surface, is picturesque in the highest sense of the made by adding as much warm water to finely

Druidical and other remains of antiquity, ground oatmeal as it can well absorb, to which some of a very remarkable character, are frequently to be sour butter-milk is added; in three or four days' time met with ; and its people still preserve, through the more warm water is put in, to make it thin enough to lapse of ages, the language, and many of the dis- be strained through a hair-sieve; it is then boiled, after tinguishing features, of the early inhabitants of these which it is ready for use. The slight fermentation isles.

which it undergoes gives it a pleasant acidity, which Caernarvonshire, surrounded as it is by the sea on contrasts well with the sweetness of the milk with all sides, except on the east and a portion of the which it is generally eaten.” Crime is almost unknown south, is extremely irregular in its outline. Its aspect, amongst these rude, but sober and industrious people. as we have stated, is generally wild and mountainous, Following, from age to age, and from father to son, the hills rising abruptly from the skirts of narrow their peaceful occupations, amongst mountain-passes valleys into stupendous elevations, which intersect and sequestered hollows, intellectual pursuits have each other, and afford, by their combinations, an necessarily hitherto made, comparatively, but little endless variety of romantic scenery. Cattle and progress amongst them; the recent introduction of sheep are fed in considerable numbers on these popular literature, in Welch, however, bids fair to mountains; they are generally tended by their effect a wide change in the rising generation, and owners, who, for the season, dwell in temporary huts,' to drive away from the land the race of fanciful VOL. V.


beings, with which superstition has peopled almost the river Seiont, whilst the two other sides were every hill; and glen, and lake, and waterfall, and environed partly by a fosse and partly by a creek river.

from the adjacent strait. Its external fortifications More than fifty llyns (lakes), are to be found in are still nearly perfect, and display an example of this country, which generally abound with char and decorated castellated architecture, which is perhaps other fish, peculiar to alpine waters. The llyns unrivalled; it is indeed this combination of strength of Llanberris, Ogwen, Idwal, and Cawellyn, are with ornament, which gives so remarkable an effect amongst the most beautiful of these lakes, though of to Caernarvon Castle. Above the embattled parapets comparatively small extent. Westward of the moun- of the walls, rise numerous turreted towers of singular tain-range is a considerable expanse of level country, beauty, not uniform, but pentagonal, hexagonal, and stretching to the bold shore of the Menai Strait, octagonal in their shape. Of these, some idea may which abounds with large rounded fragments of rock, be formed from the turrets seen on the summit of of the same conformation as those of the hill-country; the Eagle Tower in the centre of our engraving. the memorials of some vast convulsion of nature in The walls of the castle are of great height, and other days. The geological features of the country generally about ten feet thick, having, within, a narrow are, indeed, of extreme interest. Mines of lead and gallery, with occasional loop-holes for the discharge copper are worked in several parts, and slates are of arrows in time of siege. In front of the principal exported to a considerable extent. The climate, entrance tower is a statue of Edward, who is reprealthough moist and variable, is considered very fa- sented with a sword half-drawn from its scabbard vourable to longevity; this, however, may be partly in his hand. This massive gateway is defended by owing to the temperate habits of the people.

four portcullises. The interior of the castle is in a The Romans, during their sojourn in Britain, state of considerable dilapidation, but it is magnifounded an extensive military station on the shores | ficent in its ruin. The state apartments have been of the Menai, called Segontium; in the immediate extremely extensive, and were lighted by spacious neighbourhood of which there is good ground for windows profusely, adorned with tracery, much of concluding, that the native princes of the district which remains. . A corridor, or covered way, ran first commenced the building of Caernarvon.

completely round the entire structure, of which about Constantine, who married Helena, a daughter of seventy yards are nearly perfect. one of the princes of North Wales, is supposed, We cannot even glance at the changeful history of from some remains which have been found here, to this stupendous relic of the olden time. It was last have resided for a short time at this station ;-in used for the purposes of defence during the Civil Welsh it is called Caer Custenit, the City of Con-War, when it was repeatedly taken and retaken by stantine.

the Royalists and Republicans, The town of Cacrnarvon, which has been designated The Eagle Tower, (so called from a figure of that “ the boast of North Wales," is beautifully situated bird sculptured on its walls,) to' which we have preat the mouth of the river Seiont, on the south-eastern viously alluded, is, perhaps, the most interesting part side of the strait of Menai, about four miles from of the fabric. Within a little dark room of this St. George's Channel. It is chiefly surrounded by tower,” says Mr. Pennant, “ not twelve feet long, nor the massive and lofty remains of its ancient walls, eight in breadth, was born Edward the Second; so which are flanked and strengthened by numerous little, in those days, did a royal consort consult semicircular towers. Of late years, Caernarvon, either pomp or conveniency.” This assumption has, from the salubrity of its site, and the eminent beauty, however, reasonably been doubted; and the scene of of the adjacent district, has not only ranked high as the royal accouchement has, with greater probability, a "watering-place," but has become the permanent been fixed in a spacious adjoining chamber on the residence of many respectable families. A new town, same floor. Leaving this point to be contested by as it were, has in consequence arisen beyond the future antiquaries, we shall glance at ancient precincts. It possesses a very considerable markable circumstances connected with the event. coasting trade, to facilitate which, great improvements “Edward,” says the historian, had, by what are have been recently made in the harbour. But the termed the statutes of Rhuddlan, annexed the pringlory of the place is its Castle; a fortress, which it cipality to the kingdom of England, and in a great has been well observed, from whatever point or degree incorporated it, as to the administration of whatever distance it is viewed, assumes a romantic civil justice, with that country” But the Welsh singularity of appearance, that excites mingled feelings became impatient under this usurped dominion, and of awe and pleasure in the beholder.

the principal chieftains, who mostly remained in their A fortification seems to have been erected here inaccessible mountain-fastnesses, at last acquainted shortly after the Norman Conquest of England, by the English monarch, that they would never acknowHugh Earl of Chester, who had, after an arduous ledge him as their sovereign, unless he would reside' conflict, succeeded in temporarily dethroning the in Wales. This being a proposition which it was Welsh monarch, and in nominally possessing himself impossible to comply with, the Welsh ultimately of the greater part of North Wales. The present modified their requisitions, and after setting forth structure, however, was built by Edward the First, the cruel oppressions and unjust exactions of the after the completion of his conquest of North Wales, English officers, stated, in a strong remonstrative in 1282. The care bestowed in the plan and con- memorial, that they never would acknowledge or struction of this magnificent fortress *, sufficiently yield obedience to any prince, but of their own indicates the important light in which Edward re- nation and language, and of an unblamable life. garded his acquisition, and the difficulty which he “ King Edward," continues the historian, “perceiving foresaw would arise in keeping it, from the restless the people to be resolute and inflexible, and absoand undaunted character of the Welsh people. lutely bent against any other prince than one of their

The castle occupies the summit of an extensive own country, happily thought of this politic, though rock, boldly projecting into the Menai Strait. On dangerous expedient. Queen Eleanor was then daily one side it was surrounded by the sea, on another by expecting to be confined, and though the season was This monarch also constructed the castles of Conway and

very severe, it being the depth of winter, the king Harlech, little inferior in extent and splendour to that at Cagrnusyon. sent for her from England, and removed her to

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