« 이전계속 »
LOCAL COMMITTEES.' Alton, Staffordshire-Rev. J. P. Jones.
Glamorganshire -—W. Williams, Esq., Aber- Pesth, Hungary-Count Szechenyi. Anglesea --Rev. E. Williams.
Plymouth-H. Woollcombe, Esq., F.A.S.
Wm. Snow Harris, Esq., F.R.S.
E. Moore, M.D., P.L.S.
A. J. D. D'Orsey, Esq.
G. Wightwick, Esq.
Presteign-Rt. Hon. Sir H. Brydges, Bart.
A. W. Davis, M.D. Belfast-Jas. L. Drummond, M.D.
Hitcham, Suffolk-Rev. Professor Henslow, Birmingham -- Paul Moon James, Esq.
A.M., F.L.S. & G.S.
Ripon-Rev, H. P. Hamilton, A.M., F.R.S., G S. Bridport-- James Williams, Esq.
Rev. P. Ewart, A.M.
Ruthin-The Rev. the Warden,
Humphreys Jones, Esq.
Ryde, Isle of WVight-Şir R, Simeon, Bt.
Henry Browne, Esq. Calcutta–James Young, Esq.
Liverpool Lucal Association
Salisbury-Rev. J. Barfitt. C. H. Cameron, Esq:
J. Mulleneux, Esq.
Sheffield-J. H. Abrahams, Esq. Cambridge—Rev. Leonard Jenyns, A.M., F.L.S.
Maidstone-Clement T. Smyth, Esq.
Shepton Mallet-G. F. Burrouglis, Esq. Rev. John Lodge, A.M.
John Case, Esq.
Shrewsbury---R. A. Slaney, Esq. Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, A.M., F.R.S. & G.S.
South Petherton-John Nicholetts, Esq.
Sır Benjamin Heywood, Bart.
Stockport-H. Marslaud, Esq.
Henry Coppock, Esq.
Sir George Philips. Bart., M.P.
Sloansea-Matthew Moggridge, Esq.
Sydney, New S. Wales—W. M. Manning, Esq. Chester-Henry Potts, Esq..
Minchinhampton-John G. Ball, Esq.
Tavistock-Rev. W. Evans.
John Rundle, Esq., M.P.
Newcastle - Rev. W. Turner.
Truro-Heury Sewell Stokes, Esq.
Tunbridge Wells-Dr. Yeats.
T. Sopwith, Esq., F.G.S.
Uttoseter-Robert Blurton, Esq.
T. Cooke, Jun., Esq:
Virginia, U. S.-Professor Tucker. DerbyJoseph Strutt, Esq.
R. G. Kirkpatrick, Esq.
Worcester-Chas. Hastings, M.D.
C. H. Hebb, Esq.
Wrexham-Thomas Edgworth, Es
Wm. Forster, Esq.
Major Sir William Lloyd.
Yarmouth-C. E. Rumbold, Esq.
Dawson Turner, Esq.
Ch. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S., Prof. Chem. York-Rev. J. Kenrick, A.M. Exeter-J. Tyrrell, Esq.
Rev. Baden Powell, Sav. Prof.
John Phillips, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. John Milford, Esq. (Coacer.)
Rev. John Jordan, B.A.
HABENA’RIA, a genus of plants belonging to the natural | taining similar poems, chiefly addressed to her as his wiso ; order Orchideæ. The tribe has a ringent hooded perianth, and the pieces in the third being mainly religious and cona 3-lobed entire spurred lip. There are three species natives templative. 2, “The Queen of Arragon, a Tragi-Comedie,' of Great Britain.
acted both at court and at the Blackfriars theatre against the Habanaria viridis, the Frog Orchis, has a very short 2-lobed author's will, printed in 1640, folio, brought again upon the Spur, linear fiat 3-pointed lip, the middle point the shortest. stage in 1666, with a prologue and epilogue by the author of The flower is green, and the lip of a brownish colour. It Hudibras, and reprinted in all the three editions of Dodsley's is the Peristylus of Lindley, and the limantoglossum of Old Plays.' 3,* · The History of Edward IV.,' 1640, folio, B-ichenbach. It grows in pastures.
said to have been partly written by his father. 4, ObservaH. bifolia, the Lesser Butterfly Orchis, is distinguished by tions upon History,' 1641, 8vo. the lip being linear and entire, and the pollen masses parallel. Habington's poems, although infected by the tendency to The lowers are white. It is found in heathy places. puerile and abstruse conceit which prevailed in his time, are
H. chlorantha, the Great Butterfly Orchis, has the same yet in most parts exceedingly delightful. Their fancy is Foeral characters as the preceding species ; but the flowers sweet, especially in rural description, their feeling is refined et larger and the plant is taller and stouter. The pollen and ideal; the language is correct and tasteful; and the tone masses ascend obliquely and converge upwards. It grows in of moral 'sentiment is everywhere pure and elevated. The coist woods and thickets.
romantic and chivalrous cast of thought and sentiment gives (Babiogton, Manual of British Botany.)
much interest to his play, although the story is meagre, and HABINGTON, WILLIAM, was the son of Thomas the characters are not vigorously depicted. Labington, a Roman Catholic gentleman of family and fortune HABZE'LIA, a genus of plants belonging to the natural in Worcestershire. His mother, the daughter of Lord Morley, order Anonaceæ. It has a 3-lobed calyx; 6 petals, the inner has been supposed to have been the writer of the famous letter ones smallest ; the stamens very numerous; the torus convex; which revealed the Gunpowder Plot [FAWKES, GUY, P. C.]; the carpels distinct, indefinite in number, long, cylindrical, and her husband (who had been long imprisoned as implicated obsoletely ventricose or torulose, smooth, striated lengtha Babington's conspiracy) gave shelter to some of the accom- wise, becoming many-celled by the pericarp growing together; pices of Fawkes, and was sentenced to die, but received a par-many-seeded, the seeds elliptical, arillate, somewhat erect, dna through the intercession of his wife's brother, on condition numerous, shining, one in each of the cells of the fruit; the of retiring to his manor of Hindlip. Their son had been born acillus formed of 2 white unequal obcordate membranes. there upon the very day now marked as the date of the plot, H. Æthiopica has ovate-acute leaves, 3 inches long, 12 to the 5th of November, 1605. He was educated in the Jesuit 14 lines broad, smooth on the upper surface, and downy becollege of St. Omer, and afterwards at Paris ; and endeavours neath ; the carpels are pod-shaped, 1-2 inches long, knotted, were used, but in vain, to induce him to enter the society. striated, quite smooth, with the taste of pepper. The fruit He returned to England, and lived in retirement with liis has a pungent aromatic taste, and is often substituted for father, who long survived him, and who directed and co- other spices. It is the Piper Æthiopicum of the shops, and Gerated with him in historical and other studies. William the Nuona Æthiopica of Duval and other botanists. It is a Habington married Lucy, daughter of William Herbert, the native of Sierra Leone. H. aromatica is another species, Srst Lord Powis ; and the whole of his subsequent life ap- yielding a pungent aromatic fruit. It grows in the forests of kars to have been spent in literary and rural quiet. It is Guyana, and the fruit is used by the negrocs as a condiment. aid by Anthony Wood that he did run with the times, and (Lindley, Flora Medica.) 733 not unknown to Oliver the Usurper,' a charge which HACKERT, PHILIPÚ, a celebrated German landscape say either be untrue or involve nothing discreditable. He painter, was born at Prenzlau in Prussia, in 1737. His died at Hindlip on the 13th of November, 1645, when he had father was a portrait painter and a native of Berlin, where but just completed his fortieth year. His published writings Hackert spent some time with an uncle who was a decorative see the following:-1,Castara,' a collection of poems, painter. He acquired his chief knowledge of painting, irrat printed together in 1635, and again more fully and cor- however, by copying good pictures ; and he derived great
tly in 1640. They were included in Chalmers's English benefit also from the acquaintance of Le Sueur, the director Preis in 1810, were reprinted separately in 1812, and are of the Berlin Academy, and of Sulzer. In 1765 he visited goen wholly in Southey's Select Works of the British Paris, and in 1768 he went, with his brother Johann, to Italy. Ferts.' The name at the head of them is the poetical one hc They spent some time in Rome sketching and painting the
te to the lady whom he married. They are in three parts : scenery about Albano and Tivoli : many of their works toe first containing sonnets and other small pieces, chiefly ad- | were purchased by Lord Exeter. Philipp's first works of dressed to his mistress before marriage; the second part con- | importance however were the six large pictures of the Russian P. C. S., No. 86.
naval victory of Tschesme, and the burning of the Turkish, extolled him beyond his merits; while he compares Flaxma Aeet, by Count Orlow, in 1770, painted for the empress with Sabatelli, and damns his noble designs with the fain Catherine II. of Russia, and for which he was paid 2950 praise that they have some pretty ideas in them; he con zechini, about 16,000 forins, or 13501. sterling. Count demns them for their want of detail in execution. Orlow, to whom the works were sent at Leghorn, was upon (Goethe, Werke- Philipp Hackert; and Winckelmanı the whole highly gratified by their successful accomplishment, und sein Jahrhundert.) but he was dissatisfied with the representation of the explosion
HACKNEY-COACH. The derivation of the wory of a ship, in the picture of the burning of the fleet; and in Ilackney, as applied to a class of public conveyances, ha order to give the artist a proper impression of such a catas- occasioned much speculation. Bailey, in his Dictionary trophe, he ordered, with a spirit worthy of an autocrat, one adopts what appears to have become a popular notion, tha of the frigates of his fleet, an old vessel, to be blown up in the name is derived from the suburb of London so called the presence of Hackert, in the roads of Leghorn, and he was for which supposition however we find no plausible ground well satisfied with the results of his experiment, for Hackert but he adds, unless you would rather have it from thi greatly improved the picture. These works, with six other French Hacquenée,' which is a word of similar meaning similar subjects, are now at St. Petersburg. In 1772, the Many curious conjectures on the subject are given in Todd year in which the first-mentioned pictures were completed, Johnson's Dictionary,' and in the lexicographical division a Johann Hackert died at Bath, aged only twenty-nine; he came the Encyclopædia Metropolitana.' From these it is eviden to England with some pictures which had been ordered by that a similar word is found in most European languages English travellers in Rome. In the meanwhile two other Menage traces the French form from the Latin equus, a horse brothers, Wilhelm and Karl, joined Philipp in Rome, but thus :--equus, akus, akinus, akineus, akinea, haquenée. An Wilhelm went shortly afterwards to St. Petersburg, and died other conjecture derives it from an Anglo-Saxon word mean there in 1780, aged only thirty-two, and Karl settled in Swit- ing to neigh, on the supposition that a lively horse, given tı zerland. Philipp accordingly in 1778 sent for his youngest neighing, would be the most likely to be lent for hire. Per brother Georg, who was an engraver at Berlin, and they lived haps the most probable derivation is from haque, an ok together from that time until the death of Georg at Florence French word for a gelding, which would be fitter than a mori in 1805.
spirited neighing horse for hiring for public use. Howeve Hackert was highly patronised in Rome both by Italians this may be, it is sufficiently evident that the term hackne and foreigners; Pius VI. was delighted with his works, and was first applied to horses let for hire, and then, by a very his reputation as a landscape painter was unrivalled by any of natural transition, extended to coaches, and subsequently ti his contemporaries, though he was a very inferior painter to sedan-chairs, employed in a similar way. Wilson, who was neither appreciated nor known at that time : By the act 1 & 2 Wm. IV. c. 22, by which the law Wilson left Rome in 1755. In 1777 IIackert made a tour relating to hackney-carriages in London were consolidated in Sicily with Richard Payne Knight and Charles Gore; and amended, it is declared that every carriage with two o and in 1778 a tour in the north of Italy with Charles Gore more wheels, used for plying for hire in any public street a and his family. In 1782 he went to Naples and was pre- any place within five miles from the General Post-office it sented to the king, Ferdinand IV., by the Russian ambas- London, of whatever form or construction, or whatever may sador, Count Rasumowsky: The king took great pleasure in be the number of persons which it shall be calculated to convey the works of Hackert, and treated hiin with great kindness or the number of horses by which it shall be drawn, shall 61 and familiarity; he used to style him Don Filippo. In 1786, deemed a hackney-carriage ; and the distinction betweet after the departure of Coint Rasumowsky, he appointed hackney-carriages and stage-carriages is further implied Hackert his principal painter, who settled with his brother rather than distinctly expressed, by the provision that nothing from that time in Naples. They had apartments in the in the act shall extend or apply to any stage-coach used to Palazzo Francavilla on the Chiaja, which they occupied until plying for passengers to be carried for hire at separate fares they were dispossessed by General Rey, the French com- | A hackney-carriage is one which may be hired at certait mandant of Naples in 1799, who took possession of them regulated fares, calculated either by time or distance, and be. himself; he however treated the Hackerts with great kinding the same whether it is hired by one person or by the full ness, gave them passports, and suffered them to depart number which it is licensed to carry, to run in any required with all their goods and chattels, with which they arrived direction, and at any required time, under certain regulation safely at Leghorn. Hackert's salary was 100 ducats per provided by law; while a stage-carriage is one which perform month, with his apartments free, both in Naples and at à certain specified journey, at a specified time, carrying pas Caserta. In 1787 Hackert painted a large picture of the sengers only in the line of its specified route, at a certain fan Launch of the Parthenope, 64, the first ship of war which was (which is not regulated by act of parliament), for each indi built at Castel-a-Mare; it was engraved by his brother Georg; vidual passenger, the amount of such fare being usually he painted five other large pictures of Neapolitan seaports, though not invariably, dependent upon distance. which were all enlivened liy some historical scene of in- So far as can be gathered from such notices as the write terest : they are in the palace at Caserta. In 1788 the king has met with, this class of public vehicles appears to havi sent him to Apulia to make drawings of all the seaports of originated in London. The rise and progress of their use is that coast, which he painted, from Manfredonia to Taranto. London may be pretty distinctly traced from notices in Mac In 1790 he visited on a similar mission the coasts of Calabria pherson's Annals of Commerce,' and in Anderson's · His and Sicily: the king equipped for him a small felucca called a tory of Commerce,' of which work the early volumes o scappavia, manned with twelve men well armed, for the Macpherson are a reprint with but few alterations. Unde express purpose; he was out about five months, from April the year 1625 Macpherson, or rather Anderson, observes tha to August inclusive.
Our historiographers of the city of London relate that it wa Hackert lived, after his departure from Naples in 1799, a in this year that hackney-coaches first began to ply in Londo short time in Leghorn, whence he removed to Florence, streets, or rather at the inns, to be called for as they weri where he resided in a villa which he purchased in 1803, until wanted; and they were at this time only twenty in number: his death in April, 1807.
In 1634 sedan-chairs appear, for the first time, to have enteret Hackert's works are not remarkable for any particular into competition with hackney-coaches, the sole privileg quality of art: they are simple portraits or prospects in being granted in that year to Sir Sanders Duncomb to use ordinary light and shade, and their beauty accordingly let, and hire'a number of covered chairs,' such as he re depends upon the local beauty of the scene. The detail presented to be in use in many places beyond sea, for a perio is careful, without being minute, and where a memento of fourteen years; the avowed reason for their introductioi of aiy particular scene is the chief object of desire, his works being the inconvenience occasioned in the streets of the me are calculated to give perhaps complete satisfaction, cxcept tropolis by the unnecessary multitude of coaches.' In th in the case of some fastidious connoisseur who might require following year an attempt was made to check the increasing a bolder and more artistic foreground than those which annoyance occasioned by the general and promiscuous use a characterise his works generally. His drawings are extremely coaches' by a proclamation from the king (Charles L.) tha numerous, and his paintings are not rare ; many of them have no hackney or hired coach should be used in London been engraved. He painted in oil, in encaustic, and in body | Westminster, or the suburbs, unless it were engaged to trave water-colours or à guazzo, a species of distemper. He also at least three miles out of the same, and that every hackney etched several plates.
coach owner should constantly maintain four able horses fa Goethe has written a culogistic Life of Hackert, whose close the royal service when required. Finding it impossible ! innitation of nature delighted the German critic, and he has prevent the use of so great a convenience, a commission wa issued to the master of the horse in 1637 to grant licences to i moral character in the large class of men engaged in this ffty hackney.coachmen in and about London and Westminster, business. Since the year 1822 hackney-carriage drivers have and as many others as might be needful in other places in been required to deposit any articles which may be accidentally Eagland, each coachman being allowed to keep not more than left in their vehicles with the registrar of licences, to whom twelve horses. In 1652 the number of hackney-coaches daily the owners of the lost property may apply for its restoraplying in the streets was limited to 200; in 1654 it was in- tion, upon paying for the driver's time and trouble; and, increased to 300, allowing however only 600 horses ; in 1661 credible as it may appear, the estimated value of the property to 400; and in 1694 to 700. By an act of the 9th year of thus taken to the office in the first four years and a half after Anne (c. 23) the number was to be increased to 800 on the the introduction of this rule is estimated at 45,0001., while expiration, in 1715, of the licences then in force, and 200 very few applications were made for property which was not hariner-chairs were also licensed. The number of chairs thus restored. Of late years however the case has been very
was shortly increased to 300, and by the act 12 Geo. I. c. 12, different, for while from fifteen to sixteen hundred "strays, 1 400. In 1771 the number of coaches was further increased or lost articles, have been taken to the office in twelve to 1000.
months, they are all of small value; and the applications Notwithstanding this steady increase in the use of hackney- made for lost property are at least fourteen times that number. maches, they were long assailed as public nuisances in a To lessen the risk in reference to one very important departTay which it is amusing to look back upon. Some curious ment of hackney carriage business, the great railway comdetails on this subject are given in Knight's · London,' vol. i. panies which have termini in London enter into arrangements 1:27, &c., from which it appears, by a quotation from a letter by which a limited number of carriages, driven only by men of Garrard, that the first hackney-coach stand was established of well attested respectability, are allowed to stand within
1634, by one Captain Baily, at the May-pole in the Strand. their stations, to convey passengers arriving by the trains to Even so late as 1660 Charles II. issued a proclamation against their respective destinations, under a system of supervision so hackney-coaches standing in the streets to be hired; but on strict, that any case of misconduct or avercharge is almost the very day it was to come into force, Pepys records that he certain to be brought home to the guilty party; and it is gra
one to carry him home. The monopoly long enjoyed by tifying to know that this measure has proved productive of
London hackney-coachmen produced great indifference to the best results in promoting honesty and civility among a * Increasing wants of the community, and down to the most useful class of men. Further ‘han this, much good has
* 1823, while that monopoly was undisturbed, hackney- been effected by the strictness of the licensing system, and by eaches appear to have sunk lower and lower in the scale of the various efforts made, especially by the agents of the Lonciency. For some two hundred years,' observes Mr. don City Mission, for their education and religious welfare. Keight, in the work above referred to, those who rode in The generally low standard of moral character among cabLed carriages had seen the hackney-coach passing through drivers leads to the (we believe universal) adoption of a sysLiits phases of dirt and discomfort; the springs growing tem of remuneration which is not calculated to promote reaker, the 'iron ladder' by which we ascended into its honesty and good feeling. “It appears,' observes the writer dety capaciousness more steep and more fragile, the straw of the paper we have quoted above, that the masters would uzbier, the cushions more redolent of dismal smells, the have no chance of being honestly dealt with, if they were to
asses less air-tight.' So slow, also, were their movements, pay wages to their servants.' • They therefore," he adds, lend He was almost hopeless to think of gaining time by riding out the vehicles and horses at a fixed sum per day; or rather,
the men are expected to bring home the stipulated amount. While this was the state of things in London, a lighter Sometimes, in the dull season, they beg off for less, but it was ind of sthiele, drawn by one horse, had been brought into remarked to us by the manager of the largest establishment extensive use in Paris. In the year 1813, according to a paper of cabs in London, that, let the town be ever so full
, or the en the Vehicular Statistics of London,' in No. 78, new season ever so prosperous, they never produce more than the series, Chambers's Edinburgh Journal' (to which we are stipulated amount, to make up for former deficiencies.' The iziebted fx many of the following particulars), there were no experiment of paying liberal wages, and trusting to the iss than 1150 of these vehicles, which were called cabriolets honour of the men, is said to have been tried and found utterly the place. Etforts were made to introduce similar vehicles into impracticable. The average produce of each hackneyLa country, but, owing to a regard for the . vested rights' carriage to the proprietor,' according to our authority, 'may Ishe backney-coach owners, it was long found impossible to be about ten shillings and six pence a day, to which, if about et licences for them. With great difficulty Messrs. Brad three-and-sixpence be added for cash appropriated by the she and Rotch the latter a member of parliament) obtained drivers in lieu of wages, the amount (of earnings or receipts) Ersees for eight cabriolets in 1823, and started them at fares per diem is raised to fourteen shillings.' Hence,' he adds, pe-third lower than those of hackney-coaches. The new we may conclude that there is spent daily by the London
des were hooded chaises, drawn by one horse, and carry- public for coach and cab hire 1715l., and yearly almost
only one passenger besides the driver, who sat in the 800,0001.' abriolet (or, as more commonly called for brevity, the cab), Hackney-coaches were, according to Beckmann (History ut his fare. An improved build was soon introduced, by of Inventions, English edition of 1814, vol. i. p. 134), first sbach room was provided for a second passenger, and the established in Edinburgh in 1673; and on the same authority se was separated from the fare ; and with the rapid ex. (p. 131) it appears they were first used at Paris in 1650, "..ca of this lighter class of vehicles, numerous varieties of although, if this date be correct, he is wrong in stating that atraction have been introduced, in most of which the ori. the use of hackney-coaches originated there. He attributes al model is completely lost sight of, but in which com- their introduction to Nicholas Sauvage, from whose residence, table and safe accommodation, with complete shelter from the Hôtel S. Fiacre, such carriages took their common French * seather and separation from the driver, is provided for name of fiacres. About 1669 a small kind of hackney car23. three, or, in a few cases, four persons. The name cab' riage, resembling a sedan-chair on wheels
, called a brouette or all commonly applied to all hackney-carriages drawn by roulette, or sometimes, by way of derision, a vinaigrette, and e borse, whether on two or four wheels. During the first drawn by men, was brought into use. Cabriolets, as above
years of the employment of such carriages their number stated, appear to have originated in Paris. "a restricted to sixty-five, while the number of coach-licences For an abstract of the law relating to hackney and stage s increased to twelve hundred; but in 1832 all restriction carriages, duties, licences, &c., see METROPOLITAN STAGE to the number of hackney carriages was removed, and in CARRIAGE, P. C. S.
reper above referred to it is stated, on the authority of HADRAMAUT. (Arabia, P. C. and P. C. S.] Sormation received from the registrar of hackney-carriage HÆMANTHUS, TAMARYLLIDEÆ, P. C.] wees, that the number of hackney-carriages licensed for use HÆMATOCOCCUS (from aipa, blood, and kókkos, a Smag the year ending January 4, 1845, was 2450, all of grain), a genus of plants belonging to the natural order of mich, with the exception of less than 200, were cabs, or Alga. It is characterised by being composed of spherical e2-borse vehicles. The number of drivers licensed during or oval cells of various sizes, each cell being invested with
year ending May, 1844, was 4627, besides 371 · water- one or more concentric vesicles or membranes, multiplied or attendants upon the 130 regular metropolitan coach- either by division or by granules formed within the parent
cells. Several species of this genus have been described. While the changes above noticed have greatly benefited One of the first observed was the H. sanguineus, which, like se public, there is reason to fear that the great increase of the red-snow plant (Protococcus nivalis), has its cells coloured cromodation has not been accompanied by any elevation of red; hence the generic name. Several of the species however