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I must, and will quell these ever rising aspirations after that which is unattainable, and endeavour to tread the path which providence appears to have marked as the boundary to my ambition. To-morrow I will of course call as I have been desired; and better is it that I should be then considered as the son of an honest man, than as an orphan unclaimed and nameless.”

Thus wisely concluding his bitter soliloquy, Frederick Garston betook himself to his chamber, and endeavoured to compose his mind to sleep, wholly regardless of the events which the coming morrow might produce.

MACFARLANE'S GLANCE AT REVOLUTIONISED

ITALY.*

The old saying about being taught by an enemy, is one about the truth or propriety of which there can be but little doubt. And in some such character does Mr. Macfarlane come before the British public. He describes the movements that have agitated the excitable Italians with a-true, it may be; but certainly no very favourable pen. His sympathies are everywhere on the side of the powers that be. His descriptions of the popular leaders, Gioberti and Mazzini are very harsh, and, we would fain believe, far too highly coloured to be true. Mazzini, at any rate, from his long residence amongst us, has attracted very different feelings towards him than those Mr. Macfarlane evidently entertains. But he appears to have avoided them, and to have been on friendly terms with their political opponents. It cannot then be wondered at, that he has described them as he has. With this drawback exceptedthe eminently conservative spirit with which these volumes abound—they may be read with pleasure and benefit. Our author's knowledge of Italy and Italian matters is certainly very great.

Mr. Macfarlane was at Constantinople when the Italian movement commenced, under Pope Pius ix. Tie Italian colony

* A Glance at Revolutionised Italy. A Visit to Messina, and a Tour through the kingdom of Naples, the Abruzzi, the Marches of Ancona, Rome, the States of the Church, Tuscany, Genoa, Piedmont, in the summer of 1848. By Charles Macfarlane.

there was thrown into a state of the utmost rapture when the news arrived. “Liberati, who had never been seen in the churches before, but who had often been seen insulting or mocking the Catholic clergy of the place, went now regularly to mass, or to prayers said for the Pope. Nay, it was said that some of them-believers in po gospel, excepting the gospel according to Helvetius, or D'Alembert, or Diderot, or Voltaire, or Rosseauhad carried their condescension or their gratitude so far as to kneel in public at the confessional, and after confession, to take absolution from the priest with contrite countenances. I believe that it was the second Sunday after our arrival that they had a grand celebration in Pera, to rejoice at Pope Pius's happy or miraculous escape from assassination at Rome.

There were those who did not believe that there had been any attempt to murder his Holiness, but who shrewdly suspected that that conspiracy had been gotten up by the liberals, to answer their own purposes, and bind the Pope the more to their party. But let this pass ; I, for one, am contented to leave it

among

historical doubts. In the morning, they had a grand chanted mass and Te Deum in one of the Catholic churches; in the evening they had a subscription dinner at Blondel's Hotel de France; and at night, they made grand illuminations all along Les Petits Champs des Morts, or smaller Turkish cemetery. “ Viva Pio Nona ?was set forth in gigantic letters, composed of illumination lamps. There were other inscriptions, and a lighting of blue lights, and a letting off of fireworks, and a great deal of music played by a strolling band, and much mixing of whiskers and beards, and hugging and kissing among the patriots. We did not see the festa, baving gone away the preceding evening to the Sultan's model farm at St. Stephano. We were moreover assured that the celebration went off joyously and harmoniously ; that at the dinner, they toasted his Sar. dinian Majesty Charles Albert, after his Holiness the Pope; that some of the liberals were considerably excited by Mr. Blondel's champagne; and that nothing occurred to disturb the harmony of the meeting, except a difficult yon the part of some of the patriots to pay their share of the reckoning.

As the Pope took further strides on the road of reform; and as Charles Albert assumed a more warlike and defiant attitude towards Austria, the expatriated patriots became louder in their talk, and higher in their pretensions. They began to wear tri-colour ribbons, the green, white, and red, being the tri colours of Italy; and not satisfied with wearing these badges themselves, they pretended that every Italian in Turkey, or son, or grandson or great grandson of an Italian should also wear them. Even in the shipping which arrived in port, they

would not tolerate the Bourbon flag of Naples, or the flag of Austria, in Venetian or Dalmatian ships, or in any Italian vessel, any other flag than a revolutionary tri-colour, a flag which had not been acknowledged by any power whatever.”

Great was the excitement when it was announced that the Pope's Nuncio Bishop, Ferrieri, was about to visit the Sultan. The Italian colonists held a meeting to determine how they should receive him in a fitting manner. At last the Nuncio arrived.

“He came to the golden Horn on Sunday the 16th of January, one of the gloomiest of days. The snow wafted from the Black Sea, was lying knee deep in Pera, and there was a fog along the sea of Marmora, and in the port of Constantinople, and along the Bosphorus, which might have rivalled the worst of our own fogs in the valley of the Thames. There was no procession, no Italian flag to receive him, but the triumphal arch was left standing,-not that that arch was more than an erection of painted deal boards, and lath, and plaster. It an. noyed my nationality to see and know that this papistical triumphal arch,—this blazoned but contemptible structure, which annoyed every Englishman in the place, (though it delighted one or two Irishmen) was erected by an Englishman calling himself an architect. To mention the name of Smith, is to speak in nubibus, it implies no more than Jack, or Bill, or Tom, or Will, it is a name that means nobody. But the Smith of whom I speak, is a man who must have been caught in the woods, and (so well do we manage these matters) he was employed and sent out by the Woods and Forests' to build up a palace, or ambassadorial residence, to supply the place of that which had been burnt in the great conflagration of 1830. This arch was erected at the top of Gallata, a little before you come to the great Genoese tower, commonly called the tower of Gallata, in the part of the christian suburb, where dead dogs, dead cats, dead rats, and all other abominations do most abound. Coming from Rome, or from any part of Italy, the pope's legate must have been sorely annoyed in sight, and smell, and his other senses. On the architrave was inscribed, in gigantic letters, 'Viva Pio Nono!' and under that line, in still more gigantic letters, 'Pio ix. Pontifex max. et opt. Such as it was, the pope's nuncio went through it, or under it; and bad as it was in taste, and unfair as a distribution of honour to a diplomatic man, Monsignore Ferrieri might flatte r himself that he—the first envoy from the Pope of Rome to the Sultan of Turkey—had received more honour, or semblance of honour, than had been paid to any the most distinguished representative of the greatest power in

April, 1849.-VOL. LIV.—NO. CCLVI.

PP

Christendom. * * * The nuncio was an active, alert

man,

not at all old ; perhaps he was rather younger than Pope Pius ix., the youngest man that has worn the tiara for a very long time. His manners were most courtly and bland; his countenance most intelligent; but he had about the cunningest face I ever fixed mine upon.

Although the weather was deplorable (a Constantinople winter must be endured before it can be judged of), he was almost constantly in motion, driving about in an old rumbling carriage, which the sultan had furnished, and over the roughest, worst-paved streets in the world, and through the most miry of roads. A Sunday or two after his arrival, another grand Te Deum was celebrated. Ali Pasha, the minister for foreign affairs, by order of the sultan or Reschid Pasha, gave him a grand diplomatic dinner, to which all the heads of the foreign legation were invited, and at which the pope's health was drunk, in bumpers of champagne, by Turks and Christians of all denominations. The patriarch of the Armenians of the old Armenian Church, the head of the Catholic Armenian Church, the primate of the Greeks, and even the chief Rabbi of the Jews, paid ceremonious visits to the noncio, in his hotel, and had to receive his return visits in their own houses. Except the Roman Catholic Armenian bishop, none of these functionaries went willingly, or wished otherwise than that this meddling priest were back at Rome, or safely bestowed in some more remote place. They went, because they were ordered to do so by the Turkish Government, and because they durst not disobey. But the Greek patriarch, who least of all liked this fraternizing, received the nuncio so coldly, when he went to return his visit, that the whole interview lasted a very few seconds. It was even rumoured that they gave Monsignore Ferrieri cold coffee. The Greeks were not a whit more disposed to repeat the Filioque, or to conform with the church at Rome, than they had been in the fifteenth century. It should seem that the nuncio, and those who sent him thought otherwise; for he brought with him, and distributed, great heaps of tracts in Romaic or modern Greek, in Italian, and French, and other languages. The text of these tracts was, that there is and can be only one true christian church; that that church is indisputably the Apostolical Church of Rome; that the Greeks and other orientals did not in reality differ in essentials; that the time was now come for the unity, the oneness of the church; and that Rome was ready to meet half-way, such as had wandered from the flock. * * * It was curious to observe with what jealousy and ill-will (very ill-concealed by diplomatic politeness), the French and Austrian legations regarded Monsignore Ferrieri and his mission, At least from the time of

Louis xiv., France has assumed to herself the right of being the protectress of the Roman catholics throughout the Levant; and in many cases, even of recent date, the French, though ignorant or contemptuous of any religion at home, have strenuously taken the part of the bigots of popery abroad, with the view of maintaining their influence. On the other hand, Austria has long claimed the right of protecting the catholics of Bossnia and of other parts of Turkey in Europe. Neither power was willing to lose any portion of this moral weight and influence, and Monsieur de Bourqueney and Count Sturmer, in common with most other persons who paid any attention to the subject, suspected that the nuncio had for his primary object in visiting Turkey, a plan for inducing all the catholics in the Levant to acknowledge the direct protection of the pope, and to get the sultan to confer in such arrangement. The revolutions soon swept the French minister from his post, and gave the Austrian minister more serious matters to think about; but the presence of Monsignore Ferrieri continued to disturb the minds and consciences of the Greeks, and it is quite certain the Sublime Porte was very glad to see the last of him. He had widened the breach, and embittered the rancour existing between the Armenians of the Roman catholic church and the Armenians of the Eutychean confession; and some interference in favour of the catholics, and some open meddling, raised him up powerful enemies among the Armenian seraffs, and was said to have given great offence to Reschid Pasha the vizier. The Italian liberals saw the nuncio depart with a feeling very like indifference. Although they had made so much of him at first, they seemed to take but little heed of him after another gloomy, stormy day in the month of March, when we received authentic intelligence of the revolution which had been worked out in Paris, in February. Looking far over the seven hills of Rome, and the head of him who wears the tiara, all their eyes and hopes were then fixed upon Paris, the sovereign people of the French Republic. They thought that they had no longer any need to play the part of devotees, or to kneel at confessionals, or to attend masses and Te Deums; that French arms would now fly everywhere to support French principles, and that a democratic republic would be established forthwith, not only in Italy, but in every other part of Europe. The fast succeeding news-news which came so fast, and was so astounding, that it stunned and bewildered much soberer heads than theirs, of revolutions in Austria, Hungary, and other parts of Germany, raised those hopes to the most extravagant pitch. · When Carlo Alberto began to move or to take his leap in the dark, he became the object of idolatry, and for a time no name

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