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of taking soundings, turning ventilators, setting and taking in awnings, heaving the deep sea lead, etc. Where the Chief Mate stands his watch, the watch officer on duty during a day watch is technically in full charge, and gives his orders direct.

Cooperation. The Chief Mate should manage his department so that he will obtain the cooperation of the heads of all other departments in the vessel, Chief Engineer, Purser, Doctor, Chief Steward, all should be in harmony. A thorough understanding of the work and needs of these officers helps toward the smooth working of a ship.

Conclusion. From the foregoing, it will be seen that the Chief Mate who attends to his duty in every detail is a very busy officer. It will also be noted that he is not called upon to handle the hose while washing down (I have seen this done), to juggle paint brushes, or sew a seam.

The Chief Mate must first of all be a sailor-he must know how-his orders can only be successfully enforced when backed up by the knowledge and experience that tell him when things are going right or wrong.

The dignity and power of command come to the sea officer who is fully competent and alive to the high responsibilities of his calling. Much of his duty can be délegated its responsibility, however, always rests with him.

The Chief Mate who respects his billet, who respects the work and the rights of those under him, and who makes them respect the ship and himself, in turn, may well feel satisfied. He has something concrete, something definite, and worth while; he has his vessel to be proud of, and to reflect credit upon himself and his service. Such an officer is a gentlemen in the finest sense of the word-with all of his duties, and they are many-he will find time to cultivate ideals and expand his soul.

The prize of command will soon be his, and then he can look forward to years of satisfying service as Master.

CHAPTER IX

RULES OF THE U. S. SUPERVISING INSPECTORS

RELATING TO LIFESAVING

CAPACITY OF LIFE BOATS

The capacity of lifeboats shall hereafter be determined by an allowance of 15 cubic feet for each person carried.

Equipment for lifeboats.

All lifeboats on ocean steam vessels shall be equipped as follows:

A properly secured life line the entire length on each side, festooned in bights not longer than 3 feet, with a seine float in each bight.

One painter of manila rope of not less than 24 inches in circumference and of suitable length.

A full complement of oars and two spare oars.

One set and a half of thole pins or rowlocks attached to the boat with separate chains.

One steering oar with rowlock or becket and one rudder with tiller or yoke and yoke lines.

One boat hook attached to a staff of suitable length.
Two life preservers.
Two hatchets.
One galvanized-iron bucket with lanyard attached.
One bailer.

Where automatic plugs are not provided there shall be two plugs secured with chains for each drain hole.

One efficient liquid compass with not less than a 2-inch card.

One lantern containing sufficient oil to burn at least nine hours and ready for immediate use. L. One can containing one gallon of illuminating oil.

One box of friction-matches wrapped in a waterproof package and carried in a box secured to the underside of the stern thwart.

A wooden breaker or suitable tank fitted with a siphon, pump, or spigot for drawing water, and containing at least 1 quart of water for each person.

Two enameled drinking cups.

A water-tight receptacle containing 2 pounds avoirdupois of provisions for each person. These provisions may be hard bread or United States Army ration. The receptacle shall be of metal, fitted with an opening in the top not less than 5 inches in diameter, properly protected by a screw cap made of heavy cast brass, with machine thread and an attached double toggle, seating to a pliable rubber gasket, which shall insure a tight joint, in order to properly protect the contents of the can.

One canvas bag containing sailmaker's palm and needles, sail twine, marline, and marline spike.

A water-tight metal case containing 12 self-igniting red lights capable of burning at least two minutes.

A sea anchor.

A vessel containing i gallon of vegetable or animal oil, so constructed that the oil can be easily distributed on the water and so arranged that it can be attached to the sea anchor.

In addition to the equipment already required in lifeboats, there shall be provided a hand pump with a plunger of not less than 2 inches in diameter, and a discharge pipe of sufficient length to reach clear of the boat's side.

Steam vessels carrying passengers and which enter the War Zone shall have each and every lifeboat which is carried under davits equipped with mast and sail and proper gear for same, as required by this section.

Food or provisions to be carried in lifeboats.

The food or provisions required to be carried in lifeboats may be hard bread or the “ United States Army Emergency Ration.” Food which produces unusual or immoderate thirst, such as corned beef, salt fish, etc., will not be allowed, under any circumstances, as lifeboat provisions.

When hard bread only is carried in the lifeboat, there must be provided in addition thereto at least ten United States Army emer

gency rations.

How lifeboats shall be carried.

Lifeboats on cargo steamers shall be provided with a separate set of davits for each lifeboat required. When this requirement makes it necessary to install additional davits, it is recommended that the additional davits be of the mechanical type, to facilitate quick and safe launching. The old type of davits with “ turning out gear” is not considered as mechanical davits.

Additional life-saving equipment.

Cargo vessels shall carry sufficient lifeboats to accommodate every person on board, and in addition thereto shall carry a sufficient number of approved life rafts to accommodate at least twenty-five per cent of the total number of persons on board. Precautionary measures.

Before entering the War Zone all the lifeboats and life rafts shall be cleared away and made ready for launching, and the master or officer in charge, shall assure himself that all the required equipment is in the lifeboats and life rafts, in good order, and ready for immediate service. Steamers which are not equipped with mechanical davits shall have all the lifeboats swung out (weather permitting) and ready for immediate launching before entering the War Zone.

Future construction.

Cargo vessels contracted for after May 1, 1917, and serving trades within the War Zone, shall be equipped on each side with lifeboats of sufficient capacity to accommodate all persons on board based upon an allowance of 15 cubic feet per person, and in addition thereto shall be equipped with a sufficient number of approved life rafts to accommodate at least twenty-five per cent of all persons on board. Handling of the boats and rafts.

All the boats and rafts must be stowed in such a way that they can be launched in the shortest possible time and that, even under unfavorable conditions of list and trim from the point of view of the handling of the boats and rafts, it may be possible to embark in them as large a number of persons as possible.

The arrangements must be such that it may be possible to launch on either side of the vessel as large a number of boats and rafts as possible.

Strength and operation of the davits

The davits shall be of such strength that the boats can be lowered with their full complement of persons and equipment, the vessel being assumed to have a list of 15 degrees.

The davits must be fitted with a gear of sufficient power to insure that the boat can be turned out against the maximum list under which the lowering of the boats is possible on the vessel in question.

The Secretary of Commerce is authorized by the seamen's act in specific cases to exempt existing vessels from the requirements of this section that the davits shall be of such strength and shall be fitted with a gear of sufficient power to insure that the boats can be lowered with their full complement of persons and equipment, the vessel being assumed to have a list of 15 degrees, where their strict application would not be practicable or reasonable.

Each set of davits shall have a boat of the first class attached to it, provided that the number of open boats of the first class attached to davits shall not be less than the minimum number fixed by law.

If it is neither practicable nor reasonable to place on a vessel the minimum number of sets of davits required, a small number of sets of davits may be fitted, provided always that this number shall never be less than the minimum number of open boats of the first class required by law.

If a large proportion of the persons on board are accommodated in boats whose length is greater than 50 feet, a further reduction in the number of sets of davits may be allowed exceptionally, if the arrangements are in all respects satisfactory.

In all cases in which a reduction in the minimum number of sets of davits or other equivalent appliances required by the rules is allowed, the owner of the vessel in question shall be required to prove, by a test made in the presence of an officer designated by the Supervising Inspector General, that all the boats can be efficiently launched in a minimum time.

The conditions of this test shall be as follows:
First. The vessel is to be upright and in smooth water.

Second. The time is the time required from the beginning of the removal of the boat covers, or any other operation necessary to prepare the boats for lowering, until the last boat or pontoon raft is afloat.

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