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by the collector of customs, the master shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and may be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not exceeding one year, and the vessel shall be liable to seizure and forfeiture. (Aug. 2, 1882; sec. 12.)
The amount of the several fines and penalties imposed by any section of this act upon the master of any steamship or other vessel carrying or bringing emigrant passengers, or passengers other than cabin passengers,
violation of the provisions of this act, shall be liens upon such vessel, and such vessel may be libeled therefor in any district court of the United States where such vessel shall arrive or depart. (Sec. 13.)
Carriage of passengers.
The inspectors shall state in every certificate of inspection granted to steamers carrying passengers, other than ferry-boats, the number of passengers of each class that any such steamer has accommodations for, and can carry with prudence and safety. (R. S., 4464).
It shall not be lawful to take on board of any steamer a greater number of passengers than is stated in the certificate of inspection; and for every violation of this provision the master or owner shall be liable, to any person suing for the same, to forfeit the amount of passage-money and ten dollars for each passenger beyond the number allowed. (R. S., 4465.)
Every steam vessel licensed under the foregoing section shall carry and have on board, in accessible places, one life-preserver for every person allowed to be carried, in addition to those provided for the crew of such vessel. (July 9, 1886; sec. 2.)
THE SECOND MATE
Watches. The Second Mate of an ocean steamer is always a watch officer, that is, he is in responsible charge of a watch at sea, and where the Chief, Second, and Third Mates, stand the watches, his watch is generally taken from Noon until 4 P.m., and from Midnight to 4 A.M., or he stands the afternoon and the mid watches.
Hold Duty. The Second Mate is in charge of the after holds. His duties, under the Chief Mate, are those outlined in the duties and responsibilities of that officer. The Second Mate is the understudy of the Chief Mate and should diligently prepare himself to take up the work of that position. The Second Mate who is fortunate enough to be shipmates with a top-notch first officer, should improve every opportunity to study his superior and to perfect himself in the difficult duty of the station next ahead.
Coming Alongside. In coming alongside, coming to anchor, docking, etc., the Second Mate is in charge aft.
He should note the clearance of the propellers, and should promptly report by voice or telegraph, or by messenger, when anything in his end of the ship requires the attention of the Master on the bridge.
A quartermaster, with semaphore flags, is a handy means of communicating with the bridge while docking. Red and white lights are sometimes used while docking at night.
The station aft is in many respects the most important in the vessel while coming along side, and intelligent handling of the lines and men soon stamps an officer as well qualified in his profession.
He should use judgment in sending ashore, or “heaving,” small lines, as the attempt to put a heaving line across too great a distance often results in dangerous delays, and leads to confusion.
He should see the cork fenders handy, with men told off to handle them. He should study the men assigned to his end of the ship and place only reliable men at the capstans and bits. A man who can properly " surge a seven-inch line, under heavy strain is a rarity these days.
He should understand, and have men ready, for the throwing in and operating of the hand-steering gear in case of emergency
Cargo Gear. The after cargo gear, is generally under the charge of the Second Mate, and he is in charge of the opening and closing of the after cargo hatches.
Baggage. The Second Mate is generally in charge of the handling and care of heavy baggage, in vessels in the passenger trade. This is important duty, and calls for care and dispatch. Such baggage is whipped ashore as fast as possible so that the customs inspectors are not delayed.
Mail. The Second Mate is also charged with the handling and stowage of the mail sacks-unless in a very large liner where special mail clerks attend to this duty.
Navigating Officer. The Second Mate is sometimes designated the “Navigating Officer," that is, he is charged with the special care of the navigating equipment. Corrects charts from the “ Notices to Mariners and assists the Master generally in the navigating duty. He may be required to wind the chronometers each morning at eight bells and report them wound to the Master, though when standing the mid watch, this duty is usually attended to by the Master himself, who, in the Merchant Service is the responsible navigating officer of his vessel.
The Second Mate corrects the ship's clocks for difference of Longitude to noon.
However, the naming of the Second Mate, as navigating officer has much to commend it. He then has special duties, and is charged with the complete supervision of the compasses, sounding machines, instruments, lead lines, patent logs and log lines. He should perfect himself in the science of navigation and master the simple (and to many) mysterious principles of compass adjustment. He should be in charge of the deviation log and prepare the deviation tables for each loading and voyage.
THE THIRD MATE
Watches. The Third Mate of an ocean steamer is generally a watch officer. If the vessel is of any size, and the three mates stand watch, the watch from eight to noon and from eight to midnight, is usually assigned to the Third Mate. This is one of the best watches, and the watch during which the Master is most likely to be up and about. As the junior watch officer is the least experienced, it is best that he have the Master close at hand in the event of anything unusual occurring.
Hold Duty. The Third Mate is generally given charge of the forward holds, under the immediate supervision of the Chief Mate. Here his duties are those outlined in the chapter headed Chief Mate. He is directly under the mate and should use every effort to familiarize himself with his duties and with the vessel. He should carry out all orders to the letter, and aim to perfect himself in the many branches of seamanship and navigation. The duty to cargo, and the hold duty is one of his most important charges.
Coming Alongside. When coming alongside, or to anchor, or when docking, the Third Mate is stationed on the bridge with the Master. He usually attends to the telegraph, cons the quartermaster at the wheel and looks out for the work on the bridge generally. This post is one of special importance for the young officer as he gets, from close observation, a splendid opportunity to observe and learn the details of ship handling. He sees the mistakes made