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fore and aft, in the handling of lines, etc., and can, if he will, profit by this experience.

Gangway. The Third Mate is usually charged with the getting in and out of the gangway, and with the safe embarkation of passengers. He must keep order, and note who comes on board, and what their business is while the vessel is being permanently secured or anchored, and before the regular gangway watch is set.

Signal Officer. While the duty is not generally assigned, it is a good plan to designate the Third Mate as “ Signal Officer."

This charges him with the care and use of the signal flags and other apparatus, and he should perfect himself in their rapid and accurate use.

The Third Mate should master the hand semaphore signals and should see that at least two of the quartermasters are adept at this form of communication. Such knowledge is of the greatest use when in convoy with men-of-war, and can be made use of in a hundred different ways while lying at anchor, or when communicating with other vessels or the shore. So many seamen are now familiar with the semaphore alphabet that it has become one of the handiest means of talking at sea over moderate distances, and its use at once stamps a vessel as being up to time.

He should also know the Morse Code and be able to send and read by the blinker or Morse lamp.

This is used in convoy work instead of wireless.

Bridge. The bridge, and the duties of the quartermasters on the bridge and bridge deck, are generally delegated to the Third Mate, or to any officer who may be junior to him. This means general upkeep and order. A well-regulated and well-kept up bridge is a joy--the reverse is all too common.

CHAPTER XIII

THE JUNIOR OFFICERS

Most vessels now carry one or more junior officers, young men who have some sea experience and who have prepared themselves to a certain extent in navigation. Many of them come on board ship with a very hazy idea as to what it is all about. They are willing enough, but don't know where to begin. They would be glad to tail onto the starboard main t'gallant buntline, but don't know just where it is.

For such as these, the following random Things to Do and to learn about are suggested:

Do the things you are told to do, then-
1. Find our what quartermasters are doing.

2. Look after hand leads and lines, are they marked correctly-accurately?

3. See that log is ready for streaming, as soon as past the light ship, or other mark.

4. Find switch for running lights-are they in order? 5. Look up log book, see how it is kept, and if up to date. 6. See that note book on the bridge is handy.

7. See if the clock in the wheel house, and chart room is correct.

8. Work up the chronometer error.

9. See that the bridge dodgers are properly bent, and are clean.

10. See that the binoculars and telescopes on the bridge are in their proper places and are clean.

II. Find out where the Coston lights are kept.

12. Find out what are red and what are blue lights, how many on board?

13. See that the binnacle lights are in working order.

14. See that the automatic fog whistle control works; how often does it blow when set-is it according to law?

15. See if the whistle works, don't pull it unless the Chief Mate or the Master says so.

16. Try out the engine room telegraph-the docking telegraph-after notifying the Chief that you intend doing so and on order of the Mate or Master.

17. Find out what kind of signals are used between the crow's nest and the bridge. The fo'c'sle head and the bridge.

18. Find out if the crow's nest lookout uses glasses-what kind-where kept.

19. Find out what sort of sounding machine is used-how it works—what kind of tubes are used-where the depth scale is kept-vhere the tubes are kept. Look at the “ leads " see if they are armed," see if there is plenty of “arming " handy. What kind-soap or tallow?

20. Overhaul the bridge chests-signal-navigating-put them in better order than you found them.

21. Look after the patent log—the lines-the rotators.

22. Become familiar with the entire bridge. Know the use of everything on it.

23. How are the compasses adjusted? Rectangular magnets, or single magnet?

24. Has the ship a Flinder's bar? Where is it? What is it? Why?

25. What are the quadrantal correctors? What do they correct?

26. Where are the distress rockets? Are they fastened to their sticks? Where are the sticks? When are they used? How?

27. Where is the line-throwing gun? How is it used? Where is the projectile? Where is the line? What kind of line is it? Why?

28. How many lifeboats are on board. How many rafts? How many ring buoys? How many life preservers? Why?

29. What is the required equipment of a lifeboat? See if all of this is in the lifeboat to which you are assigned on the station bill.

30. What is the equipment of a life raft? How is it stowed? How launched?

31. What is your station, at abandon ship? Who is in your boat? What do they look like? Take a look at the crew assigned to your boat-know them.

32. What kind of davits are used?
33. What kind of releasing gear is used?

34. Are the gripes easily cast off? Are the falls clear? Are they in tubs, as required by law?

35. What are your duties in case of fire? In case of fire in the holds, to cargo. Find out about this.

36. If the wharf caught fire, and everyone was ashore, that is, all the officers, but yourself. What would you do? Think over it.

37. Where do the seamen live, the firemen, the stewards? Where is the “ glory hole "?

38. What are the duties of the boatswain?
39. What are the duties of the carpenter?
40. What are the duties of the quartermasters?

41. Learn the details of the complete economy of the vessels. How the crew and passengers are fed, where they mess, where stores are kept?

42. Learn the routine in your department. Why are things done as they are?

43. What is the ship's draft? How is it recorded?

44. Where are the sounding pipes? Look up the framed sectional blue print of the vessel that ought to be framed in the chart room.

45. What is the tons per inch scale?
46. What is the displacement of the vessel?
47. Learn her complete dimensions.

Length between perpendiculars.
Length over all.
Depth of hold.
Moulded depth.
Beam.
Freeboard, allowed by underwriters (draft).
Gross tonnage.
Net tonnage.
Horse-power.
Speed.
Coal consumption.
Her most economical speed, and tons per day.
Her hold capacity. Holds and 'tween decks.
Her tank capacity.
Her bunker capacity.
Her engines. I.H.P. type.
Her boilers, number, type.

Her wireless. Range.
48. What is the vessel's signal number?
49. What is her hailing port?
50. What is her rating, when given?
51. When built? By whom? Kind of construction?

52. Look up old log books if available. Speed under different kinds of weather conditions.

53. Has she bilge keels?

54. What kind of propellers, or propeller? Material? Pitch? Right handed or left? How will it send the vessel's head-going ahead-backing?

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