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Frames?-look them over when in the hold.
What are

Z bars?
Bulb angles?
Channel bars?
Web frames?
Reverse frames?

Transome frames?
Freeboard? How determined?
Freeing ports-percentage of in bulwarks?
Frictional, or skin resistance?
Galley? Where-how many?
Garboard strake?
Girders?
Grain bulkheads?
Gudgeons?
Gunwale?
Gutters?
Half beams?
Hatches-how many-where-names? Booby hatch?
Hawse pipes? Clearing hawse?
Heeling?
Hogging?
Hydraulic derricks-principle?
Insulation of holds?
Isherwood system of framing?
Jogged framing?
Jib-booms?
Keel-kind, plate, bilge?
Keelson? Where—why?
Knighthead frame?
Lapped joints?
Launching-how done?
Limbers-limber boards?
Lloyd's-register-rules?
Load line?
Longitudinal bulkheads-framing?
Manholes-where-why?
Margin plates?
Masts-caps-coats-boles-partners-steps-stiffen-

ers--telescopic-wedges? Bending forces-Buckling - failure - material - painting interior — rake

-strength of? Natural draft? Neutral axis of a beam? Oil fuel-flash point? Oxy-acetylene blow pipe-how used? Paints-what kind used aboard ship-how mixed?

Where stowed-How much used? What surface

will gallon cover? How long in applying? Panting-what is it-have you noticed it at sea, etc.? Peak tanks—fore peak—what stowed there? Pillars-stations, etc? Their function? Pintles? Plating--how thick-how joined? Portland cement-same as hydraulic--what uses? Pratigue-what is it? Propellers—how many—what kind-pitch-motion? Pressure-steam-in deck lines-main boilers

donkey boilers-water pressure-under bottom? Pumps-where are hand pumps—what will they throw

-do they work? Quadrant tiller-how connected to steering engine? Red lead-use of? Relieving tackles for steering gear-how rove? Rigging-chain plates—screws spread of-strength of? Rivets-in what kind of shear? Pitch-strength? Rolling chocks (bilge keels)? Rudder-angle of-balanced, or not-cross head-how

supported? Sanitary tanks-where located-how filled? Scuppers where located? Are those on deck house

tops clear?
Scantlings—what do they include?
Shaft-bearings-stools-tube-tunnel?
Sheathing-wood-copper?
Sheer?
Shell palting?
Skylights?
Sounding pipes-rods-how marked-how used?

Spar deck?
Sponsons?
Steel strength of-tensile-shearing-compressive?
Stem?
Steering gear-learn all about it.
Stern-ordinary-cruiser?
Stoke holds (fire rooms)?
Stress?
Strain?
Stringers? Duty of?
Surveys-purpose-by whom?
Sweating-cork paint?
Tail shaft-where-after gland-what?
Tanks—how lined—where?
Thrust block?
Ventilation-how accomplished-natural or blower?
Vibration?-note it at sea.
Water ballast-part of tank data?
Water line?
Water tight doors-where-how managed?
Well decks?
Winches?
Yards-if any?
Zincs-what used for-why?

A young officer must become an enthusiast about a vessel; everything on board must be known to him, if he cares to rise in his profession.

CHAPTER XIV

CADETS

UNDER the laws establishing an ocean mail service certain vessels so engaged are required to carry cadets.

Excerpts from this law follow:

OCEAN MAIL SERVICE

Said vessels shall take, as cadets or apprentices, one Americanborn boy, under twenty-one years of age for each one thousand tons gross register, and one for each majority fraction thereof, who shall be educated in the duties of seamanship, rank as petty officers, and receive such pay for their services as may be reasonable.”

The system of carrying cadets is sound in principle, but in many instances the law has been carried out according to a peculiar interpretation of the phrase “Shall be educated in the duties of seamanship."

Education is a term of wide meaning, but" seamanship or the “Duties of Seamanship” is at least fairly definite. The whole cadet system should be put upon a definite basis of regular instruction, or else be done away with.

Many of us can remember a scouting party hurrying across West Street to pick up a cadet

or two, so the good ship could go to sea in full compliance with the law.

CHAPTER XV

LAWS DEFINING OFFICERS OF MERCHANT

VESSELS

Citizenship of officers.

All the officers of vessels of the United States who shall have charge of a watch, including pilots, shall in all cases be citizens of the United States. (Metlakahtla Indians excepted by act, March 4, 1907.) (R. S., 4131.)

The word “ officers " shall include the chief engineer and each assistant engineer in charge of a watch on vessels propelled wholly or in part by steam; and after the first day of January, eighteen hundred and ninety-seven, no person shall be qualified to hold a license as a commander or watch officer of a merchant vessel of the United States who is not a native-born citizen, or whose naturalization as a citizen shall not have been fully completed. (May 28, 1896; sec. 1.)

In cases where on a foreign voyage, or on a voyage from an Atlantic to a Pacific port of the United States, any such vessel is for any reason deprived of the services of an officer below the grade of master, his place, or a vacancy caused by the promotion of another officer to such place, may be supplied by a person not a citizen of the United States until the first return of such vessel to its home port; and such vessel shall not be liable to any penalty or penal tax for such employment of an alien officer. (June 26, 1884; sec. ; May 28, 1896; sec. 3.)

The President of the United States is hereby authorized, whenever in his discretion the needs of foreign commerce may require, to suspend by order, so far and for such length of time as he may deem desirable, the provisions of law prescribing that all the watch officers

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