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by addition, interpolation, or erasure of any kind, any certificate or license issued by any inspector or inspectors referred to in this title shall, for every such offense, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars or by imprisonment at hard labor for a term not exceeding three years. (Mar. 23, 1900.) Removal of master.

Any person or body corporate having more than one-half ownership of any vessel shall have the power to remove a master, who is also part owner of such vessel, as such majority owners have to remove a master not an owner. This section shall not apply where there is a valid written agreement subsisting, by virtue of which such master would be entitled to possession, nor in any case where a master has possession as part owner, obtained before the ninth day of April, eighteen hundred and seventy-two. (R. S., 4250.)

CHAPTER XVI

THE EXAMINATION FOR LICENSES-MASTER AND

MATES

Original Licenses.

Before an original license is issued to any person to act as a master, mate, pilot, or engineer he shall personally appear before some local board or a supervising inspector for examination. Any person who has attained the age of 19 years and has had the necessary experience shall be eligible for examination: Provided, That no person shall receive a license as master or chief engineer before reaching the age of 21 years.

Inspectors shall, before granting an original license to any person to act as an officer of a vessel, require the applicant to make written application upon the blank form furnished by the Department of Commerce, to be filed in the inspectors' office. When practicable, applicants for master's, mate's, pilot's, or engineer's license shall present to the inspectors, to be filed with their application, discharges or letters from the master or other officer under whom they have served, certifying to the name of the vessel and in what capacity the applicant has served under him; also period of such service. Inspectors shall also, when practicable, require applicant for pilot's license to have the written indorsement of the master and engineer of the vessel upon which he has served, and of one licensed pilot, as to his qualifications. In the case of applicants for original engineer's license, they shall also, when practicable, have the indorsement of the master and engineer of a vessel on which they have served, together with one other licensed engineer.

The first license issued to any person by a United States inspector shall be considered an original license, where the United States records show no previous issue to such applicant.

No original license shall be issued to any naturalized citizen on less experience in any grade than would have been required of a citizen of the United States by birth. (R. S., 4405.)

The requirements for a license have been greatly modified, and the following circular letter sets forth the minimum technical knowledge necessary to pass the examiners:

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE
WASHINGTON

June 13, 1917.
U. S. Supervising and Local Inspectors, Steamboat-Inspection Ser-

vice.

Under the provisions of Section 4405, Revised Statutes of the United States, as amended by the act of Congress approved February 8, 1907, the executive committee of the Board of Supervising Inspectors, Steamboat-Inspection Service, at a called meeting held in Washington, D. C., from June 4 to 12, inclusive, 1917, adopted the following resolutions:

These amendments of the rules, having received the approval of the Secretary of Commerce on June 12, 1917, have now the force of law, and must be observed accordingly.

Resolved, That section 8, Rule V, General Rules and Regulations, all classes, be struck out and the following substituted therefor:

Renewal of licenses.

8. Whenever an officer shall apply for a renewal of his license for the same grade, the presentation of the old license with oath of officer shall be considered sufficient evidence of his title to renewal, which old license and oath of office shall be retained by the inspectors upon their official files as the evidence upon which the license was renewed.

Whenever a licensed officer makes application for a renewal of his license, he shall appear in person before some board of local inspectors or supervising inspector, except that upon renewal of such license for the same grade, when the distance from any local board or supervising inspector is such as to put the person holding the same to great inconvenience and expense to appear in person, he may, upon taking oath of office before any person authorized to administer oaths, and forwarding the same, together with the license to be renewed, to the local board or supervising inspector of the district in which he resides or is employed, have the same renewed by the said inspectors, if no valid reason to the contrary be known to them; and they shall attach such oath to the stub end of the license, which is to be retained on file in their office: Provided, however, That any officer holding a license, and who is engaged in a service which necessitates his continuous absence from the United States, may make application in writing for renewal and transmit the same to the board of local inspectors, with its certificate of citizenship, if naturalized, and a statement of the applicant, verified before a consul or other officer of the United States authorized to administer an oath, setting forth the reasons for not appearing in person; and upon receiving the same the board of local inspectors that originally issued such license shall renew the same and shall notify the applicant of such renewal, and no license as master, mate, or pilot of any class of vessel shall be renewed without a certificate that the color sense of the applicant is normal. (R. S., 4405, 4438.)

Amendments of general rules and regulations, ocean and

coastwise.

Resolved: That sections 20 to 30, both inclusive, Rule V, General Rules and Regulations, Ocean and Coastwise, be struck out and the following substituted therefor:

Substituting service in next lower grade for raise of grade.

20. Except as hereinafter provided, an applicant who has served in a lower grade than that for which he is licensed may substitute service in the grade next below that for which he is licensed, which service shall count one-half in computing experience for raise of grade. For example, if an applicant holds chief mate's license and has served nine months as chief mate and six months as second mate, the six months' service as second mate shall count as three months as chief mate in computing experience.

Master of ocean steam vessels.

21. An applicant for license as master of ocean steam vessels shall be eligible for examination after he has furnished satisfactory documentary evidence to the local inspectors that he has had the following experience:

First. One year's service as.chief mate of ocean steam vessels, or

Second. Two years' service as second mate of ocean steam vessels, one year of such service while holding a license as chief mate of ocean steam vessels, or

Third. Two years' service as watch officer actually in charge of a bridge watch on ocean steam vessels, while holding a license as chief mate of ocean steam vessels, or

Fourth. Five years' service as third mate of ocean steam vessels, two years of such service while holding a license as chief mate of ocean steam vessels, or

Fifth. Five years' service on ocean sail vessels of 300 gross tons or over, two years of such service while holding a license as master of sail vessels, or

Sixth. One year's service as master or chief mate of coastwise steam vessels.

Examination for master of ocean steam vessels.

22. An applicant for license as master of ocean steam vessels shall pass a satisfactory examination as to his knowledge of the following subjects:

1. Latitude by meridian altitude of the sun. 2. Latitude by ex-meridian altitude of the sun. 3. Latitude by meridian altitude of a star. 4. Latitude by pole star. 5. Longitude by chronometer (A.M. and P.m.). 6. Position by Sumner's method. 7. Day's work. 8. Mercator's sailing. 9. Deviation of the compass by an amplitude. 10. Deviation of the compass by an azimuth. II. Time of high water at a given port. 12. Chart navigation. 13. Storm signals. 14. International code of signals. 15. International rules for preventing collisions at sea. 16. Use of gun and rocket apparatus for saving life from ship

wreck, as practiced by the United States Coast Guard. 17. Such further examination of a non-mathematical character

as the local inspectors may require.

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