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navigation off the entrance to Southwest Pass; thence northerly, about 194 miles, to the westerly point of the entrance to Bay Jaque.
Sabine Pass, Tex.
Pilot Rules for Western Rivers apply to Sabine Pass northward of Sabine Pass Gas and Whistling Buoy (PS), and in Sabine Lake and its tributaries. Outside of this buoy the International Rules apply.
A line drawn from Galveston North Jetty Light 129° (SE. by E. | E.), 2 miles, to Galveston Bar Gas and Whistling Buoy (PS); thence 276o (W. S.), 24 miles, to Galveston (S.) Jetty Lighthouse.
Brazos River, Tex.
Pilot Rules for Western Rivers apply in the entrance and river inside of Brazos River Entrance Gas and Whistling Buoy (PS). International Rules apply outside the buoy.
San Diego Harbor.
A line drawn from southerly tower of Coronado Hotel 208° (S. by W.), 5 miles, to Outside Bar Whistling Buoy, SD (PS); thence 345° (NNW. I W.), 38 miles, to Point Loma Lighthouse.
San Francisco Harbor.
A line drawn through Mile Rocks Lighthouse 326° (NW. W.), to Bonita Point Lighthouse.
Columbia River entrance.
A line drawn from knuckle of Columbia River south jetty 351° (NNW. 3 W.) to Cape Disappointment Lighthouse. Juan de Fuca Strait, Washington and Puget Sounds.
A line drawn from New Dungeness Lighthouse 131° (N. by W.), 103 miles, to Hein Bank Gas and Bell Buoy (HS); thence 3371° (NW. 1 W.), 10miles, to Lime Kiln Light, on west side of San Juan Island; from Bellevue Point, San Juan Island, 3364° (NW. W.) to Kellett Bluff, Henry Island; thence 347° (NW. Í N.) to Turn Point Light; thence 711° (NE. } E.), 81 miles, to westerly point of Skipjack Island; thence 381° (N. by E. | E.), 48 miles, to Patos Islands Light; thence 338° (NW. W.), 12 miles, to Point Roberts Light.
At all buoyed entrances from seaward to bays, sounds, rivers, or other estuaries for which specific lines have not been described, Inland Rules shall apply inshore of a line approximately parallel with the general trend of the shore, drawn through the outermost buoy or other aid to navigation of any system of aids.
For many years the quartermasters-situated somewhere between the deck hand (A.B.) and the licensed officerhave been the slim loophole through which a few American boys have slipped into the merchant service of their country.
The duties of the quartermasters have become fairly standard, and besides steering in two, and sometimes four hour shifts, the latter a practice that should be stopped by law, the quartermasters have had to do about as follows:
Care of the bridge.
Care of navigational gear, such as sounding machines, log lines and indicators; leads, etc.
Heaving the lead (blue pigeon) and working the sounding machine under an officer.
In port, the quartermasters have had to stand gangway watches, and watches in the holds while stowing or discharging cargo.
Quartermasters are a necessity-as signalmen, helmsmen, and generally useful assistants in the navigation of the vessel. They are the messengers for the officer of the watch, read the log when sights are taken, or course is changed, and assist generally.
Steering, however, should be done by all hands, the quartermasters being relieved for at least half of their watch by one of the seamen. This practice would result in a largely increased number of competent helmsmen, and in an increased efficiency all round.
Quartermasters should aim to become officers, and should devote as much of their time as possible to study, in which the deck officers are usually ready to assist.
All quartermasters should be certified lifeboat men, and should be familiar with the handling of ship's boats. They should be charged with the overhauling of the required lifeboat equipment, under the direction of one of the officers.
The carpenter occupies an important position on board ship. He is one of the “idlers,” works all day and turns in at night, like an ordinary human being; in other words, he stands no watches.
His duties, of course, are defined by his title, but on a well-regulated vessel, the Carpenter, under orders from the Chief Mate, to whom he reports in person, performs certain standard tasks.
Sounding. He has charge of the sounding; sounds the bilges and tanks, and reports their condition each morning, or when specially ordered.
In the event of grounding, or collision, one of the first things to do is to sound bilges and wells in the vicinity of the damage. This duty always falls to the Carpenter.
Tanks. Any work done to the tanks—not directly under the Chief Engineer-is attended to by the Carpenter.
Tools. The Carpenter is responsible for all tools used in the deck department-outside of marline spikes, fid, rigging screws, etc., which belong to the Boatswain. He takes care of his shop, keeps an inventory of his materials, and turns same in to the Chief Mate for approval.
Cargo Ports. The Carpenter should overhaul and attend to the opening and closing of all cargo ports. Hatches. Hatches are opened and covered and the tar