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paulins battened down by the Carpenter; he keeps an extra supply of hatch wedges in his shop.
Deadlights and Light Ports. The Carpenter is charged with the good order and care of all deadlights and light ports. He should examine all deadlights in 'tweendeck, where cargo has been carried.
Fresh Water. The Carpenter should examine all fresh water tanks before filling. He should see them cement washed, when necessary, and should be in attendance when fresh water is taken on board. When double-bottom tanks are being filled, he should see that vents are opened for the escape of air, so they will be completely filled.
Decks. The Carpenter is specially charged with the caulking and repair of wooden decks. He should keep a supply of deck plugs handy. Caulking is almost a lost art today.
Booms-Masts. The Carpenter is charged with the upkeep of booms and masts. He should examine the masts at the partners, whenever the vessel is unloaded. Runs of rust should be noted and the state of the wedges and mast coats reported to the Chief Mate, if necessary.
Old booms should be examined in the wake of bands, and probed for dry rot at the heel. Checks and dangerous cracks-probably puttied up-should be searched for and reported to the Chief Mate.
Storm Oil. The Carpenter should have charge of the storm-oil tank, and should see that the drip cocks and pipes leading to the hawse, or over side, are kept clear, and that the supply of oil required by the U. S. Inspectors is on hand:
Vessels of over 200 and not over 1,000 gross tons, 30 gallons.
Vessels of over 1,000 and not over 3,000 gross tons, 40 gallons.
Vessels of over 3,000 and not over 5,000 gross tons, 50 gallons.
Vessels of over 5,000 gross tons shall carry at least 100 gallons.
General. The modern ship carpenter is as much a worker with iron and steel as he is with wood. His duty requires that he be familiar with machinery-and his special charge is the braking and releasing of the windlass, under the direction of the Chief Mate.
A top-notch carpenter is a jewel, he is a scarce article in these degenerate days of high wages and indifferent performance.
A good artisan can do no better than to go to sea as a carpenter in a well-found modern steamer; the pay is good he will have comfortable quarters, and good food, he will also save money. This holds true of most billets aboard a merchant vessel today.
The Boatswain, for a long time was not in favor on American vessels, this prejudice being a survival of the hard old sailing-ship days, after America had ceased to be great with her white wings.
The cheese-paring policy of many owners denied the common sense arrangement of having a Boatswain-a leading man of the crew-to do the actual roustabout with the men in holds and on deck. The Mates were supposed to attend to such matters, and while they juggled hose, and did other energetic, but senseless duties, other matters of far greater importance went undone.
Owners are now generally alive to the fact that a Boatswain makes the Chief Mate about ten times as useful as an officer. He can plan work, attend to his duties and inspections, while such matters as washing decks, mixing paints, standing over gangs of chippers, or side cleaners, goes on without interruption under the Boatswain.
The Duty of the Boatswain is so closely associated with the duty of the Chief Mate, that it is more or less a matter of repetition to enumerate just what he is supposed to look after.
Under the Chief Mate, the Boatswain works the men; if in a large vessel, with the assistance of a Boatswain's Mate. At sea, the watches are divided between the Boatswain and his Mate.
The Boatswain should be something more than an able seaman, as the term is known today. Steamers do not carry a sailmaker, and the Boatswain should be able to sew a seam, sew on a bolt rope, and fit and cut an awning, or a staysail.
He should understand something about rigging-the splicing of wire ropes—the turning in of thimbles-the making and rigging of life-boat sails (most of them on merchant vessels are an abomination).
Boatswain's Orders. A small book of Boatswains' Orders, filled out by the Chief Mate helps to keep things straight and the work on deck progressing. This is specially necessary where the Chief Mate stands a bridge watch and may be turned in for a part of the day.
Stands By. The Boatswain or his Mate, whoever is on deck, should always " stand by" for an emergency call from the bridge, to attend to any work that the officer of the watch may wish to have done.
The able seaman of the present is an elusive bird who draws twice as much pay as the Chief Mate of a threeskysail-yarder earned in the slack days of the past, and his knowledge of seamanship is in the ratio of nothing to everything. The modern A.B. just is; he arrives at the office of the Shipping Commissioner, when the crew sign on, and he is there when they pay off, that is, if he has not become tired of travel, while on the voyage, and stopped off for rest in foreign ports.
However, better days are dawning for the men of the sea; official recognition of the seaman, is carrying with it certain requirements as to real ability. Higher standards bring with them increased respect and less friction between officers and men. No mate, worthy of the name, will find fault with a man who can surge a ten-inch manila line when springing a vessel around a pier, or who can turn a splice into a wire mooring line-any seaman worthy of his pay should be able to do such things and many others the official standards, as set forth in a Department of Commerce circular follow:
Department of Commerce Circular No. 264 By virtue of the authority conferred by section 13, of the act approved March 4, 1915, which provides “That upon examination, under rules prescribed by the Department of Commerce as to eyesight, hearing, physical condition, and knowledge of the duties of seaman