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The vessel is his direct responsibility. If the Pilot is in charge, this does not relieve the Master of his full responsibility.

The Master is responsible to the owners.
He is also responsible to the insurance underwriters.

He is also responsible to the Government of the United
States, under which he receives his license as a Master Mariner.

The Master Mariner who is well qualified to bear the great responsibilities of his station; to have the keeping of many lives in his charge; to be the sole judge of what is right and proper in times of emergency; such a man is not made in a year, nor is he the product of any short-cut system of training. His sea lore must be learned at sea.

His duty to ship and cargo must be truly come by through close and thorough contact with the great vessels he is called upon to command.

The Master Mariner must be a student of the laws governing his business upon the sea, and of the laws defining his duties and responsibilities to ship, passengers, crew, and cargo.

Briefly, he is charged with the following specific duties and responsibilities:

1. The safe navigation of his vessel.
2. The general management and care of his vessel.

3. The proper coaling-provisioning--supplying of wateretc.

4. That she be fully found-anchors-cables-warps hawsers—boats-rafts-life-saving equipment-fire-fighting equipment, as required by law-compasses-chronometers charts-sailing directions-sextants-and stores of all kinds needed to safely navigate her.

5. The proper signing of the ship's articles. 6. The keeping of the Official Log."

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7. The carrying of a properly equipped medicine chest.

8. The carrying of a required slop chest, and compliance with the laws regulating the sale of slops.

9. He is liable for the wrong delivery of specie and cargo, or for loss or damage to the same due to carelessness or mismanagement on the part of the crew.

10. He is responsible for any neglect through which the validity of the insurance to ship or cargo is called into question.

II. He must enforce the rule that the vessel is never to be left without an officer in charge, either at sea or in harbor, day or night.

le shall see that a licensed engineer officer is on duty when steam is up on a boiler.

13. When maneuvering-in and out of port-or at sea, he should see that the most qualified engineer officers on board are in charge of the working of the engines.

14. He must see that no waste or extravagance is praticed with the ship's stores and provisions.

15. He must see that the lawful scale of provisions is issued to the crew.

16. He must see that no prohibited cargo or stores come aboard, and that his hatches are battened down before going to sea. He is responsible for the correct lading of the vessel.

17. He must enter and clear his vessel at the custom house. He must see that the proper papers are produced. Ship's register (with his name entered as master). Manifest; Bills of Health; Passenger and stores list; and any other papers that may be required.

18. He must be familiar with the laws, rules, and regulations, in force in the various countries and at the various ports he visits.

19. He should find out where to obtain the services of the local medical authorities, and the police authorities, when in a strange port.

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20. He should study the charter under which he is operating -if under charter. Is it a “ time charter trip charter"? He will be largely responsible for the carrying out of his owner's part of the contract. If abroad he may sign the charter party, as agent of the owner.

21. He is the accredited representative of the owner. He has the authority to act contrary to the wishes of the ship's agents, when he is satisfied that such action. is to the best interests of his owners; he must be prepared to bear full responsibility for his actions.

22. He is responsible to his owners for the safety of his vessel, whether he is on board or not.

23. He cannot delegate his authority, or name his successor to command, without the consent of his owners-unless physically unfit for duty, and then he has the authority to retain command and delegate such duties as he may be unable to perform himself.

24. He is always in command of and responsible for the safety of the vessel, whether he is using the services of a pilot, or otherwise, and his station, while in pilot waters under way, is on the bridge.

25. He has the authority to take the vessel from the pilot's control at any time, when in his opinion her safety demands such action. The use of the pilot indicates that the most careful measures are being taken to prevent accident, and for the protection of the insurance underwriters. Under such conditions, the taking over of the vessel from the pilot is weighted with the fullest responsibility.

26. He is responsbile for the correct keeping of the wage account of the crew.

27. He is responsible for the safe carriage of mail entrusted to the vessel.

28. He is responsible for the acceptance on board of anyone except his crew, or regularly accredited passengers. He is accountable to the port authorities of the first port visited, for the presence of the same.

29. He must see that the legal requirements safeguarding the carriage of live stock are complied with.

30. He shall handle his vessel in conformity with the International Rules of the Road at Sea, or the Inland Rules, depending upon the waters in which he is navigating; he must know if he is on the high seas, or within the limits defined as inland waters.

31. He is the responsible navigator of his vessel, and cannot delegate this responsibility.

32. He must see that the officers and men respect the laws and regulations of the ports visited, that no contraband or dutiable articles are brought on board in violation of the same.

33. He must take steps to prevent smuggling.

34. He must keep a record of all fines, punishments, and charges against members of the crew, and must not permit punishment to be inflicted that is contrary to law, and only such punishment as is sanctioned by his express order. In the Official Log, where these entries are to be made, he must specify the nature and extent of the punishment.

35. In the Official Log Book he must enter the following:

First. Every legal conviction of any member of his crew, and the punishment inflicted.

Second. Every offense committed by any member of his crew for which it is intended to prosecute or to enforce a forfeiture, together with such statement concerning the reading over such entry, and concerning the reply, if any, made to the charge, as is required by the provisions of section forty-five hundred and ninety-seven.

Third. Every offense for which punishment is inflicted on board, and the punishment inflicted.

Fourth. A statement of the conduct, character, and qualifications of each of his crew; or a statement that he declines to give an opinion of such particulars.

Fifth. Every case of illness or injury happening to any member of the crew, with the nature thereof, and the medical treatment.

Sixth. Every case of death happening on board, with the cause thereof.

Seventh. Every birth happening on board, with the sex of the infant, and the names of the parents.

Eighth. Every marriage taking place on board, with the names and ages of the parties.

Ninth. The name of every seamen or apprentice who ceases to be a member of the crew otherwise than by death, with the place, time, manner, and cause thereof.

Tenth. The wages due to any seaman or apprentice who dies during the voyage, and the gross amount of all deductions to be made therefrom.

Eleventh. The sale of the effects of any seaman or apprentice who dies during the voyage, including a statement of each article sold, and the sum received for it.

Twelfth. In every case of collision in which it is practicable so to do, the master shall, immediately after the occurrence, cause a statement thereof, and of the circumstances under which the same occurred, to be entered in the official log-book. Such entry shall be made in the manner prescribed in section forty-two hundred and ninety-one, and failure to make such entry shall subject the offender to the penalties prescribed by section forty-two hundred and ninety-two. (R. S., 4290; Feb. 14, 1900.)

Every entry hereby required to be made in the official log-book shall be signed by the m and by the mate, or some other one of the crew, and every entry in the official log-book shall be made as soon as possible after the occurrence to which it relates, and, if not made on the same day as the occurrence to which it relates, shall be made and dated so as to show the date of the occurrence, and of the entry respecting it; and in no case shall any entry therein, in respect of any occurrence happening previously to the arrival of the vessel at her final port, be made more than twenty-four hours after such arrival. (R. S., 4291.)

If in any case the official log-book is not kept in the manner hereby required, or if any entry hereby directed to be made in any such log-book is not made at the time and in the manner hereby directed, the master shall, for each such offense, be liable to a penalty of not more than twenty-five dollars; and every person who makes, or procures to be made, or assists in making, any entry in any official log-book in respect of any occurrence happening previously to the

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