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generous and philanthropic perfons to devife other methods of edu cation.
Among these John Phillips, Efq. of Exeter, was the first to distinguifh himself, by founding and endowing a feminary of learning in that town; which, in the year 1781, was by an act of affembly incorporated by the name of "Phillips's Exeter Academy." It is placed under the inspection of a board of trustees, and is governed by a preceptor and an affiftant. In this academy are taught the learned languages, the principles of geography, aftronomy, mathematics, and logic, befides writing, mufic, compolition, oratory, and virtue. The fund belonging to this inftitution is valued at nearly ten thoufand pounds. About one fifth part of this fund, lying in lands, is at prefent unproductive, but the actual income amounts to four hundred and eighty pounds per annum.
Since the establishment of this academy feveral others have been erected; one of which is at New-Ipfwich; it was incorporated in 1789; its fund is about one thoufand pounds; the number of ftudents is generally between forty and fifty; the price of tuition is one fhilling per week, and of boarding five fhillings.
There is another academy at Atkinson, founded by Nathaniel Pea body, Efq. and incorporated. by the general court in the year 1790, The preceptor has been chiefly fupported by Mr. Peabody; and he has endowed the academy with a donation of one thousand acres of land.
Similar inftitutions have been begun at Amherst, at Charlestown, and at Concord; which though at prefent in a state of infancy, yet afford a pleafing profpect of the increase of literature in various parts
of the State.
A law has been lately made, which enforces the maintenance of fchools by a peculiar fanction; the felect men of the feveral towns are liable to have the fame fum diftrained out of their eftates, which would be fufficient to support a school during the whole time in which they neglect to make that provifion. This law is fo recent that no judgment can as yet be formed of its operation. It fhews, however, that the legiflature are attentive to this most important branch of their duty, the education of the rifing generation.
As a farther evidence of the progrefs of fcience, focial libraries are established in feveral towns in this State; and in the year 1791 a medical fociety was incorporated by an act of Affembly. The
prefident of the State being a gentleman of the faculty, is at the head of this fociety.
By an article in the conftitution of the State, it is declared to be "the duty of legiflators and magiftrates to cherish the interest of literature and the fciences, and all feminaries and public schools; to encourage private and public inftitutions, rewards, and immunities for the promotion of agriculture, arts, fciences, commerce, trades, manufactures, and the natural history of the country; to countenance and inculcate the principles of humanity and general benevolence, public and private charity, industry and economy, honesty and punctuality, fincerity, fobriety, and all social affections and generous fentiments among the people." As far as public rulers conform to this article, they promote, in the most effectual manner, the true interest and prosperity of their country.
The establishment of Dartmouth College in the western border of the State, has proved a great benefit to the new fettlements, and to the neighbouring State of Vermont. During the late war, like all other feminaries of literature, it lay under difcouragement; but fince the peace it is in a more flourishing fituation.
Its landed interest amounts to about eighty thousand acres, of which twelve hundred lie contiguous, and are capable of the best improvement. Twelve thousand acres are fituate in Vermont. A tract of eight miles fquare beyond the northern line of Stuart-town was granted by the Affembly of New-Hampshire in 1789, and in the act by which this grant was made," the prefident and council of the State for the time being are incorporated with the trustees of the college, fo far as to act with them in regard to the expenditures and application of this grant, and of all others which have been or may be hereafter made by New-Hampshire."
The revenue of the college arifing from the lands, amounts to one hundred and forty pounds per anuum. By contracts already made it will amount in four years to four hundred and fifty; and in twelve years to fix hundred and fifty pounds. The income arifing from tuition money is about fix hundred pounds per annum more.
The first building erected for the accommodation of the students was a few years fince burned. A lottery was granted by the State for raising the sum of feven hundred pounds, which has been applied to the erection of a new building, much more convenient than the former; it was conftructed of wood, and stands in an elevated fituation, about half a mile eastward of Connecticut river in the VOL. II.
township of Hanover, commanding an extenfive and pleasant prof pect to the west. It is one hundred and fifty feet long, fifty feet wide, and thirty-fix feet high, and contains thirty-fix chambers for students. The number of students who were graduated in the firk nineteen years, amounts to two hundred and fifty-two, among whom were two Indians. In the year 1790, the number of undergraduates was about one hundred and fifty.
The ftudents are divided into four claffes. The fresh men ftudy the learned languages, the rules of speaking and writing, and the elements of mathematics.
The fophomores attend to the languages, geography, logic and mathematics.
The junior fophifters, befide the languages, enter on natural and moral philofophy and compofition.
The senior clafs compofe in English and Latin; study metaphy. fics, the elements of natural and political law.
The principal books used by the students are Lowth's English Grammar, Perry's Dictionary, Pike's Arithmetic, Guthrie's Geogra phy, Ward's Mathematics, Atkinson's Epitome, Hammond's Algebra, Martin's and Enfield's Natural Philofophy, Fergufon's Aftronomy, Locke's Effay, Montefquieu's Spirit of Laws, and Burlemaqui's Na tural and Political Law.
Befides these studies, lectures are read to the scholars in theology and ecclefiaftical history.
There is an examination of each class once in the year, and those who are not found qualified for their standing are put into a lower class.
The annual commencement is held on the fourth Wednesday in Auguft. There are two vacations, one following commencement and continuing fix weeks and two days; the other beginning on the fourth Monday in February, and continuing five weeks and five days.
The conftitution of the State which was adopted in 1784, is taken, almost verbatim, from that of Massachusetts. The principal differences, except fuch as arise from local circumstances, are the following the ftiles of the constitutions, and of the fupreme magiftrates in each State, are different. In one it is "Governor of the Commonwealth of Maffachusetts," in the other, "Prefident of the
State of New-Hampshire." In each State, the fupreme magistrate has the title of "His Excellency."
The Prefident of New-Hampshire, like the Governor of Maf sachusetts, has not the power of negativing all bills and refolves of the Senate and House of Representatives, and of preventing their paffing into laws, unless approved of by two-thirds of the members prefent. In New-Hampshire "the Prefident of State prefides in the fenate," in Maffachusetts the senate choose their own President.
There are no other differences worth mentioning, except it be in the mode of appointing militia officers, in which New-Hampshire has greatly the advantage of Maffachusetts.
To preferve an adherence to the principles of the conftitution, and to make fuch alterations as experience might point out, and render neceffary, provifion was made, that at the end of feven years a convention should be called to revife the form of government, agreeably to which, in 1791, a convention was called, who fettled the confti. tution on the fame general plan; for which,-fee, Maffachusetts.
SITUATION, EXTENT, AND BOUNDARIES.
MASSACHUSETTS, which may be confidered as the parent State
of New-England, is fituated between 41° 30′ and 43° north latitude, and 1° 30′ and 5° 40′ longitude, east of Philadelphia: its length is about one hundred and twenty-five miles, and its breadth about fifty; it is bounded on the north by the States of Vermont and NewHampshire, on the east by the Atlantic ocean, on the fouth by the Atlantic, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, and on the weft by New. York; its air and climate the fame as already described in the general account of New-England.*
FACE OF THE COUNTRY, SEA-COAST, &c.
This State, like the other States of New-England, is high and hilly Wackhurst mountain, in Prince-Town, is at its top two thousand nine hundred and eighty-nine feet from the level of the fea, and the town itself one thousand three hundred and thirty-two feet. The whole state is well watered with numerous rivers and fprings; many of the former are of the utmost importance to the inhabitants, by the ready and eafy carriage they afford for their different articles of produce.
Houfatonick river rises from several fources in the western parts of this State, and flows foutherly through Connecticut into Long Island found. Deerfield river falls into Connecticut river, from the west, between Deerfield and Greenfield. A most excellent and beautiful tract of meadow lies on its banks. Weftfield river empties into the Connecticut at Weft-Springfield. Connecticut river passes through this State, and interfects the county of Hampshire: in its course it runs over the falls above Deerfield, and between Northampton and Springfield. A company, by the name of "The Proprietors of the
*See pages 2 and 3.