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eaftern divifion of the United States, and in part account for its fingular healthfulnefs. Winter commonly commences, in its feverity, about the middle of December-fometimes earlier, and fometimes not till Chriftmas. Cattle are fed or houfed, in the northern parts of New-England, from about the 20th of Nov. to the 20th of May; in the fouthern parts not quite fo long. There have been frosts in almost every month in the year, though not in the fame year; but not very injurious.
The difeafes moft prevalent in New-England are the following, viz.
St. Anthony's Fire,
Slow, nervous, and
Thefe diforders, of which the pulmonary confumption is much the most destructive, are commonly the effect of imprudent exposures to cold and rainy weather, evening air, and the wearing of damp linen; or from frequent exceffes in the ufe of ftrong liquors, especially of fresh diftilled rum, which in too many inftances prove the bane of morals, and the ruin of families.
The fmall pox, which is a fpecific, infectious difeafe, is not allowed at present to be communicated by inoculation, except in hospitals erected for that purpofe in bye places, and in cafes where there is a probability of a general fpread of the infection in a town. Nor is this disease permitted to be communicated generally by inoculation, in any of the United States, except New-York, New-Jersey, Pennfylvania, Delaware, and South-Carolina.
In populous towns, the prevalent diseases are more numerous and complicated, owing to want of fresh air and exercife, and to luxurious and fashionable living.
Dr. Foulke has obferved, that "in other countries, men are divided according to their wealth or indigence, into three claffes; the OPULENT, the MIDDLING, and the POOR; the idlenefs, luxuries, and debaucheries of the firft, and the mifery and too frequent intemperance of the laft, destroy the greater proportion of these two. The intermediate clafs is below thofe indulgencies which prove fatal
*I a difcourfe which he lately read before the American Philofophical Society.
to the rich, and above those fufferings to which the unfortunate poor
FACE OF THE COUNTRY, MOUNTAINS, &c.
There are four principal ranges of mountains, paffing nearly from north-east to fouth-weft through New-England. Thefe confift of a multitude of parallel ridges, each having many fpurs, deviating from the course of the general range; which fpurs are again broken into irregular hilly land. The main ridges terminate, fometimes in high bluff heads, near the fea-coaft, and fometimes by a gradual defcent in the interior part of the country. One of the main ranges runs between Connecticut and Hudfon rivers. This range branches and bounds
bounds the vales through which flows the Houfatonick river. The most eastern ridge of this range terminates in a bluff head at Meriden; a fecond ends in like manner at Willingford, and a third at New-Haven. In Lyme, on the east fide of Connecticut river, another range of mountains commences, forming the eastern boundary of Connecticut vale. This range tends northerly, at the dif tance, generally, of about ten or twelve miles eaft from the river, and paffes through Maffachusetts, where the range takes the name of Chickabee Mountain; thence croffing into New-Hampshire, at the difance of about twenty miles from the Maffachusetts line, it runs up into a very high peak, called Monadnick, which terminates this ridge of the range. A western ridge continues, and in about latitude 43° 20' runs up into Sunipee mountains. About fifty miles further, in the fame ridge, is Moofcoog mountain. A third range begins near Stonington in Connecticut. It takes its courfe north-easterly, and is fometimes broken and difcontinued; it then rifes again, and ranges in the fame direction into New-Hampshire, where, in latitude 43° 25', it runs up into a high peak called Coufawafkog. The fourth range has a humble beginning about Hopkinton in Massachusetts. The eaftern ridge of this range runs north by Watertown and Concord, and croffes Merrimack river at Pantucket-Falls. in New-Hampshire, it rifes into feveral high peaks, of which the White mountains are the principal. From thefe White mountains a range continues northeaft, croffing the eaft boundary of New-Hampshire, in latitude 44° 30', and forms the height of land between Kennebeck and Chaudiere rivers. Thefe ranges of mountains are full of lakes, ponds, and fprings of water, that give rife to numberlefs ftreams of various fizes, which, interlocking each other in every direction, and falling over the rocks in romantic cafcades, flow meandering into the rivers below. No country on the globe is better watered than NewEngland.
On the fea-coaft the land is low, and in many parts level and fandy. In the valleys, between the forementioned ranges of mountains, the land is generally broken, and in many places rocky, but of a strong rich foil, capable of being cultivated to good advantage, which alfo is the cafe with many spots even on the tops of the mountains.
SOIL, PRODUCTIONS, &c.
The foil, as may be collected from what has been said, must be very various. Each tract of different foil is distinguished by its peculiarvegetation,
vegetation, and is pronounced good, middling, or bad, from the fpecies of trees which it produces; and from one fpecies generally predominating in each foil, has originated the defcriptive names of oak land, birch, beech, and chefnut lands, pine, barren, maple, afh, and cedar íwamps, as each fpecies happens to predominate. Intermingled with those predominating fpecies are walnut, firs, elm, hemlock, magnolia, incofe wood, faffafras, &c. &c. The beft lands produce walnut and chefnut; the next, beech and oak; lands of the third quality produce fir and pitch pine; the next, whortleberry and barberry bufhes; and the poorest produce nothing but marfhy imperfect fhrubs. Among the flowering trees and shrubs in the forefts are the red-flowering maple, the faffafras, the locuft-tree, the tulip-tree, honeyfuckle, wild rofe, dogwood, elm, leather-tree, laurel, hawthorn, &c. which in the fpring of the year give the woods a most beautiful appearance, and fill them with a delicious fragrance. Among the fruits which grow wild, are the feveral kinds of grapes; which are small, four, and thick fkinned. The vines on which they grow are very luxuriant, often overfpreading the higheft trees in the forefts; and, without doubt, might be greatly meliorated by proper cultivation. Befides thefe, are the wild cherries, white and red mulberries, cranberries, walnuts, hazelnuts, chefnuts, butter-nuts, beech-nuts, wild plumbs and pears, whortle-berries, bilberries, goofe berries, ftrawberries, &c.
The foil in the interior country is calculated, for the culture of Indian corn, rye, oats, barley, flax, and hemp (for which the foil and climate are peculiarly proper) buck-wheat, beans, peas, &c. In many of the inland parts wheat is raifed in large quantities; but on the fea-coaft it has never been cultivated with fuccefs, being fubject to blafts. The fruits which the country yields from culture, are, apples in the greatest plenty; of these cyder is made, which conftitutes the principal drink of the inhabitants; alfo pears of various, forts, quinces, peaches, plums, cherries, apricots, &c.
Dr. Cutler has furnished the following catalogue of flowering fhrubs and plants in New-England, which, from the attention he has paid to natural hiftory, we have reafon to rely upon as accurate.
Blue flag, Iris virginica,-Globe Flower, Cephalanthus occidentalis, -Pigeonberry, Ciffus ficyoides,-Cornel, Cornus Canadenfis,-American Honeyfuckle, Azalea vifcofa,-American Tea, Ceanothus Americanus,-Cherry Honeyfuckle, Lonicera diervilla,-Great Convolvplus, Convolvulus arvenfis,-Stag's horn Sumach, Rhus typbinum,
Mealtree, Viburnum lantana,-White flowered Elder, Sambucus nigra, -Red berried Elder, Sambucus Canadenfis,-Meadow Blue-bells, Gentiana ciliata,-Lilies, feveral fpecies, Lilium,-Bethlem Star, Ornithogalum luteum,-American Senna, Rhodora Canadenfis,—Great Laurel, Kalmia latifolia,-Dwarf Laurel, Kalmia anguftifoliaWhite Pepper Bush, Andromeda arborea,-Bog Evergreen, Andromeda calyculata,-Sweet Pepper Bufh, Clethra alnifolia,-Mountain Laurel, or Sorbus-tree, Sorbus aucupora,—Meadow Sweet, Spiræa falicifolia, -Queen of the Meadows, Spiraa tormentofa,—Service Tree, Mespilus Canadenfis,-Wild Rok, Rofa Carolina,-Superb Raspberry, Rubus odoratus,-Baneberry, Actea fpicata,-Side-faddle Flower, Sarracena purpurea,-Red Columbine, Aquilegia Canadenfis,-Anemone, feveral fpecies, Anemone hepatica, fylveftris et nemorofa,—Traveller's Joy, Clematis Virginica,-Dragon's Head, Dracocephalum Virginicum, -Snap Dragon, Antirrhinum Canadenfis,-American Cardamine, Cardamine Virginica,-Lupin, Lupinus angufiifolia,-Locuft, Robinia pfeud-acacia,-Beach Pea, Pifum maritimum,-Pred Pea, Pifum ochrus, -Wood Pea, Orobus fylvaticus,—Variegated Pea, Lathyrus heterophyllus,—Meadow Sunflower, Ageratum ciliare,-American Amaranthus, Gnaphalium belian themifolium,-New-England After, Afier Nova Anglicum,-Smooth-leaved Golden-rod, Solidago altiffima,— New-England Sunflower, Helianthus divaricatus,-American Pride, Lobelia cardinalis,-Ladies Plume, Orchis pycodes,-Ladies Slipper, Cypripedium calceolus-Blue Eye, Sifyrinchium Bermudiauna,-Swamp Willow, or Dog-wood, Salix cinerea,-Red-flowered Maple, Acerubrum.
New England is a fine grazing country; the valleys between the bills are generally interfected with brooks of water, the banks of which are lined with a tract of rich meadow or intervale land. The
high and rocky ground is, in many parts, covered with clover, and generally affords the finest of pasture. It will not be a matter of wonder, therefore, that New-England boafts of railing fome of the finest cattle in the world; nor will the be envied, when the labour of raifing them is taken into view. Two months of the hottest season in the year, the farmers are employed in procuring food for their cattle, and the cold winter is spent in dealing it out to them. The pleasure and profit of doing this is, however, a fatisfying compenfation to the honest and induftrious farmer. Butter and cheese are made for exportation; and confiderable attention has lately been paid to the raifing of theep.