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ITS TERRITORY, POPULATION—WHITE, FREE COLORED, AND SLAVE-
COMPENDIUM OF THE SEVENTH CENSUS;
TO WHICH ARE ADDED
THE RESULTS OP EVERY PREVIOUS CENSUS, BEGINNING WITH 1790, IN COMPARATIVE TABLES,
WITH EXPLANATORY AND ILLUSTRATIVE NOTES, BASED UPON THE SCHEDULES
AND OTHER OFFICIAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION.
By J. D. B. Debow,
SUPERINTENDENT OF THE UNITED STATES CENSUS.
Resolved, That there be printed, for the use of the Senate, fifty thousand copies of a Compendium of the Seventh Census, to be arranged by the Superintendent of the Census, embracing the population by towns and counties; the ratio tables of population; tables of nativities, births, marriages, and deaths; of the deaf, dumb, blind, insane, and idiotic ; of schools and colleges; of aggregates of occupations ; of churches; of newspapers and libraries; and of agricultural products; and also a table showing the number of acres of land in cultivation in each of the principal staple productions of the soil, and the aggregate number of acres in cultivation in each of the States and Territories of the United States, with illustrative notes and comparative tables: Provided, The Compendium shall be printed in royal octavo form, and not exceed four hundred pages.
Census Office, Washington, Sept. 1, 1854.
To THE HON. R. McCbELLAND,
Secretary of the Interior.
In the volume which is now handed you—though restricted in size by the order of Congress—will be found a very full compendium of the Census Statistics of the United States from the earliest period, together with all of the tables embraced in the quarto publication of 1850, with the few exceptions noted below. To these has been added a large amount of information collected for the first time from the returns and from other official sources, with illustrative notes, and ratio and comparative tables.
In lieu of the classification of ages by counties and their subdivisions, the births, marriages, and deaths, the church and school statistics by counties, and the occupations by States, I have inserted, as of wider interest, county tables in the following particulars—of population, white, free-colored and slave, native and foreign, male and female, in 1850, with the aggregate in 1840, and the changes of county organization within that time; of college, private school and public school scholars, with the revenues appropriated to each; the total educational income; the illiterate; the number of persons within the school age, and the actual average of scholars in the year; of the number of farms; and the capital, product, and amount of labor in, manufactures, mining, and the mechanic arts. The occupations and the number of births, marriages, and deaths, are given in States and in great sections of the Union, and the specific ages and nativities in all the leading cities.
The tables embraced in the volume have been examined and revised, involving in most cases a re-examination of the returns, during which care was taken to exhaust, by way of illustration, for certain cities, counties, or States, every source of information embodied in them. This would have been done for the whole Union had time and the means at my disposition admitted. As it was, however, the time and labor actually expended will, I trust, be amply repaid in the results. Never before has so large a part of the census material, collected by such expensive machinery, been made available by the government, for popular use, in compact and systematic form.
The statistics of manufactures and of mortality, which alone remain of the census, will be ready for publication by the meeting of Congress, and can be included, if desired, in a volume of the size of the present.
For other suggestions in relation to the administration of the office and the history of the census system of the United States, I beg to refer you in particular to the Introductory Chapter.
Your obedient servant,
J. D. B. Debow.