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INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATIONS TO
HAS BEEN A PARTY,
APPENDICES CONTAINING THE TREATIES RELATING TO SUCH
MENT OF INTERNATIONAL CLAIMS.
JOHN BASSETT MOORE,
Notes on the Conflict of Laws, etc.
ARREST, IMPRISONMENT, AND DETENTION.
1. BY CIVIL AUTHORITY.
In 1824 Dr. John Baldwin, a citizen of the Dr. Baldwin's Mina- United States, purchased a league of land on titlan Claims.
the river Coatzacoalcos, south of the port of Vera Cruz, Mexico, and established there a settlement, to which was given the name of Minatitlan. He opened a house for the sale of merchandise and built a number of sawmills, and for a time was prosperous. In 1827, however, one Tadeo Ortiz came to the colony as commissioner, with extensive powers. Upon his arrival he and Dr. Baldwin became involved in difficulties. One of their early controversies seems to have arisen out of a demand which Dr. Baldwin made upon Ortiz for payment for lumber purchased for the use of the public in building a church and a government house. The quarrel hay. ing begun, Ortiz employed his political power for purposes of persecution and oppression. The property and effects of Dr. Baldwin were sequestered under an order issued by Ortiz, who also decreed his expulsion from the colony. Subsequently, Ortiz directed certain judicial proceedings to be undertaken. These proceedings were set on foot by a letter which Ortiz addressed to one Montalvo, a person in his employ and constituted by him an alcalde for the occasion, ordering him to institute an action against Dr. Baldwin. This letter charged Dr. Baldwin with want of respect to the authorities, with robbing the state of timber, with being a smuggler, and with litigious conduct. Montalvo instituted the action and took certain alleged depositions, which were afterward declared to be fraudulent, and entitled the action as a proceeding ordered to be instituted by the commissioner, Tadeo Ortiz, against the foreigner John Baldwin, accused of " various crimes." One of 5627_VOL. 4 -1