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$ 11706. Liability of rail carriers under receipts and bills of

lading (a) A rail carrier providing transportation or service subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part shall issue a receipt or bill of lading for property it receives for transportation under this part. That rail carrier and any other carrier that delivers the property and is providing transportation or service subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part are liable to the person entitled to recover under the receipt or bill of lading. The liability imposed under this subsection is for the actual loss or injury to the property caused by

(1) the receiving rail carrier;
(2) the delivering rail carrier; or

(3) another rail carrier over whose line or route the property is transported in the United States or from a place in the United States to a place in an adjacent foreign country when

transported under a through bill of lading. Failure to issue a receipt or bill of lading does not affect the liability of a rail carrier. A delivering rail carrier is deemed to be the rail carrier performing the line-haul transportation nearest the destination but does not include a rail carrier providing only a switching service at the destination.

(b) The rail carrier issuing the receipt or bill of lading under subsection (a) of this section or delivering the property for which the receipt or bill of lading was issued is entitled to recover from the rail carrier over whose line or route the loss or injury occurred the amount required to be paid to the owners of the property, as evidenced by a receipt, judgment, or transcript, and the amount of its expenses reasonably incurred in defending a civil action brought by that person.

(c)(1) A rail carrier may not limit or be exempt from liability imposed under subsection (a) of this section except as provided in this subsection. A limitation of liability or of the amount of recovery or representation or agreement in a receipt, bill of lading, contract, or rule in violation of this section is void.

(2) A rail carrier of passengers may limit its liability under its passenger rate for loss or injury of baggage carried on trains carrying passengers.

(3) A rail carrier providing transportation or service subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part may establish rates for transportation of property under which

(A) the liability of the rail carrier for such property is limited to a value established by written declaration of the shipper or by a written agreement between the shipper and the carrier; or

(B) specified amounts are deducted, pursuant to a written agreement between the shipper and the carrier, from any claim against the carrier with respect to the transportation of such property.

(d)(1) A civil action under this section may be brought in a district court of the United States or in a State court. (2)(A) A civil action under this section may only be brought

(i) against the originating rail carrier, in the judicial district in which the point of origin is located;

(ii) against the delivering rail carrier, in the judicial district in which the principal place of business of the person bringing the action is located if the delivering carrier operates a railroad or a route through such judicial district, or in the judicial district in which the point of destination is located; and

(iii) against the carrier alleged to have caused the loss or damage, in the judicial district in which such loss or damage is alleged to have occurred.

(B) In this section, “judicial district” means (i) in the case of a United States district court, a judicial district of the United States, and (ii) in the case of a State court, the applicable geographic area over which such court exercises jurisdiction.

(e) A rail carrier may not provide by rule, contract, or otherwise, a period of less than 9 months for filing a claim against it under this section and a period of less than 2 years for bringing a civil action against it under this section. The period for bringing a civil action is computed from the date the carrier gives a person written notice that the carrier has disallowed any part of the claim specified in the notice. For the purposes of this subsection

(1) an offer of compromise shall not constitute a disallowance of any part of the claim unless the carrier, in writing, informs the claimant that such part of the claim is disallowed and provides reasons for such disallowance; and

(2) communications received from a carrier's insurer shall not constitute a disallowance of any part of the claim unless the insurer, in writing, informs the claimant that such part of the claim is disallowed, provides reasons for such disallowance, and informs the claimant that the insurer is acting on behalf

of the carrier. $ 11707. Liability when property is delivered in violation of

routing instructions (a)(1) When a rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part diverts or delivers property to another rail carrier in violation of routing instructions in the bill of lading, both of those rail carriers are jointly and severally liable to the rail carrier that was deprived of its right to participate in hauling that property for the total amount of the rate it would have received if it participated in hauling the property.

(2) A rail carrier is not liable under paragraph (1) of this subsection when it diverts or delivers property in compliance with an order or regulation of the Board.

(3) A rail carrier to whom property is transported is not liable under this subsection if it shows that it had no notice of the routing instructions before transporting the property. The burden of proving lack of notice is on that rail carrier.

(b) The court shall award a reasonable attorney's fee to the plaintiff in a judgment against the defendant rail carrier under subsection (a) of this section. The court shall tax and collect that fee as a part of the costs of the action.

CHAPTER 119_CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES

Sec.
11901. General civil penalties.
11902. Interference with railroad car supply.

11903. Record keeping and reporting violations. 11904. Unlawful disclosure of information. 11905. Disobedience to subpoenas. 11906. General criminal penalty when specific penalty not provided. 11907. Punishment of corporation for violations committed by certain individuals. 11908. Relation to other Federal criminal penalties. $ 11901. General civil penalties

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part, an officer or agent of that rail carrier, or a receiver, trustee, lessee, or agent of one of them, knowingly violating this part or an order of the Board under this part is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation. Liability under this subsection is incurred for each distinct violation. A separate violation occurs for each day the violation continues.

(b) A rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part, or a receiver or trustee of that rail carrier, violating a regulation or order of the Board under section 11124(a)(2) or (b) of this title is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $500 for each violation and for $25 for each day the violation continues.

(c) A person knowingly authorizing, consenting to, or permitting a violation of sections 10901 through 10906 of this title or of a requirement or a regulation under any of those sections, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000.

(d) A rail carrier, receiver, or operating trustee violating an order or direction of the Board under section 11123 or 11124(a)(1) of this title is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of at least $100 but not more than $500 for each violation and for $50 for each day the violation continues.

(e)(1) A person required under subchapter III of chapter 111 of this title to make, prepare, preserve, or submit to the Board a record concerning transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part that does not make, prepare, preserve, or submit that record as required under that subchapter, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $500 for each violation.

(2) A rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part, and a lessor, receiver, or trustee of that rail carrier, violating section 11144(b)(1) of this title, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $100 for each violation.

(3) A rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part, a lessor, receiver, or trustee of that rail carrier, a person furnishing cars, and an officer, agent, or employee of one of them, required to make a report to the Board or answer a question that does not make the report or does not specifically, completely, and truthfully answer the question, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $100 for each violation.

(4) A separate violation occurs for each day a violation under this subsection continues.

(f) Trial in a civil action under subsections (a) through (e) of this section is in the judicial district in which the rail carrier has its principal operating office or in a district through which the railroad of the rail carrier runs. $ 11902. Interference with railroad car supply

(a) A person that offers or gives anything of value to another person acting for or employed by a rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part intending to influence an action of that other person related to supply, distribution, or movement of cars, vehicles, or vessels used in the transportation of property, or because of the action of that other person, shall be fined not more than $1,000, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both.

(b) A person acting for or employed by a rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part that solicits, accepts, or receives anything of value

(1) intending to be influenced by it in an action of that person related to supply, distribution, or movement of cars, vehicles, or vessels used in the transportation of property; or

(2) because of the action of that person, shall be fined not more than $1,000, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both. $ 11903. Record keeping and reporting violations

A person required to make a report to the Board, or make, prepare, or preserve a record, under subchapter III of chapter 111 of this title about transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part that knowingly and willfully

(1) makes a false entry in the report or record;

(2) destroys, mutilates, changes, or by another means falsifies the record;

(3) does not enter business related facts and transactions in the record;

(4) makes, prepares, or preserves the record in violation of a regulation or order of the Board; or

(5) files a false report or record with the Board, shall be fined not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both. $ 11904. Unlawful disclosure of information (a) A

(1) rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part, or an officer, agent, or employee of that rail carrier, or another person authorized to receive information from that rail carrier, that knowingly discloses to another person, except the shipper or consignee; or

(2) person who solicits or knowingly receives, information described in subsection (b) without the consent of the shipper or consignee shall be fined not more than $1,000.

(b) The information referred to in subsection (a) is information about the nature, kind, quantity, destination, consignee, or routing of property tendered or delivered to that rail carrier for transportation provided under this part, or information about the contents of a contract authorized under section 10709 of this title, that may

be used to the detriment of the shipper or consignee or may disclose improperly, to a competitor, the business transactions of the shipper or consignee.

(c) This part does not prevent a rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part from giving information

(1) in response to legal process issued under authority of a court of the United States or a State;

(2) to an officer, employee, or agent of the United States Government, a State, or a territory or possession of the United States; or

(3) to another rail carrier or its agent to adjust mutual traffic accounts in the ordinary course of business.

(d) An employee of the Board delegated to make an inspection or examination under section 11144 of this title who knowingly discloses information acquired during that inspection or examination, except as directed by the Board, a court, or a judge of that court, shall be fined not more than $500, imprisoned for not more than 6 months, or both.

(e) A person that knowingly discloses confidential data made available to such person under section 11163 of this title by a rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part shall be fined not more than $50,000. $ 11905. Disobedience to subpoenas

A person not obeying a subpoena or requirement of the Board to appear and testify or produce records shall be fined at least $100 but not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than one year, or both. $ 11906. General criminal penalty when specific penalty not

provided When another criminal penalty is not provided under this chapter, a rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part, and when that rail carrier is a corporation, a director or officer of the corporation, or a receiver, trustee, lessee, or person acting for or employed by the corporation that, alone or with another person, willfully violates this part or an order prescribed under this part, shall be fined not more than $5,000. The person may be imprisoned for not more than 2 years in addition to being fined under this section. A separate violation occurs each day a violation of this part continues. $ 11907. Punishment of corporation for violations committed

by certain individuals An act or omission that would be a violation of this part if committed by a director, officer, receiver, trustee, lessee, agent, or employee of a rail carrier providing transportation or service subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part that is a corporation is also a violation of this part by that corporation. The penalties of this chapter apply to that violation. When acting in the scope of their employment, the actions and omissions of individuals acting for or employed by that rail carrier are considered to be the actions and omissions of that rail carrier as well as that individual.

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