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(2) An annual certification applies to a safety regulation prescribed or order issued after the date of the certification only if the State authority submits an appropriate certification to provide the necessary investigative and surveillance activities.

(3) If, after receipt of an annual certification, the Secretary concerned decides the State authority is not complying satisfactorily with the investigative and surveillance activities prescribed under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary concerned may reject any part of the certification or take other appropriate action to achieve adequate enforcement. The Secretary concerned must give the authority notice and an opportunity for a hearing before taking action under this paragraph. When the Secretary concerned gives notice, the burden of proof is on the authority to show that it is complying satisfactorily with the investigative and surveillance activities prescribed by the Secretary concerned.

(c) AGREEMENT WHEN CERTIFICATION NOT RECEIVED. (1) If the Secretary concerned does not receive an annual certification under subsection (a) of this section related to any railroad equipment, facility, rolling stock, or operation, the Secretary concerned may make an agreement with a State authority for the authority to provide any part of the investigative and surveillance activities prescribed by the Secretary concerned as necessary to enforce the safety regulations and orders applicable to the equipment, facility, rolling stock, or operation.

(2) The Secretary concerned may terminate any part of an agreement made under this subsection on finding that the authority has not provided every part of the investigative and surveillance activities to which the agreement relates. The Secretary concerned must give the authority notice and an opportunity for a hearing before making such a finding. The finding and termination shall be published in the Federal Register and may not become effective for at least 15 days after the date of publication.

(d) AGREEMENT FOR INVESTIGATIVE AND SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES.—In addition to providing for State participation under this section, the Secretary concerned may make an agreement with a State to provide investigative and surveillance activities related to the duties under chapters 203–213 of this title (in the case of the Secretary of Transportation) and duties under section 114 of this title in the case of the Secretary of Homeland Security).

(e) PAYMENT. On application by a State authority that has submitted a certification under subsections (a) and (b) of this section or made an agreement under subsection (c) or (d) of this section, the Secretary concerned shall pay not more than 50 percent of the cost of the personnel, equipment, and activities of the authority needed, during the next fiscal year, to carry out a safety program under the certification or agreement. However, the Secretary concerned may pay an authority only when the authority assures the Secretary concerned that it will provide the remaining cost of the safety program and that the total State money expended for the safety program, excluding grants of the United States Government, will be at least as much as the average amount expended for the fiscal years that ended June 30, 1969,

and June 30, 1970. (f) MONITORING.–The Secretary concerned may monitor State investigative and surveillance practices and carry out other inspections and investigations necessary to help enforce this chapter (in

the case of the Secretary of Transportation) and duties under sec-
tion 114 of this title (in the case of the Secretary of Homeland Se-
curity).
(g) DEFINITIONS.-In this section-

(1) the term “safety” includes security; and
(2) the term “Secretary concerned” means-

(A) the Secretary of Transportation, with respect to railroad safety matters concerning such Secretary under laws administered by that Secretary; and

(B) the Secretary of Homeland Security, with respect to railroad safety matters concerning such Secretary under

laws administered by that Secretary. $ 20106. National uniformity of regulation

Laws, regulations, and orders related to railroad safety and laws, regulations, and orders related to railroad security shall be nationally uniform to the extent practicable. A State may adopt or continue in force a law, regulation, or order related to railroad safety or security until the Secretary of Transportation (with respect to railroad safety matters), or the Secretary of Homeland Security (with respect to railroad security matters), regulation or issues an order covering the subject matter of the State requirement. A State may adopt or continue in force an additional or more stringent law, regulation, or order related to railroad safety or security when the law, regulation, or order

(1) is necessary to eliminate or reduce an essentially local safety or security hazard;

(2) is not incompatible with a law, regulation, or order of the United States Government; and

(3) does not unreasonably burden interstate commerce. $ 20107. Inspection and investigation

(a) GENERAL.—To carry out this part, the Secretary of Transportation may take actions the Secretary considers necessary, including

(1) conduct investigations, make reports, issue subpenas, require the production of documents, take depositions, and prescribe recordkeeping and reporting requirements; and

(2) delegate to a public entity or qualified person the inspection, examination, and testing of railroad equipment, facilities, rolling stock, operations, and persons.

(b) ENTRY AND INSPECTION.-In carrying out this part, an officer, employee, or agent of the Secretary, at reasonable times and in a reasonable way, may enter and inspect railroad equipment, facilities, rolling stock, operations, and relevant records. When requested, the officer, employee, or agent shall display proper credentials. During an inspection, the officer, employee, or agent is an employee of the United States Government under chapter 171 of title 28. $ 20108. Research, development, testing, and training

(a) GENERAL.—The Secretary of Transportation shall carry out, as necessary, research, development, testing, evaluation, and training for every area of railroad safety.

(b) CONTRACTS.—To carry out this part, the Secretary may make contracts for, and carry out, research, development, testing, evaluation, and training (particularly for those areas of railroad safety found to need prompt attention).

(c) AMOUNTS FROM NON-GOVERNMENT SOURCES FOR TRAINING SAFETY EMPLOYEES.—The Secretary may request, receive, and expend amounts received from non-United States Government sources for expenses incurred in training safety employees of private industry, State and local authorities, or other public authorities, except State rail safety inspectors participating in training under section 20105 of this title. $ 20109. Employee protections

(a) FILING COMPLAINTS AND TESTIFYING.-A railroad carrier engaged in interstate or foreign commerce may not discharge or in any way discriminate against an employee because the employee, whether acting for the employee or as a representative, has

(1) filed a complaint or brought or caused to be brought a proceeding related to the enforcement of this part or, as applicable to railroad safety, chapter 51 or 57 of this title; or

(2) testified or will testify in that proceeding. (b) REFUSING TO WORK BECAUSE OF HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS.—(1) A railroad carrier engaged in interstate or foreign commerce may not discharge or in any way discriminate against an employee for refusing to work when confronted by a hazardous condition related to the performance of the employee's duties, if

(A) the refusal is made in good faith and no reasonable alternative to the refusal is available to the employee;

(B) a reasonable individual in the circumstances then confronting the employee would conclude that

(i) the hazardous condition presents an imminent danger of death or serious injury; and

(ii) the urgency of the situation does not allow sufficient time to eliminate the danger through regular statutory means; and

(C) the employee, where possible, has notified the carrier of the hazardous condition and the intention not to perform further work unless the condition is corrected immediately.

(2) This subsection does not apply to security personnel employed by a carrier to protect individuals and property transported by railroad.

(c) DISPUTE RESOLUTION.-A dispute, grievance, or claim arising under this section is subject to resolution under section 3 of the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.Č. 153). In a proceeding by the National Railroad Adjustment Board, a division or delegate of the Board, or another board of adjustment established under section 3 to resolve the dispute, grievance, or claim, the proceeding shall be expedited and the dispute, grievance, or claim shall be resolved not later than 180 days after it is filed. If the violation is a form of discrimination that does not involve discharge, suspension, or another action affecting pay, and no other remedy is available under this subsection, the Board, division, delegate, or other board of adjustment may award the employee reasonable damages, including punitive damages, of not more than $20,000.

(d) ELECTION OF REMEDIES.-An employee of a railroad carrier may not seek protection under both this section and another provision of law for the same allegedly unlawful act of the carrier.

(e) DISCLOSURE OF IDENTITY.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, or with the written consent of the employee, the Secretary of Transportation may not disclose the name of an employee of a railroad carrier who has provided information about an alleged violation of this part or, as applicable to railroad safety, chapter 51 or 57 of this title or a regulation prescribed or order issued under any of those provisions.

(2) The Secretary shall disclose to the Attorney General the name of an employee described in paragraph (1) of this subsection if the matter is referred to the Attorney General for enforcement. 8 20110. Effect on employee qualifications and collective

bargaining
This chapter does not-

(1) authorize the Secretary of Transportation to prescribe regulations and issue orders related to qualifications of employees, except qualifications specifically related to safety; or

(2) prohibit the bargaining representatives of railroad carriers and their employees from making collective bargaining agreements under the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.), including agreements related to qualifications of employees, that are not inconsistent with regulations prescribed and

orders issued under this chapter. $ 20111. Enforcement by the Secretary of Transportation

(a) EXCLUSIVE AUTHORITY.--The Secretary of Transportation has exclusive authority,

(1) to impose and compromise a civil penalty for a violation of a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary;

(2) except as provided in section 20113 of this title, to request an injunction for a violation of a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary; and

(3) to recommend appropriate action be taken under section 20112(a) of this title.

(b) COMPLIANCE ORDERS.—The Secretary may issue an order directing compliance with this part or with a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued under this part.

(c) ORDERS PROHIBITING INDIVIDUALS FROM PERFORMING SAFETY-SENSITIVE FUNCTIONS.—If an individual's violation of this chapter or any of the laws transferred to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Transportation by subsection (e) (i), (2), and (6)(A) of section 6 of the Department of Transportation Act, as in effect on June 1, 1994, or a regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary under this chapter is shown to make that individual unfit for the performance of safety-sensitive functions, the Secretary, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, may issue an order prohibiting the individual from performing safety-sensitive functions in the railroad industry for a specified period of time or until specified conditions are met. This subsection does not affect the Secretary's authority under section 20104 of this title to act on an emergency basis.

(d) REGULATIONS REQUIRING REPORTING OF REMEDIAL ACTIONS.—(1) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to require that a railroad carrier notified by the Secretary that imposition of a civil penalty will be recommended for a failure to comply with this part, chapter 51 or 57 of this title, or a regulation prescribed or order issued under any of those provisions, shall report to the Secretary, not later than the 30th day after the end of the month in which the notification is received

(A) actions taken to remedy the failure; or

(B) if appropriate remedial actions cannot be taken by that 30th day, an explanation of the reasons for the delay. (2) The Secretary

(A) not later than June 3, 1993, shall issue a notice of a regulatory proceeding for proposed regulations to carry out this subsection; and

(B) not later than September 3, 1994, shall prescribe final regulations to carry out this subsection. $ 20112. Enforcement by the Attorney General

(a) CIVIL ACTIONS.—At the request of the Secretary of Transportation, the Attorney General may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States

(1) to enjoin a violation of, or to enforce, a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary;

(2) to collect a civil penalty imposed or an amount agreed on in compromise under section 21301 of this title; or

(3) to enforce a subpena issued by the Secretary under this chapter.

(b) VENUE.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, a civil action under this section may be brought in the judicial district in which the violation occurred or the defendant has its principal executive office. If an action to collect a penalty is against an individual, the action also may be brought in the judicial district in which the individual resides.

(2) A civil action to enforce a subpena issued by the Secretary or a compliance order issued under section 20111(b) of this title may be brought in the judicial district in which the defendant resides, does business, or is found. $ 20113. Enforcement by the States

(a) INJUNCTIVE RELIEF.-If the Secretary of Transportation does not begin a civil action under section 20112 of this title to enjoin the violation of a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary not later than 15 days after the date the Secretary receives notice of the violation and a request from a State authority participating in investigative and surveillance activities under section 20105 of this title that the action be brought, the authority may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States to enjoin the violation. This subsection does not apply if the Secretary makes an affirmative written finding that the violation did not occur or that the action is not necessary because of other enforcement action taken by the Secretary related to the violation.

(b) IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF CIVIL PENALTIES.—If the Secretary does not impose the applicable civil penalty for a viola

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