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At the end of the last fiscal year there were 2,732 post offices of the first class, 5,905 of the second class, and 12,801 of the third class-a total of 21,438 such post offices.

Many persons and groups have on several occasions in the past advocated the reforms contained in Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1952. In 1937 the Presi. dent's Committee on Administration Management proposed the transfer to the Postmaster General of the function of appointing all postmasters. In 1949 the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government specifically recommended this reform. In a message to the Congress on June 24, 1949, I proposed legislation to accomplish this purpose, and in this year's budget message I renewed this recommendation.

The abolition of offices by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1952 will not abolish any rights, privileges, powers, duties, immunities, liabilities, obligations, or other attributes of those offices except as they relate to matters of appointment and tenure inconsistent with that reorganization plan. Under the Reorganization Act of 1949, all of these attributes of office will attach to the new offices of postmaster, either automatically or upon the occurrence of an appropriate delegation of functions to such new offices by the Postmaster General.

After investigation, I have found and hereby declare that each reorganization included in Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1952 is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in section 2 (a) of the Reorganization Act of 1949.

I have found and hereby declare that it is necessary to include in the accompanying Reorganization Plan No. 2, by reason of reorganizations made thereby, provisions for the appointment and compensation of officers specified therein. The rates of compensation for these officers are not in excess of those which I have found to prevail in respect to comparable officers in the executive branch.

The taking effect of the reorganizations included in this plan may not in itself result in substantial immediate savings. However, many benefits in improved operations will be made possible by the plan and should result in a reduction of expenditures as compared with those that would be otherwise necessary. An itemization of these reductions in advance of actual experience under this plan is not practicable.

I urge the Congress to permit Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1952 to become effective.

HARRY S. TRUMAN. THE WHITE HOUSE, April 10, 1952.

REORGANIZATION PLAN No. 2 OF 1952

(Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives

in Congress assembled, April 10. 1952, pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1949, approved June 20, 1949)

POSTMASTERS

SECTION 1. Abolition of existing offices.-All now existing offices of postmaster at post offices of the first, second, and third class are abolished. The Postmaster General shall make such provisions as he shall deem necessary respecting the winding up of the affairs of any postmaster whose office is abolished by the provisions of this reorganization plan.

SEC. 2. Establishment of new offices of postmaster.—There is established for each now or hereafter existing post office of the first, second, and third class an office which shall have the title of "Postmaster.” Each postmaster provided for in this reorganization plan shall be appointed by the Postmaster General under the classified civil service and in accordance with the provisions of section 2 of the Act of June 25, 1938, chapter 678, 52 Statutes 1076, as amended (39 U. S. C. 31b), and the Act of May 20, 1944, chapter 200, 58 Statutes 224 (39 U. S. C. 31c), and shall receive the same compensation that would be payable to the postmaster of the post office concerned under applicable law in the absence of this reorganization plan.

SEC. 3. Transfer of functions. The functions that have been vested by statute in postmasters, including postmasters not affected by other sections of this reorganization plan, or in any of them, since the effective date of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1949 (63 Stat. 1066) are hereby transferred to the Postmaster General.

SEC. 4. Effective dates.-(a) The provisions of sections 1 and 2 of this reorganization plan shall become effective as follows: (1) In the case of any office which is then vacant, the effective date shall be the date determined under section 6 (a) of the Reorganization Act of 1949; and (2) in the case of each other office at a now existing post office, the effective date shall be the date on which the first vacancy in office occurs. In the case of any post office hereafter established, the effective date of the provisions of section 2 shall be the date such office is established. The provisions of section 3 of this reorganization plan shall become effective on the date determined under section 6 (a) of the Reorganization Act of 1949.

(b) The Postmaster General for the purposes of the provisions of section 4 (a) hereof shall determine when a vacancy in office has occurred.

[H. Doc. No. 426, 82d Cong., 2d sess. ] MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, TRANSMITTING

REORGANIZATION PLAN No. 3 OF 1952, PREPARED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REORGANIZÁTION ACT OF 1949 AND PROVIDING FOR REORGANIZATIONS IN THE

BUREAU OF CUSTOMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY To the Congress of the United States:

I transmit herewith Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1952, prepared in accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949 and providing for reorganizations in the Bureau of Customs of the Department of the Treasury. My reasons for transmitting this plan are stated in another message transmitted to the Congress today.

This reorganization plan provides for the abolition of all offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise, to which appointments are now required to be made by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Under the authority of section 6 of the Reorganization Act of 1949, I have provided that incumbents in these offices may serve out their present terms of office. The abolition of offices, therefore, will occur gradually.

As the existing offices are abolished, the Secretary of the Treasury will provide for the continuation of the functions now delegated to them. The Secretary will delegate the functions to officials of the Treasury Department appointed by him under the classified civil service, including certain new offices, for which more adequate compensation is authorized, established in the Bureau of Customs by this reorganization plan. These officials will be selected wholly on the basis of merit. The most qualified persons will be sought, from both within and without the service. When this reorganization is completed, all officials and employees of the Bureau of Customs will be appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury under the civil-service laws.

This reorganization plan also provides for the abolition of certain functions relating to customs administration now vested in the Secretary of the Treasury. These functions are obsolete and unnecessary. They impose unduly restrictive fiscal procedures upon the Bureau of Customs. Their abolition will promote a more efficient performance of customs functions and a better service to the public.

Many of these abolished functions have been handed down since 1789, when the Customs Service was established by the First Congress. Some of them are regulations carried over from pre-Revoluntary days when the British Crown provided an independent check on colonial customs revenues through its naval officers. These procedures have been reviewed by the Bureau of the Budget, the General Accounting Office, and the Treasury Department under the Government's joint-accounting program. The abolitions contained in this reorganization plan are based, in part, on that study. They will permit the Secretary of the Treasury to utilize fully in the Bureau of Customs the authority given to him by the Congress in the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950. • This reorganization plan will ultimately produce economies. There will be some savings in salaries resulting from the abolition of offices. There will also be savings resulting primarily from modernized fiscal controls. These latter savings will be realized only after the accounting reforms have become fully effective. It is expected that within a few years the annual savings, based upon present enforcement levels, business volume, and salary scales will aggregate at least $300,000.

After investigation I have found and hereby declare that each reorganization included in Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1952 is necessary to accomplish one or

more of the purposes set forth in section 2 (a) of the Reorganization Act of 1949. • It should be emphasized that abolition by Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1952 of the offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise will in no way prejudice any right or potential right of any person paying duties or imposts. The abolition of offices by Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1952 will not abolish any rights, privileges, powers, duties, immunities, liabilities, obligations, or other attributes of those officers except as they relate to matters of appointment, tenure, and compensation inconsistent with that reorganization plan. Under the Reorganization Act of 1949 all of these attributes of office will attach, as may be appropriate, to personnel of the Department of the Treasury to whom the Secretary of the Treasury delegates the functions formerly vested in the abolished offices.

I have found and hereby declare that it is necessary to include in the accompanying Reorganization Plan No. 3, by reason of reorganizations made thereby, provision for the appointment and compensation of officers specified therein. The rates of compensation for these officers are not in excess of those which I have found to prevail in respect to comparable officers in the executive branch.

For the purpose of the requirements of the last sentence of section 3 of the Reorganization Act of 1949, with respect to specifying in the transmittal message of the President the statutory authority for the exercise of functions abolished by a reorganization plan, the statutory citations set forth in section 3 of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1952 are hereby incorporated in this message by reference and shall be deemed to be a part hereof as fully as if set forth at length in this message,

This reorganization plan will permit a needed modernization of the organization and procedure of the Bureau of Customs. It will permit a more effective administration of the customs laws.

I urge the Congress to permit Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1952 to become effective.

HARRY S. TRUMAN. THE WHITE HOUSE, April 10, 1952.

REORGANIZATION PLAN No. 3 OF 1952

(Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives

in Congress assembled, April 10, 1952, pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1949, approved June 20, 1949)

BUREAU OF CUSTOMS SECTION 1. Abolition of existing offices.-All offices in the Bureau of Customs of the Treasury Department of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise to which appointments are required to be made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, are abolished. Except as to the functions abolished by this plan, the functions of the said offices shall be assigned to such civil-service positions as the Secretary of the Treasury may specify. The Secretary of the Treasury shall make such provisions as he shall deem necessary respecting the winding up of the affairs of any officer whose office is abolished by the provisions of this section.

SEC. 2. Establishment of new offices.-There are established in the Bureau of Customs so many new offices not in excess of twenty existing at any one time, with such title or titles, as the Secretary of the Treasury shall from time to time determine. Each officer provided for in this section shall be appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury under the classified civil service and shall receive compensation which shall be fixed from time to time pursuant to the classification laws, as now or hereafter amended, except that the compensation may be fixed without regard to the numerical limitations on positions set forth in section 505 of the Classification Act of 1949, as amended (5 U. S. C. 1105).

Sec. 3. Abolition of functions.-(a) There are hereby abolished the following functions, all of which were transferred to the Secretary of the Treasury by Reorganization Plan No. 26 of 1950 :

(1) The functions prescribed for the collector of customs, the comptroller of customs, the surveyor of customs, and the appraiser of merchandise by

section 3 of the Act of March 4, 1923, chapter 251, 42 Statutes 1453 (19 . U. S. C. 7);

. (2) The functions prescribed for the assistant collector of customs, the assistant comptroller of customs, the assistant surveyor of customs, and the

chief assistant appraiser of merchandise by section 2629 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (19 U. S. C. 8);

(3) The functions prescribed for the surveyor of customs by section 2627 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (19 U. S. C. 40);

(4) The functions prescribed for the appraiser of merchandise by section 2944 of the Revised Statutes (19 U. S. C. 56);

(5) The functions prescribed for the collector of customs and the surveyor of customs by section 2648 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (19 U. S. C. 57);

(6) The functions prescribed for the collector of customs, the comptroller of customs, the surveyor of customs, and the appraiser of merchandise by the Act of December 18, 1890, chapter 22, 26 Statutes 690, as amended (19 U. S. C. 62);

(7) The functions prescribed for the comptroller of customs by sections 2621 and 2626 of the Revised Statutes and sections 439, 440, and 523 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U. S. C. 33, 39, 1439, 1440, 1523);

(8) The functions prescribed for the collector of customs, the comptroller of customs, and the surveyor of customs by sections 2635, 2639, 2640, 2641, 2613, and 2647 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (19 U. S. C. 59, 42, 43, 44, 45, 55);

(9) The functions prescribed for the comptroller of customs and the surveyor of customs by section 3650 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (31 U. S. C. 549); and

(10) The functions prescribed for the collector of customs by sections 2621, 2622, and 2623 of the Revised Statutes, as amended (19 U. S. C.

33, 34, 35). (b) The abolition of functions by subsection (a) of this section shall not be construed as

(1) Modifying requirements of laws not specified herein which contain requirements substatnially identical with, or similar to, any of those contained in statutes enumerated in this section;

(2) Precluding the Secretary of the Treasury from exercising his existing authority to require any officer or employee of the Customs Service to perform functions of the types which are hereby abolished; or

(3) Authorizing or permitting any officer or agency outside the Department of the Treasury to perform any function now vested by law in the

Secretary of the Treasury. SEC 4. Effective dates.-(a) With respect to offices having a specified statu. tory term of office the provisions of section 1 of this reorganization plan shall become effective as follows: (1) In the case of each office in which there is no incumbent on the date determined under section 6 (a) of the Reorganization Act of 1949, or in which the incumbent is then holding over atfer the expiration of his term of office, the effective date shall be such date as the Secretary of the Treasury shall specify, but in no event later than January 1, 1953; and (2) in the case of each office in which an incumbent is, on the date determined under the said section 6 (a), serving under an appointment for a specified term of office which has not expired, the effective date shall be the date on which the term of office expires, or any earlier date on which the office becomes vacant.

(b) In the case of any office not having a specified statutory term of office, the effective date of the provisions of section 1 of this reorganization plan shall be such date as the Secretary of the Treasury shall specify, but in any event before January 1, 1953.

(c) The provisions of sections 2 and 3 of this reorganization plan shall become effective on the date determined under section 6 (a) of the Reorganization Act of 1949.

[H. Doc. No. 427, 82d Cong., 2d sess.] MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, TRANSMITTING REORGAN

IZATION PLAN No. 4, OF 1952, PREPARED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REORGANIZA-
TION ACT OF 1949 AND PROVIDING FOR THE REORGANIZATIONS IN THE DEPARTMENT

OF JUSTICE
To the Congress of the United States:

I transmit herewith Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1952, prepared in accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949 and providing for reorganizations in the Department of Justice. My reasons for transmitting this plan are stated in another message transmitted to the Congress today.

This reorganization plan vests authority in the Attorney General to appoint United States marshals under the classified civil service. This is accomplished by abolishing 94 existing offices of marshal, and by creating 94 successor offices of United States marshal to which the Attorney General will make appointments under the classified civil service.

I have made provisions to outhorize incumbent marshals to serve out their present terms of office. Under the authority of section 6 of the Reorganization Act of 1949 this reorganization plan will become effective gradually.

The abolition of offices by Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1952 will not abolish any rights, privileges, powers, duties, immunities, liabilities, obligations, or other attributes of those offices except as they relate to matters of appointment, tenure, and compensation inconsistent with that reorganization plan. Under the Reorganization Act of 1949, all of these attributes of office will attach to the new offices of United States marshal, either automatically or upon the occurrence of an appropriate delegation of functions to such new offices by the Attorney General. For example, the statutory provisions requiring the marshals to be bonded (28 U. S. C., 544) will attach to the successor offices of United States marshal created by Reorganization Plan 4 of 1952.

After investigation I have found and hereby declare that each reorganization included in Reorganization Plan 4 of 1952 is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in section 2 (a) of the Reorganization Act of 1949.

I have found and hereby declare that it is necessary to include in the accompanying reorganization plan, by reason of reorganizations made thereby, provisions for the appointment and compensation of offices specified therein. The rates of compensation fixed for these officers are not in excess of those which I have found to prevail in respect of comparable officers in the executive branch.

Immediate and substantial economies are not expected from this reorganization plan since it is designed primarily to serve other purposes of the Reorganization Act of 1949. Therefore, no itemization of the probable reduction of expenditures to be achieved by this plan is included in this message of transmittal.

Reorganization Plan No. 4 provides for increased administrative accountability in an important department of the executive branch by giving the Attorney General needed authority to appoint under the merit system a group of subordinates for whose performance he is already held responsible. It carries forward an objective partially realized in 1941 when the deputy marshals were brought into the classified civil service under the terms of the Ramspeck Act of 1940. It places the determination of the qualifications and the selection of a group of non-policy-making field officers of the Department of Justice on a systematic, merit basis.

I urge the Congress to permit Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1952 to become effective.

HARRY S. TRUMAN. THE WHITE HOUSE, April 10, 1952.

REORGANIZATION PLAN No. 4 OF 1952

(Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representa

tives in Congress assembled, April 10. 1952, pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1949, approved June 20, 1949)

UNITED STATES MARSHALS SECTION 1. Abolition of existing offices.—All offices of United States marshal for the judicial districts defined in title 28, United States Code, chapter 5, the four offices of United States marshal for the District of Alaska, the offices of United States marshal for Guam, the office of marshal of the District of the Canal Zone, and the office of marshal for the Virgin Islands are abolished. The Attorney General shall make such provisions as he shall deem necessary respecting the winding up of the affairs of the said marshals.

SEC. 2. Establishment of new offices.—New offices, each of which shall have the title “United States Marshal,” are established in the Department of Justice as follows: One for each of the said judicial districts, one for each of the four divisions of Alaska, one for Guam, one for the Canal Zone, and one for the Virgin Islands. Each United States marshal provided for in this section shall be appointed by the Attorney General under the classified civil service and shall receive compensation which shall be fixed from time to time pursuant to the classification laws as now or hereafter amended.

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