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occasions, it happened to be Cædmon's turn to keep Then spake he words :
of the hot hell,
hath decreed which are said to have been as follows:
to people it
with mankind. Nu we sceolan herian* Now we shall praise
That is to me of sorrows the greatest, heofon-ríces weard, the guardian of heaven,
that Adam, metodes mihte, the might of the creator,
who was wrought of earth, and his mod-ge-thonc, and his counsel,
possess wera wuldor fæder ! the glory-father of men !
my strong seat; swa he wundra ge-hwæs, how he of all wonders,
that it shall be to him in delight, ece dryhten, the eternal lord,
and we endure this torment, oord onstealde. formed the beginning.
misery in this hell. He ærest ge-scéop He first created
Oh ! had I the power of my hands * * ylda bearnum for the children of men
then with this host Iheofon to hrófe, heaven as a roof,
But around me lie halig scyppend ! the holy creator !
iron bonds ; tha middan-geard then the world
presseth this cord of chain ; mon-cynnes weard, the guardian of mankind,
I am powerless ! ece dryhten, the eternal lord,
me have so hard æfter teode,
produced afterwards, firum foldan, the earth for men,
the clasps of hell
so firmly grasped ! frea ælmihtig ! the almighty master !
Here is a vast fire Cædmon then awoke; and he was not only able to
above and underneath ; repeat the lines which he had made in his sleep, but
never did I see he continued them in a strain of admirable versifica
a loathlier landskip ; tion. In the morning, he hastened to the town
the flame abateth not,
hot over hell. reeve, or bailiff, of Whitby, who carried him before the Abbess Hilda; and there, in the presence of
Me hath the clasping of these rings, some of the learned men of the place, he told his
this hard polished band, story, and they were all of opinion that he had re
impeded in my course,
debarred me from my way. ceived the gift of song from heaven. They then expounded to him in his mother tongue a portion
My feet are bound, of Scripture, which he was required to repeat in
my hands manacled ;
of these hell doors are verse. Cædmon went home with his task, and the next morning he produced a poem which excelled
the ways obstructed ;
so that with aught I cannot in beauty all that they were accustomed to hear.
from these linnb-bonds escape. He afterwards yielded to the earnest solicitations of
About me lie the Abbess Hilda, and became a monk of her house ; and she ordered him to transfer into verse the whole
of hard iron, of the sacred history. We are told that he was con
forged with heat, tinually occupied in repeating to himself what he
with which me God heard, and, “ like a clean animal, ruminating it, he
hath fastened by the neck. turned it into most sweet verse."' + Cædmon thus
Thus perceive I that he knoweth my mind, composed many poems on the Bible histories, and
and that he knew also, on miscellaneous religious subjects, and some of
the Lord of hosts, these have been preserved. His account of the Fall
that should us through Adam of Man is somewhat like that given in Paradise Lost,
evil befall, and one passage in it might almost be supposed to
about the realm of heaven, have been the foundation of a corresponding one in
where I had power of my hands.'* Milton's sublime epic. It is that in which Satan is described as reviving from the consternation of his The specimen of Cædmon above given in the overthrow. A modern translation into English fol- original language may serve as a general one of lows:
Anglo-Saxon poetry. It will be observed that it is
neither in measured feet, like Latin verse, nor [Satan's Speech.]
rhymed, but that the sole peculiarity which distinBoiled within him
guishes it from prose is what Mr Wright calls a very his thought about his heart;
regular alliteration, so arranged, that in every couplet Hot was without him
there should be two principal words in the line behis dire punishment.
ginning with the same letter, which letter must also
be the initial of the first word on which the stress * In our specimens of the Anglo-Saxon, mod
of the voice falls in the second line. substituted for those peculiar characters employed in that lan
A few names of inferior note-Aldhelm, abbot of guage to express th, dh, and w. | Wright.
* Thorpe's edition of Cædmon, 1832.
Malmsbury, Ceolfrid, abbot of Wearmouth, and Felix fram eallum synnum with-innan, dheah dhe hit withof Croyland—bring down the list of Anglo-Saxon from all sins inwardly, though he outwriters to BEDE, usually called the Venerable Bede, utan his hiw ne awende. Eac swylce tha halige who may be allowed to stand at the head of the class. I wardly his shape not change. Even the holy He seems to have spent a modest studious life, unche-fant wæter, dhe is ge-haten lifes wyl-spring, is ge-lic quered by incident of any kind, at the monastery of font water, which is called life's fountain, is like
Wearmouth, where on hiwe odhrum wæterum, & is under dheod bros-
dhæs halgan gastes mint ing of Scriptural ruption; but the Holy Ghost's might translations and ge-nealacth tham brosnigendlicum wætere, dhurh commentaries, reli
(to) the corruptible water through gious treatises, bio- sacerda bletsunge, & , hit mæg sythan graphies, and an (the) priests' blessing, and it
may afterwards ecclesiastical his- lichaman & sawle athwean fram eallum synnum, tory of the Anglo- body and soul wash from all sin, Saxons, which is dhurh gastlice mihte. the only one useful through ghostly might. in the present age, were forty-four in Cynewulf, bishop of Winchester, Wulfstan, archnumber; and it is bishop of York, and some others, bring down the list related that he dic-of Anglo-Saxon authors to the Conquest, giving to tated to his amanu- this portion of our literature a duration of nearly five ensis, and com- hundred years, or about the space between Chaucer
pleted a book, on and our own day. During this time, there were many Chair of Bede.
the very day of his seats of learning in England, many writers, and many death. Almost all the writings of these men were in books; although, in the main, these have now become Latin, which renders it less necessary to speak parti- matter of curiosity to the antiquary only. The literacularly of them in this place. Our subsequent lite- ture may be said to have had a kind of protracted rary history is formed of comparatively obscure existence till the breaking up of the language in the names, until it presents to us thie enlightened and latter part of the twelfth century; but it was graced amiable King ALFRED (848-901).* in whom learning by no names of distinction. We are here called upon and authorship graced the royal state, without in- to advert to the historical production usually called terfering with its proper duties. He translated the the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which consists of a view historical works of Orosius' and Bede, and some reli- of early English history, written, it is believed, by a gious and moral treatises, perhaps also Æsop's Fables series of authors, commencing soon after the time of and the Psalms of David, into the Anglo-Saxon tongue, Alfred, and continued till the reign of Henry II. designing thereby to extend their utility among his Altogether, considering the general state of Western people. No original compositions certainly his have Europe in the middle ages, the literature of our been preserved, excepting the reflections of his own, Anglo-Saxon forefathers may be regarded as a which he takes leave here and there to introduce creditable feature of our national history, and as into his translations. The character of this monarch, something of which we might justly be proud, if we embracing so much gentleness, along with manly did not allow ourselves to remain in such ignorance vigour and dignity, and displaying pure tastes, cal of it. culated to be beneficial to others as well as himself, seems as if it would have graced the most civilised
INTRODUCTION OF NORMAN FRENCH. age nearly as much as it did one of the rudest. The Conquest, by which a Norman government and
After Alfred, the next important name is that of nobility were imposed upon Saxon England, led to a ALFRIC, archbishop of Canterbury, who died in 1006. great change in the language. Norman French, one This learned prelate was a voluminous writer, and, of the modifications of Latin which arose in the like Alfred, entertained a strong wish to enlighten the middle ages, was now the language of education, of people ; he wrote much in his native tongue, particu- the law courts, and of the upper classes generally, larly a collection of homilies, a translation of the first while Saxon shared the degradation which the seven books of the Bible, and some religious treatises. people at large experienced under their conquerors. He was also the author of a grammar of the Latin Though depressed, yet, as the speech of the great tongue, which has given him the sub-name of the body of the people, it could not be extinguished. Grammarian.' Alfric himself declares that he wrote Having numbers on its side, it maintained its ground in Anglo-Saxon, and in that avoided the use of all as the substance of the popular language, the Norman obscure words, in order that he might be understood infusing only about one word for every three of the by unlettered people. As he was really successful in more vulgar tongue. But it was destined, in the writing simply, we select a specimen of Anglo-Saxon course of the twelfth century, to undergo great prose from his Paschal homily, adding an interlinear grammatical changes. Its sounds were greatly translation:
altered, syllables were cut short in the pronunciation, Hæthen cild bith ge-fullod, ac hit ne bræt na and the terminations and inflections of words were
(A) heathen child is christened, yet he altereth not softened down until they were entirely lost. Dr his hiw with-utan, dheah dhe hit beo with-innan Johnson expresses his opinion, that the Normans his shape without, though he be within
affected the Anglo-Saxon more in this manner than awend. Hit bith ge-broht synfull dhurh Adames by the introduction of new words. So great was changed. He is brought sinful through Adam's the change, that the original Anglo-Saxon must forgægednysse to tham fant fate. Ac hit bith athwogen have become, in the first half of the thirteenth disobedience to the font-vessel. But he is washed
century, more difficult to be understood than the
diction of Chaucer is to us. The language which * Where double dates are thus given, it will be understood resulted was the commencement of the present Engthat the first is the year of the birth, and the second the year lish. Its origin will afterwards be traced more of the death, of the individual mentioned.
THE NORMAN POETS OF ENGLAND.
COMMENCEMENT OF THE PRESENT FORM OF ENGLISH.
torical kind relating to England, and communicated
them to Geoffrey, by whom they were put into the The first literary productions which call for at form of a regular historical work, and introduced tention after the Conquest, are a class which may for the first time to the learned world, as far as a be considered as in a great measure foreign to the learned world then existed. As little else than a country and its language. Before the invasion of bundle of incredible stories, some of which may be England by William, poetical literature had begun slightly founded on fact, this production is of small to be cultivated in France with considerable marks worth ; bd it supplied a ground for Wace's poem, of spirit and taste. The language, which from its and proved an unfailing resource for the writers of origin was named Romane (lingua Romana),* was romantic narrative for the ensuing two centuries ; separated into two great divisions, that of the south, nor even in a later age was its influence exhausted; which is represented popularly by the Provençal, for from it Shakspeare drew the story of Lear, and and that of the north, which was subdivided into Sackville that of Ferrex and Porrex, while Drayton French
and Anglo-Norman, the latter dialect being reproduces much of it in his Polyolbion, and it has that chiefly confined to our island. The poets of given occasion to many allusions in the poems of the south were called in their dialect trobadores, or Milton and others.* troubadours, and those of the north were distinguished Maistre Wace also composed a History of the Nor. by the same title, written in their language trouveres. mans, under the title of the Roman de Rou, that is, In Provence, there arose a series of elegant versifiers, the Romance of Rollo, first Duke of Normandy, who employed their talents in composing romantic and some other works. Henry II., from admiration and complimentary poems, full of warlike and ama- of his writings, bestowed upon him a canonry in the tory sentiment, which many of them made a busi- cathedral of Bayeux. Benoit, a contemporary of ness of reciting before assemblages of the great. Wace, and author of a History of the Dukes of NorNorman poets, writing with more plainness and sim- mandy; and Guernes, an ecclesiastic of Pont St plicity, were celebrated even before those of Pro- Maxence, in Picardy, who wrote a metrical life of vence; and one, named Taillefer, was the first man Thomas à Becket, are the other two Norman poets of to break the English ranks at the battle of Hastings. most eminence whose genius or whose writings can From the preference of the Norman kings of Eng- be connected with the history of English literature. land for the poets of their own country, and the These writers composed most frequently in rhymed general depression of Anglo-Saxon, it results that couplets, each line containing eight syllables.f the distinguished literary names of the first two centuries after the Conquest are those of NORMAN Poets, men who were as frequently natives of Of the century following the Conquest, the only France as of England. Philippe de Thaun, author other compositions that have come down to us as of treatises on popular science in verse; Thorold, the production of individuals living in, or connected who wrote the fine romance of Roland; Samson
* Ellis's Metrical Romances. de Nanteuil, who translated the proverbs of Solo
+ Ellis's Specimens, i., 35-59. A short passage from Wace's mon into French verse; Geoffroi Gaimar, author of a chronicle of the Anglo-Saxon kings ; and David, place at King Arthur's coronation, will give an idea of the
description of the ceremonies and sports presumed to have taken a trouveere of considerable eminence, whose works writings of the Norman poets. It is extracted from Mr Elliss are lost, were the most noted predecessors of one of work, with his notes :much greater celebrity, named Maistre Wace, a
• Quant li roi- leva del mangier, native of Jersey. About 1160, Wace wrote, in his
Alé sunt tuit esbanoier, native French, a narrative poem entitled Le Brut
De la cité es chainps issirent; D'Angleterre (Brutus of England). The chief hero
A plusors gieux se despartirent. was an imaginary son of Æneas of Troy, who was
Li uns alerent bohorder, represented as having founded the state of Britain
Et les ineaux chevalx monstrer: many centuries before the Christian era.
Li autre alerent escremir, no creation of the fancy of the Norman poet. He
Ou pierres getier, ou saillir. only translated a serious history, written a few years
Tielx i avoit qui dars lancoent,
Et tielx i avoit qui lutoent; before in Latin by a monk named GEOFFREY OF Mon
Chascun del gieu s'entremetoit, MOUTH, in which the affairs of Britain were traced
Qui entremetre se savoit. with all possible gravity through a series of ima
Cil qui son compaignon vainquoit, ginary kings, beginning with Brutus of Troy, and
Et qui d'aucun gieu pris avoit, ending with Cadwallader, who was said to have
Estoit sempres au roi mené, lived in the year 689 of the Christian era.
Et à tous les autres monstré; This history is a very remarkable work, on account
Et li rois del sien li donoit, of its origin, and its effects on subsequent literature.
Tant donc cil liez s'en aloit. The Britons, settled in Wales, Cornwall, and Bre
Les dames sor les murs aloent, tagne, were distinguished at this time on account of
Por esgarder ceulx qui joient. the numberless fanciful and fabulous legends which
Qui ami avoit en la place,
Tost li tornost l'oil ou la face. they possessed -a traditionary kind of literature
Trois jorz dura la feiste ainsi ; resembling that which has since been found amongst
Quand vint au quart, au meroreli, the kindred people of the Scottish Highlands. For
Li rois les bacheliers fieufa5 centuries past, Europe had been supplied with tale
Enors deliverez devisa,6 and fable from the teeming fountain of Bretagne, as
Lor servise a celx rendi, it now is with music from Italy, and metaphysics
Qui por terre l'orent servi: from Germany. Walter Calenius, archdean of Ox
Bois dona, et chasteleriez, ford, collected some of these of a professedly his
Et evesquiez, et abbaiez.
A ceulx qui d'autres terres estoient, * Any book written in this tongue was cited as the livre
Dona coupes, Romans (liber Romanus), and most frequently as simply the
Qui par amor au roi venoent,
Dona de ses avers plus chors. &c.' Romans: as a great portion of these were works of fiction, the term has since given rise to the word now in general vse, 1 To amuse themselves. ? To just. 8 Fleet (isnel). To leap
* Fiepa, gave fiefs. 6 He gave them livries of lands.
yith, England, are works written in Latin by learned
On this yær wærd the King Stephen ded, and of the History of England just alluded to, which is bebyried there his wif and his sune
wäron bebyried æt supposed to have been written about the year 1138. king was ded, tha was the corl beionde sæ.
Tauresfeld. That ministre hi makiden. T'ha the About 1154, according to Dr Johnson, the Saxon durste nan man don other bute god for the micel eie began to take a form in which the beginning of the of him. Tha he to Engleland come, tha was he underpresent English may plainly be discovered.' does not, as already hinted, contain many Norman | fangen mid micel wortscipe ; and to king bletcæd in
Lundine, on the Sunnen dæi beforen mid-winter-dæi. words, but its grammatical structure is considerably altered. There is a metrical Saxon or English trans
Literally translated thus : A. D. 1154. In this year lation, by one LAYAMON, a priest of Ernely, on the wife and his son were buried, at Touresfield. That
was the King Stephen dead, and buried where his Severn, from the Brut d'Angleterre of Wace. Its date
minister they made. is not ascertained; but if it be, as surmised by some
When the king was dead, then
was the earl beyond sea. And not durst no man do writers, a composition of the latter part of the
twelfth other but
good for the great awe of him. When he century, we must consider it as throwing a valuable to England came, then was he received with great light on the history of our language at perhaps the worship; and to king consecrated in London, on the most important period of its existence. A specimen, Sunday before mid-winter-day (Christmas day).' in which the passage already given from Wace is translated, is presented in the sequel. With reference to a larger extract given by Mr Ellis, of which [Extract from the account of the Proceedings at Arthur's the other is a portion, that gentleman remarks — As
Coronation, given by Layamon, in his translation of it does not contain any word which we are under the
Wace, executed about 1180.) * necessity of referring to a French origin, we cannot
Tha the kingt igeten? hafde but consider it as simple and unmixed, though very
And al his mon-weorede, 2 barbarous, Saxon. At the same time,' he continues,
Tha bugan3 out of burhge *the orthography of this manuscript, in which we see,
Theines swithen balde. for the first time, the admission of the soft g, toge
Alle tha kinges, ther with the Saxong, as well as some other peculiari
And heore here-thringes.* ties, seems to prove that the pronunciation of our lan
Alle tha biscopes, guage had already undergone a considerable change.
And alle tha clarckes, Indeed, the whole style of this composition, which
Alle the eorles, is broken into a series of short unconnected sentences,
And alle tha beornes, and in which the construction is as plain and artless
Alle tha theines, as possible, and perfectly free from inversions, ap
Alle the sweines, pears to indicate that little more than the substitu
Peire iscrudde, 5 tion of a few French for the present Saxon words
Helde geond felde.6 was now necessary to produce a resemblance to that
Summe heo gunnen7 cruen, Anglo-Norman, or English, of which we possess a
Summe heo gunnen urnen, few specimens, supposed to have been written in the
Summe heo gunnen lepen, early part of the thirteenth century. Layamon's
Summe heo gunnen sceoten, 10 versification is also no less remarkable than his lan
Summe heo wrestleden guage. Sometimes he seems anxious to imitate the
And wither-gome makeden, 11 rhymes, and to adopt the regular number of syllables,
Summe heo on velde which he had observed in his original ; at other
Pleouweden under scelde,12 times he disregards both, either because he did not
Summe heo driven balles consider the laws of metre, or the consonance of
Wide geond the feldes. final sounds, as essential to the gratification of his
Moni ane kunnes gomen readers; or because he was unable to adapt them
Ther heo gunnen drinen.13 throughout so long a work, from the want of models
And wha swa mihte iwenne in his native language on which to form his style.
Wurthscipe of his gomene, The latter is perhaps the most probable supposition ;
Hine mel5 ladde mide songe but, at all events, it is apparent that the recurrence
At foren than leod kinge ; of his rhymes is much too frequent to be the result
And the king, for his gomene, of chance ; so that, upon the whole, it seems reason
Gaf him gevenl6 gode. able to infer, that Layamon's work was composed at, or very near, the period when the Saxons and Nor
* The notes are by Mr Ellis, with corrections. mans in this country began to unite into one nation,
| The original of this passage, by Wace, is given in an earlier and to adopt a common language.'
2 Multitude of attendants. Sar. SPECIMENS OF ANGLO-SAXON AND ENGLISH
3 Fled.--Then fled out of the town the people very quickly. PREVIOUS To 1300.
4 Their throngs of servants. 5 Fairly dressed. We have already seen short specimens of the 6 Held (their way) through the fields.
8 To discharge arrows.
To run. Anglo-Saxon prose and verse of the period prior to
10 To shoot or throw darts. the Conquest. Perhaps the best means of making clear the transition of the language into its present
11 Made, or played at, wilher-games, Sax. (games of emula
tion), that is, justed. form, is to present a continuation of these specimens,
19 Some they on field played under shield ; that is, fought extending between the time of the Conquest and the
with swords. reign of Edward I. It is not to be expected that
13 • Many a kind of game there they gan urge.' Dringen these specimens will be of much use to the reader, on (Dutch), is to urge, press, or drive. account of the ideas which they convey ; but, con- 14 And whoso might win worship by his gaming. sidered merely as objects, or as pictures, they will 15 · Him they led with song before the people's king.' Me, not be without their effect in illustrating the history a word synonymous with the French on. of our literature.
16 Gave him givings, gifts.
Alle tha quenel
which he occasionally diversifies the thread of his The icumen weoren there,
story, are, in general, appropriate and dramatic, And alle tha lafdies,
and not only prove his good sense, but exhibit no Leoneden geond walles,
unfavourable specimens of his eloquence. In his To bihalden tha duge then,
description of the first crusade, he seems to change And that folc plæie.
his usual character, and becomes not only enterThis iloste threo dæges, 2
taining, but even animated.'* Sưule gomes and swulc pleeghs,
Of the language of Robert's Chronicle, the follow-
ing is a specimen, in its original spelling :-
Engelond ys a wel god lond, ich wene of eche lond
Y-set in the ende of the world, as al in the west.
The see goth hym al about, he stont as an yle.
Here fon heo durre the lasse doute, but hit be thorw
Of folc of the selve lond, as me hath y-seye wyle. (Ertract from a Charter of Henry III., A. D. 1258, in From south to north he ys long eighte hondred myle. the common language of the time.)
This is, of course, nearly unintelligible to all except Henry, thurg Godes fultome, King on Engleneloande, antiquarian readers, and it is therefore judged proLhoaverd on Yrloand, Duk on Norman, on Acquitain, per, in other specimens, to adopt, as far as possible, Earl on Anjou, send' I greting, to alle hise' holde, a modern orthography. ilærde and ilewede on Huntindonnschiere. Thæt witen ge wel alle, thạt we willen and unnen, thæt ure
[The Muster for the First Crusade.) rædesmen alle other the moare del of heom, that beoth A good pope was thilk time at Rome, that hecht! ichosen tburg us and thurg thæt loandes-folk on ure Urban, kineriche, habbithidon, and schullen don in the That preached of the creyserie, and creysed mony man. wortbnes of God, and ure treowthe, for the freme of Therefore he send preachers thorough all Christendom, the loande, thurg the besigte of than toforen iseide And himself a-this-side the mounts2 and to France rædesmen, &c.
Literal translation :— *Henry, through God's sup. And preached so fast, and with so great wisdom, port, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Nor- That about in each lond the cross fast me nome.3 mandy, of Acquitain, Earl of Anjou, sends greeting in the year of grace a thousand and sixteen, to all his subjects, learned and unlearned, of Hunting- This great crevserie began, that long was i-seen. donshire. This know ye well all, that we will and Of so much folk nymet the cross, ne to the holy land go, grant, what our counsellors all, or the more part of Me ne see no time before, ne suth nathemo.5 them, that be chosen through us and through the For self women ne beleved,6 that they ne wend thither land-folk of our kingdom, have done, and shall do, to fast, the honour of God, and our allegiance, for the good of Ne young folk [that] feeble were, the while the voythe land, through the determination of the before- age y-last. said counsellors,' &c.
So that Robert Curthose thitherward his heart cast,
the last. Layamon may be regarded as the first of a series He wends here to Englond for the creyserie, of writers who, about the end of the thirteenth cen- And laid William his brother to wedi Normandy, tury, began to be conspicuous in our literary history, And borrowed of him thereon an hundred thousand which usually recognises them under the general mark, appellation of the RHYMING CHRONICLERS. The To wend with to the holy lond, and that was somefirst, at a considerable interval after Layamon, was
deal stark. a monk of Gloucester Abbey, usually called from The Earl Robert of Flanders mid8 him wend also, that circumstance Robert OF GLOUCESTER, and And Eustace Earl of Boulogne, and mony good knight who lived during the reigns of Henry III. and Ed.
thereto. ward I. He wrote, in long rhymed lines (Alexan- There wend the Duke Geoffrey, and the Earl Baldwin drines), a history of England from the imaginary
there, Brutus to his own time, using chiefly as his autho- And the other Baldwin also, that noble men were, rity the Latin history by Geoffrey of Monmouth, of And kings syth all threc of the holy lond. which Wace and Layamon had already given Nor- The Earl Stephen de Blois wend eke, that great power man French and Saxon versions.* The work is
had on hond, described by Mr Warton as destitute of art and And Robert's sister Curthose espoused had to wive. imagination, and giving to the fabulous history, in There wend yet other knights, the best that were alive; many parts, a less poetical air than it bears in As the Earl of St Giles, the good Raymond, Geoffrey's prose. The language is full of Saxon pe.
And Niel the king's brother of France, and the Earl culiarities, which might partly be the result of his
Beaumond, living in so remote a province as Gloucestershire. And Tancred his nephew, and the bishop also Another critic acknowledges that, though cold and of Podys, and Sir Hugh the great earl thereto ; prosaic, Robert is not deficient in the valuable talent and folk also without
tale,9 of all this west end of arresting the attention. • The orations with of Englond and of France, thitherward gan wend, 1. All the queens who were come to the festival, and all the Of Wales and of Ireland, of Gascony and of Spain,
Of Normandy, of Denmark, of Norway, of Britain, ladies, leaned over the walls to behold the nobles there, and
Of Provence and of Saxony, and of Alemain, that folk play.' 2 This lasted three days, such games and such plays.
Of Scotlond and of Greece, of Rome and Aquitain. * * 8 Then, on the fourth day, the king went to council? • And gave his good knights all their rights or rewards.
THE RHYMING CHRONICLERS.
2 Passed the mountains-namely, the Alps.
3 Was quickly taken up. * Rubert's Chronicle, from a particular allusion, is supposed & Even women did not remain. 7Towed, in pledge, in pawn to have been written, at least in part, after 1297.
9 Beyond reckoning.
6 He satisfied.
5 Since never more.