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Then flew thir birdis o'er the boughis sheen,
Singing of love amang the leavis small;
Whose eidant plead yet made my thoughtis grein,"
Both sleeping, waking, in rest and in travail :
Me to recointort most it does avail,
Again for love, when love I can find none,
To think how sung this Merle and Nightingale ;
All love is lost but upon God alone.

Next in the Dance followed Envy,
Filled full of feid and felony,

llid malice and despite : For privy hatred that traitor trembled ; Him followed mony freikt dissembled,

With feigned wordis white :
And flatterers into men's faces ;
And backbiters in secret places,

To lee that had delight;
And rouners of fals lesings,
Alas! that courts of noble kings,

Of them can never be quit.

The Dance. *

Of Februar the fifteenth nicht,
Full lang before the dayis licht,

I lay intill a trance ;
And then I saw baith heaven and hell :
Methocht amangs the fiendis fell,

Mahoun' gart cry ane Dance Of shrewis that were never shriven,3 Agains the fast of Fastern's Even,

To mak their observance He bade gallands gac graith a guise,5 And cast up gamonds in the skies,

As varlots does in France.

Heillie 7 harlots, haughten-wise, 8
Came in with mony sundry guise,

But yet leuch never Mahoun ;
While preests came in with bare shaven necks,
Then all the fiends leuch and made gecks,

Black-belly and Bausy-broun.

Next him in Dance came COVETICE,
Root of all evil and grund of vice,

That never could be content:
Caitiffs, wretches, and ockerars,?
Hood-pykes,3 hoarders, and gatherers,

All with that warlock went:
Out of their throats they shot on other
Het molten gold, methought, a fother,4

As fire-tlaught maist fervent ;
Ay as they toomit them of shot,
Fiends filled them new up to the throat

With gold of all kind prent.5
Syne SwEinness, 6 at the second bidding,
Came like a sow out of a midden,

Full sleepy was his gruvie ;? Mony sweir bumbard belly-hudiron, Mony slute daw, and sleepy duddron,

Him servit ay with sunyie. 10
He drew them furth intill a chenyie,
And Belial with a bridle reinvie

Ever lashed them on the lunyie :11
In dance they were sae slaw of feet,
They gave them in the fire a heat,

And made them quicker of counyie.12

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Let see, quoth he, who now begins.
With that the foul Seven Deadly Sins

Begoud to lcap at anes.
And first in all the Dance was PRIDE,
With hair wiled back, and bonnet on side,

Like to mak vaistie wanes ;10 And round about him, as a wheel, Hang all in rumplesll to the heel

Ilis kethat12 for the nanes.13 Mony proud trumpour with him trippit ; Through scaldand fire aye as they skippit,

They grinned with hideous granes. Then IRE came in with sturt and strife; Ilis hand was a ye upon his knife,

He brandished like a bear; Boasters, braggarts, and bargainers, After him, passit in to pairs,

All boden in 'feir of weir,14 In jacks, and scrips, and bonnets of steel ; Their legs were chained down to the heel ;

Froward was their effeir : Some upon other with brands beft, 15 Some jaruit others, to the heft,

Nae menstrals playit to them, but doubt,
For gleemen there were halden out,

By day and eke by nicht ;14
Except a menstral that slew a man,
Sae till his heritage he wan,

And entered by brief of richt.
Then cried Mahoun for a lieland padian :15
Syne ran a fiend to fetch Macfadyan,

Far northward in a nook :
By he the coronach had done shout,
Erschemen so gathered him about,

In hell great room they took :
Thae termagants, with tag and tatter,
Full loud in Ersche begond to clatter,

And roop like raven and rook.

With knives that sharp could shear. 1 Whose close disputation yet moved my thoughts. 9 The Devil.

3 Accursed men, who had never been absolved in the other world.

4 The eve of Lent. 5 Prepare a m.isque.

6 Gambols.

7 Prond. 8 Haughtily: 9 The names of popular spirits in Scotland.

10 Something touching puffed up manners appears to be hinted at in this obscure line.

1 Large folds. 13 For the occasion. 14 Arrayed in the accoutrements of war. 15 Gave blows. * Dunbar is a poet of a high order. * * His Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins, though it would be absurd to compare it with the beauty and refinement of the celebrated Ode on the Passions, has yet an aniinated picturesqueness not unlike that of Collins. The effect of both pieces shows how much more potent allegorical figures become, by being made to fleet suddenly before the imagination, than by being detained in its view by prolonged description. Dunbar conjures up the personified sins, as Collins does the passions, to rise, to strike, to disappear." They come like shadows, so depart." '-Camp.

12 Robe.

9 Usurers. 1 Many contentious persons. 8 Misers.

4 Great quantity: 5 Every coinage. 6 Laziness. 7 Visage. 8 Dirty, lazy tipplers. Slow and sleepy drabs.

10 Excuse.

11 Loins. 19 Circulation, as of coin.

13 Rewari. 14 A compliment, obviously, to the poetical profession. 15 Page:int.

In this stanz. Dunbar satirisc's the outlandish habits and language of the Higirlanders.

BELL.

The Devil sae deavit was with their yell, That in the deepest pot of hell,

lie smoorit them with smook.

Tidings fra the Session. [A conversation between two rustics, designed to satirise the proceedings in the supreme civil law court of Scotland.]

Ane quirland man, of upland mak,
At hame thus to his neighbour spak,
What tidings, gossip, peace or weir ?
The tither rounit in his ear,

I tell you under this confession,
But lately lichtit off my meare,

I coine of Edinburgh fra the Session.
Ilbat tidings heard you there, I pray you u ?
The tother answerit, 1 sall say you :
Keep well this secret. gentle brother;

Is na man there that trusts another :
Ane common doer of transgression,

Of innocent folk prereens a futher ::
Sic tidings heard I at the Session.
Some with his fallow rouns him to please,
That wald for envy bite att his nese ;3
His fa' some by the oxtert leads ;
Some patters with his mouth on beads,

That has his mind all on oppression;
Some becks full law and shaws bare heads,

Wad look full heigh were not the Session.
Some, bydand the law, lays land in wed ;5
Some, super-expended, goes to bed ;
Some speeds, for he in court has means;
Some of partiality compleens,

How feids and favour flemis discretion ;
Some speaks full fair, and falsely feigns :

Sic tidings heard I at the Session.
Some castis summons, and some excepts ;
Some stand beside and skailed law kepps ;
Scmne is continued ; some wins ; some tynes ;
Some maks him merry at the wines ;

Some is put out of his possession ;
Some herried, and on credence dines :

Sic tidings heard I at the Session.
Some swears, and some forsakes God,
Some in ane lamb-skin is ane tod;
Some in his tongue his kindness turses :9
Some cuts throats, and some pykes purses ;

Some goes to gallows with procession ;
Some sains the seat, and some them curses :

Sic tidings heard I at the Session.
Religious men of diverse places
Comes there to woo and see fair faces ;

Some gives for thank, and come for threat;
Some gives money, and some gives meat;

Some givis wordis fair and slie ;
And gifts fra some may na man treit:

In Giving sould Discretion be.
Some is for gift sae lang required,
While that the craver be so tired,

That ere the gift delivered be,
The thank is frustrate and expired :

In Giving sould Discretion be.
Some gives so little full wretchedly,
That all his gifts are not set by,1

And for a lood-pick halden is he,
That all the warld cries on him, Fye!

In Giving sould Discretion be.
Some in his giving is so large,
That all o'er-laden is his barge;

Then vice and prodigalitie.
There of his honour does discharge :

In Giving sould Discretion be.
Some to the rich gives his gear,
That might his giftis weel forbear;

And, though the poor for fault2 sould die,
Ilis cry not enters in his ear:

In Giving sould Discretion be.
Some gives to strangers with faces new,
That yesterday fra Flanders flew ;3

And to auld servants list not see,
Were they never of sae great virtue:

In Giving sould Discretion be.
Some gives to them can ask and pleinyie, 4
Some gives to them can flatter and feignie;

Some gives to men of honestie,
And halds all janglers at disdenyie :

In Giving sould Discretion be.
Some gettis gifts and rich arrays,
To swear all that his master says,

Though all the contrair weel knaws he;
Are mony sic now in thir days:

In Giving sould Discretion be.
Some gives to gude men for their thews;
Some gives to trumpours and to shrews;

Some gives to knaw his authoritie,
But in their office gude fund in few is :

In Giving sould Discretion be.
Some givis parochines full wide,
Kirks of St Bernard and St Bride,

The people to teach and to o'ersee,
Though he nae wit has them to guide :
In Giving sould Discretion be.

Of Discretion in Taking.
After Giving I speak of Taking,
But little of ony gude forsaking ;

Some takes o'er little authoritie,
And some o'er mickle, and that is glaiking :5

In Taking sould Discretion be. The clerks takes benefices with brawls, Some of St Peter and some of St Paul's;

Tak he the rents, no care has he,
Suppose the devil tak all their sauls :

In Taking sould Discretion be.
Barons taks fra the tenants puir
All fruit that growis on the fur,

In mails and gersomsø raisit o'er hie ;
And gars them beg fra door to door :

In Taking sould Discretion be. 1 Appreciated.

And are unmindful of their profession, The younger at the elder leers : Sic tidings heard I at the Session.

Of Discretion in Giving.
To speak of gifts and almos deeds:
Some gives for merit, and some for meeds;

Some, wardly honour to uphie ;
Some gives to them that nothing needs;

In Giving sould Discretion be.
Some gives for pride and glory vain ;
Some gives with grudging and with pain ;

Some gives on prattick for supplie;
Some gives for twice as gude again :

In Giving sould Discretion be. 1 Whispered. ? Is advanced before a great number. 4 Armpit.

9 Starvation. 3 A large proportion of the strangers who visited Scotland at this early period were probably from Flanders. 4 Complain. 5 Foolish. 6 Rents and fines of entry.

5 Pledge. 6 Hostility. 7 Banishes.

9 Carries.

# Nose.

8 Fox.

Some merchands taks unleesomel wine,

pying a prominent place in the history of his counWhilk maks their packs oft time full thin,

try, he died of the plague in London in the year By their succession, as ye may see,

1522. Douglas shines as an allegorical and descripThat ill-won gear 'riches not the kin:

tive poet. He wants the vigorous sense, and also In Taking sould Discretion be.

the graphic force, of Dunbar ; while the latter is Some taks other mennis tacks,2

always close and nervous, Douglas is soft and verAnd on the puir oppression maks,

bose. The genius of Dunbar is so powerful, that And never remeinbers that he maun die,

manner sinks beneath it; that of Douglas is so much Till that the gallows gars him rax :3

matter of culture, that manner is its most striking In Taking sould Discretion be.

peculiarity. This manner is essentially scholarly.

He employs an immense number of words derived Some taks by sea, and some by land,

from the Latin, as yet comparatively a novelty in And never fra taking can halá their hand,

English composition. And even his descriptions of Till he be tyit up to ane tree ;

nature involve many ideas, very beautiful in themAnd syne they gar him understand, In Taking sould Discretion be.

selves, and very beautifully expressed, but inappro

priate to the situation, and obviously introduced Some wald tak all his neighbour's gear ;

merely in accordance with literary fashion. Had he of man as little fear

The principal original composition of Douglas is As he has dread that God him see ;

a long poem, entitled The Palace of Honour. It was To tak then sould he never forbear :

designed as an apologue for the conduct of a king. In Taking sould Discretion be.

and therefore addressed to James IV. The poet Some wald tak all this warld on breid ;4

represents himself as seeing, in a vision, a large And yet not satisfied of their need,

company travelling towards the Palace of Honour. Through heart unsatiable and greedie ; He joins them, and narrates the particulars of the Some wald tak little, and can not speed :

pilgrimage. The well-known Pilgrim's Progress In Taking sould Discretion be.

bears so strong a resemblance to this poem, that Great men for taking and oppression,

Bunyan could scarcely have been ignorant of it. Are set full famous at the Session,

King Hart, the only other long poem of Douglas, And puir takers are hangit hie,

presents a metaphorical view of human life. But Shawit for ever, and their succession :

the most remarkable production of this author was In Taking sould Discretion be.

a translation of Virgil's Æneid into Scottish verse,

which he executed in the year 1513, being the first GAVIN DOUGLAS.

version of a Latin classic into any British tongue. GAVIN DOUGLAS, born about the year 1474, a

It is generally allowed to be a masterly performance, younger son of Archibald, fifth Earl of Angus, was though in too obsolete a language ever to regain its

popularity. The original poems, styled prologues, which the translator affixes to each book, are esteemed amongst his happiest pieces.

[A postrophe to Honour.]

(Original Spelling.)
O hie honour, sweit heuinlie flour digest,
Gem vertcuous, maist precious, gudliest,
For hie honour thou art guerdoun conding,
Of worschip kend the glorious end and rest,
But whome in richt na worthie wicht may lest,
Thy greit puissance may maist auance all thing,
And pouerall to meikall auail sone bring,
I the require sen thow but peir art best,
That eftir this in thy hie blis we ring.

[Minning in May.)
As fresh Arore, to mighty Tithon spouse,
Ished of her saffron bed and ivor house,
In cram'sy clad and grained violate,
With sanguine cape, and selvage purpurate,
Unshett the windows of her large hall,
Spread all with roses, and full of balm royal,
And eke the heavenly portis chrystalline
Unwarps braid, the warld till illumine;
The twinkling streamers of the orient
Shed purpour spraings, with gold and azure ment;5
Fous, the steed, with ruby harness red,
Above the seas liftis furth his head,
Of colour sore, and somedeal brown as berry,
For to alichten and glad our emispery;.
The flame out-bursten at the neisthirls,7
So fast Phaeton with the whip him whirls.

While shortly, with the bleezand torch of day,
Dunkeld Cathedral.

Abulyit in his lemand fresh array,
educated for the church, and rose through a variety of
inferior offices to be bishop of Dunkeld. After occu-

1 Worthy reward.

? Without equal. 8 Issued from.

+ Opened. 1 Unlawful. Leases. 3 Till the gallows stretches him. 5 Purple streaks mingled with gold and azure.

4 In its whole breadth. 5 Get high places in the supreme 6 Yellowish brown.. 7 Nostrils. 8 Glittering. court of law.

* Part of the prulogue to the 12th book of the Æneid.

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*

Furth of his palace royal ishit Phæbus,

So dusty powder upstoursl in every street, With golden crown and visage glorious,

While corby gaspit for the fervent heat. Crisp hairs, bricht as chrysolite or topaz;

Under the bowis bene in lufely vales, For whase hue micht nane behald his face.

Within fermance and parkis close of pales,
The auriate vanes of his throne soverane

The busteous buckis rakis furth on raw,
With glitterand glance o'erspread the oceane;' Herdis of hertis through the thick wood-shaw.
The largé fudes, lemand all of licht,

The young fawns followand the dun daes,
But with ane blink of his supernal sicht.

Kids, skippand through, runnis after raes. For to behald, it was ane glore to see

In leisurs and on legis, little lambs The stabled windis, and the calmed sea,

Full tait and trig socht bletand to their dams. The soft season, the firmament serene,

On salt streams wolk? Dorida and Thetis, The loune illuminate air and firth amene.

By rinnand strandis, Nymphis and Naiadis, And lusty Flora did her bloomis spread

Sic as we clepe wenches and damysels, l'nder the feet of Phoebus' sulyart? steed;

In gersy graves3 wanderand by spring wells ; The swarded soil embrode with selcouth3 hues, Of bloomed branches and flowers white and red, | Wood and forest, obnumbrate with bews.4

Plettand their lusty chaplets for their head. Tuwers, turrets, kiruals, and pinnacles hie,

Some sang ring-songes, dances, leids, and rounds. Of kirks, castles, and ilk fair citie,

With voices shrill, while all the dale resounds. Stude painted, every fane, phiol,6 and stage,7 Whereso they walk into their caroling, (pon the plain ground by their awn umbrage. For amorous lays does all the rockis ring. Of Eolus north blasts havand no dreid,

Ane sang, * The ship sails over the salt faem, The soil spread her braid bosom on-breid;

Will bring the merchants and my leman hame.°5 The corn crops and the beir new-braird

Some other sings, ‘I will be blythe and licht,
With gladsome garment revesting the yerd.8 My heart is lent upon so goodly wicht.'5
The praio besprent with springand sprouts dispers And thoughtful lovers rounish to and fro,
For caller humoursl0 on the dewy nicht

To leis7 their pain, and plein their jolly woe.
Rendering some place the gerse-piles their licht; After their guise, now singand, now in sorrow,
As far as cattle the lang summer's day

With heartis pensive the lang summer's morrow. Had in their pasture eat and nip away;

Some ballads list indite of his lady ; And blissful blossoms in the bloomed yerd,

Some livis in hope ; and some all utterly Submits their heids to the young sun's safeguard. Despairit is, and sae quite out of grace, Iry leaves rank o'erspread the barınkin wall; His purgatory he finds in every place. The bloomed hawthorn clad his pikis all;

Dame Nature's menstrals, on that other part, Furth of fresh bourgeonsll the wine grapes ying12 Their blissful lay intoning every art, Endland the trellis did on twistis hing;

And all small fowlis singis on the spray, The loukit buttons on the gemmed trees

Welcome the lord of licht, and lampe of day, O'erspreadand leaves of nature's tapestries ;

Welcome fosterer of tender herbis green, Soft grassy verdure after balmy shouirs,

Welcome quickener of flourist flouirs sheen, On curland stalkis smiland to their fouirs.

Welcome support of every rute and vein, The daisy did on-breid her crownal small,

Welcome comfort of all kind fruit and grain, And every fiouer unlappit in the dale.

Welcome the birdis beild upon the brier,
Sere downis small on dentilion sprang,

Welcome master and ruler of the year,
The young green bloomed strawberry leaves amang; Welcome weelfare of husbands at the plews,
Jimp jeryfiouirs thereon leaves unshet,

Welcome repairer of woods, trees, and bews,
Fresa primrose and the purpour violet;

Welcome depainter of the bloomit meads, Heavenly lillies, with lockerand topris white, Welcome the life of every thing that spreads Opened and shew their crestis redemite.

Welcome storer of all kind bestial, Ane paradise it seemed to draw near

Welcome be thy bricht beamis, gladdand all. *
Thir galyard gardens and each green herbere
Maist amiable wax the emeraut meads;

JOHN SKELTON.
Skarmis souchis through out the respand reeds.
Over the lochis and the fludis gray,

John Skelton flourished as a poet in the earlier Searchand by kind ane place where they should lay. part of the reign of Henry VIII. He was rector of Phirbus' red fowl,13 his cural crest can steer,

Dysse, in Norfolk, and chiefly wrote satires upon his Oft streikand furth his heckle, crawand cleer. own order, for which he was at one time compelled Amid the wortis and the rutis gent

to fly from his charge. The pasquils of Skelton are Pickand his meat in alleys where he went,

copious and careless effusions of coarse humour, disHis wivis Toppa and Partolet him by

playing a certain share of imagination, and much A bird all-time that hauntis bigamy.

rancour ; but he could also assume a more amiable The painted pownel4 pacand with plumes gym, and poetical manner, as in the following canzonet : Kest up his tail ane proud plesand wheel-rim,

To Mistress Margaret Hussey.
Ishrouded in his feathering bright and sheen,
Shapand the prent of Argus' hundred een.

Merry Margaret,
Amang the bowis of the olive twists,

As midsummer flower, Sere small fowls, workand crafty nests,

Gentle as falcon, Endlang the hedges thick, and on rank aiks

Or hawk of the tower; Ilk bird rejoicand with their mirthful makes.

With solace and gladness, In comers and clear fenestres of glass,

Much mirth and no madness, Full busily Arachne weavand was,

All good and no badness; To knit her nettis and her wobbis slie,

So joyously, Therewith to catch the little midge or flie.

So maidenly,

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So womanly, 1 Ocean. ? Sultry 3 Uncommon. Boughs.

Her demeaning, • Battlements.

6 Cupola.

7 Storey & Earth. 9 Meadow. 10 Cool vapours. 1 Rises in clouds. 2 Walked. & Grassy groves.

• Laye 13 Young. 18 The cock. 14 The peacock. 6 Songs then popular. 6 Whisper. 7 Relieve. 8 Shelter.

11 Sprouts.

In ererything,

correctness of style, and purity of expression; he Far, far passing

was tlie first to introduce the sonnet and blank verse That I can indite,

into English poetry. The gentle and melancholy Or suffice to write,

pathos of his style is well exemplified in the verses Of merry Margaret,

which he wrote during his captivity in Windsor As midsimmer flower,

Castle, when about to yield his life a sacrifice to
Gentle as falcon

tyrannical caprice :
Or hawk of the tower;
As patient and as still,

Prisoner in Windsor, he recounteth his Pleasure there
And as full of goodwill,

passed.
As fair Isiphil,
Coliander,

So cruel prison how could betide, alas !
Sweet Poiander,

As proud Windsor ? where I, in lust and joy,
Good Cassander;

With a king's son, my childish years did pass,
Stedfast of thought,

In greater feast than Priam's son of Troy:
Well made, well wrought

Where each sweet place returns a taste full sour!
Far may be sought,

The large green courts where we were wont to hove,
Ere you can find

With eyes cast up into the Maiden Tower,
So courteous, so kind,
As merry Margaret,

And easy sighs such as folk draw in love.
This midsimmer flower,

The stately seats, the ladies bright of hue ;
Gentle as falcon,

The dances short, long tales of great delight,
Or hawk of the tower.

With words and looks that tigers could but rue,

Where each of us did plead the other's right. EARL OF SURREY.

The palm-play, where, despoiled for the game; From Chaucer, or at least from James L., the Have missed the ball and got sight of our dame,

With dazed eyes oft we by gleams of love, writers of verse in England had displayed little of the grace and elevation of true poetry. At length

To bait her eyes, which kept the leads above. a worthy successor of those poets appeared in The gravel ground, with sleeves tied on the helm Thomas Howard, eldest son of the Duke of Norfolk, Of foaming horse,2 with swords and friendly hearts; and usually denominated the EARL OF SURREY. With cheer, as though one should another whelm, This nobleman was born in 1516. He was educated Where we have fought, and chased oft with darts; at Windsor, in company with a natural son of the With silver, drops the mead yet spread for ruth,

In active games of nimbleness and strength, Where we did strain, trained with swarnıs of youth,

Our tender limbs that yet shot up in length:
The secret groves which oft we made resound,

Of pleasant plaint, and of our ladies' praise,
Recording oft what grace each one had found,

What hope of speed what dread of long delays :
The wild forest, the clothed holts with green,

With reins availed 3 and swift ybreathed horse ; With cry of hounds and merry blasts between,

Where we did chase the fearful hart of force.
The wide vales, eke, that harboured us each night,

Wherewith, alas, reviveth in my breast,
The sweet accord such sleeps as yet delight,

The pleasant dreams, the quiet bed of rest :
The secret thoughts imparted with such trust,

The wanton talk, the divers change of play,
The friendship sworn, each promise kept so just;

Wherewith we passed the winter night away.
And with this thought, the blood forsakes the face,

The tears berain my cheeks of deadly hue,
Howard, Earl of Surrey.

The which, as soon as sobbing sighs, alas, king, and in early life became accomplished, not only Upsupped have, thus I my plaint renew : in the learning

of the time, but in all kinds of courtly O place of bliss ! renewer of my woes, and chivalrous exercises. Having travelled into Italy, he became a devoted student of the poets of whom in thy walls thou dost each night enclose;

Give me accounts, where is my noble fere ;4 that country--Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, and Ariosto—and formed his own poetical style upon theirs.

To other leef, but unto me most dear: His poetry is chiefly amorous, and, notwithstanding Echo, alas ! that doth my sorrow rue, his having been married in early life, much of it con- Returns thereto a hollow sound of plaint. sists of the praises of a lady whom he names Geral. Thus I alone, where all my freedom grew, dine, supposed to have been a daughter of the Earl In prison pine with bondage and restraint, of Kildare. Surrey was a gallant soldier as well as a poet, and conducted an important expedition, in And with remembrance of the greater grief 1542, for the devastation of the Scottish borders. To banish the less, I find my chief relief. ve finally fell under the displeasure of Henry VIII., 1 Hover; loiter. and was beheaded on Tower Hill in 1547. The ! A lover tied the sleeve of his mistress on the head of his poetry of Surrey is remarkable for a flowing melody, horse. 3 Reins droppod. * Companion. 6 Agreeable.

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