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Then I am a minion, for I wear the new guise,
The next year after I hope to be wise-
Not only in wearing my gorgeous array,
For I will go to learning a whole summer's day;
I will learn Latin, Hebrew, Greek, and French,
And I will learn Dutch sitting on my bench.
I do fear no man, each man feareth me;
I overcome my adversaries by land and by sea :
I had no peer if to myself I were true;
Because I am not so diverse times do I rue:
Yet I lack nothing, I have all things at will,
If I were wise and would hold myself still,
And meddle with no matters but to me pertaining,
But ever to be true to God and my king.
But I have such matters rolling in my pate,
That I will and do I cannot tell what.
No man shall let me, but I will have my mind,
And to father, mother, and friend, I'll be unkind.
I will follow mine own mind and mine old trade:
Who shall let me? The devil's nails are unpared.
Yet above all things new fashions I love well,
And to wear then iny thrift I will sell.
In all this world I shall have but a time:
Hold the cup, good fellow, here is thine and mine!

Sue.-Now sith that ye have showed to me

The secret of your inind,
I shall be plain to you again,

Like as ye shall me find.
Sith it is so that ye will go,

I will not live behind; Shall never be said, the Nut-Brown Maid

Was to her love unkind :
Make you ready, for so am I,

Although it were anon ;
For in my mind, of all mankind

I love but you alone.
HE.— I counsel you, remember how

It is no maiden's law
Nothing to doubt, but to run out

To wood with an outlàw;
For ye must there in your hand bear

A bow, ready to draw;
And as a thief, thus must you live,

Ever in dread and awe.
Whereby to you great harm might grow :

Yet had I lever than,
That I had to the green wood go,

Alone, a banished man.

The Nut-Brown Maid.

[Regarding the date and author of this piece no certainty exists. Prior, who founded his Henry and Emma upon it, : fixes its date about 1400; but others, judging from the comparatively modern language of it, suppose it to have been composed subsequently to the time of Surroy. The poem opens with a declaration of the author, that the faith of woman is stronger than is generally alleged, in proof of which he proposes to relate the trial to which the • Not-Browne Mayde' was exposed by her lover. What follows consists of a dialogue between the pair.)

HE.-It standeth so; a deed is do',

Whereof great harm shall grow :
My destiny is for to die

A shameful death, I trow;
Or else to flee : the one must be,

None other way I know,
But to withdraw as an outlaw,

And take me to my bow.
Wherefore adieu, my own heart true!

None other rede I can:
For I must to the green wood go,

Alone, a banished man.

The snow,

ShE.—O Lord, what is this world's bliss,

That changeth as the moon !
My summer's day in lusty May

Is darked before the noon.
I hear you say, Farewell : Nay, nay,

We depart not so soon.
Why say ye so? whither will ye go ?

Alas! what have ye done?
All my welfare to sorrow and care

Should change if ye were gone ;
For in my mind, of all mankind

I love but you alone.

Sue. I think not nay, but, as ye say,

It is no maiden's lore :
But love may make me for your sake,

As I have said before,
To come on foot, to hunt and shoot

To get us meat in store ;
For so that I your company

May have, I ask no more :
From which to part it makes my heart

As cold as any stone ;
For, in my mind, of all mankind

I love but you alone.
HE.—Yet take good heed, for ever I dread

That ye could not sustain
The thorny ways, the deep valleys,

the frost, the rain,
The cold, the heat ; for, dry or weet,

We inust lodge on the plain ; And us above, none other roof

But a brake bus or twain : Which soon should grieve you, I believe,

And ye would gladly than
That I had to the greenwood go,

Alone, a banished man.
SHE.-Sith I have here been partinèr

With you of joy and bliss,
I must also part of your wo

Endure, as reason is.
Yet I am sure of one pleasùre,

And, shortly, it is this,
That, where ye be, me seemeth, pardie,

I could not fare amiss.
Without more speech, I you beseech

That ye were soon agone,
For, in my mind, of all mankind

I love but you alone.
HE.--- If ye go thither, ye must consider,

When ye have list to dine,
There shall no meat be for you gete,

Nor drink, beer, ale, nor wine,
No sheetes clean, to lie between,

Made of thread and twine ;
None other house but leaves and boughs,

To cover your head and mine.
Oh mine heart sweet, this evil diet,

Should make you pale and wan ;
Wherefore I will to the


go, Alone, a banished man.

He.--I can believe, it shall you grieve,

And somewhat you distrain :
But afterward, your paines hard

Within a day or twain
Shall soon aslake ; and ye shall take

Comfort to you again.
Why should ye ought, for to make thought ?

Your labour were in vain.
And thus I do, and pray to you,

As heartily as I can ;
For I must to the green wood go,

Alone, a banished man.

ye be

ShE.- Among the wild deer, such an archér,

As men say that ye be,
Ye may not fail of good vittail,

Where is so great plentie.
And water clear of the river,

Shall be full sweet to me.
With which in heal, I shall right weel

Endure, as ye shall see ;
And, ere we go, a bed or two

I can provide anone ;
For, in my mind, of all mankind

I love but you alone.
He-Lo yet before, ye must do more,

If ye will go with me;
As cut your hair up by your ear,

Your kirtle to the knee ;
With bow in hand, for to withstand

Your enemies, if need be ;
And this same night, before day-light,

To wood-ward will I flee.
If that ye will all this fulfill,

Do't shortly as ye can :
Else will I to the green wood go,

Alone, a banished man.
Sae.-I shall, as now, do more for you,

Than 'longeth to womanheed,
To short iny hair, a bow to bear,

To shoot in time of need.
Oh, my sweet mother, before all other

For you I have most dread;
But now adieu ! I must ensue

Where fortune doth me lead,
All this make ye : Now let us flee ;

The day comes fast upon :
For, in my mind, of all mankind

I love but you alone.
HE-Nay, nay, not so ; ye shall not go,

And I shall tell you why:
Your appetitel is to be light

Of love, I weel espy :
For like as ye have said to me,

In like wise, hardily,
Ye would answer whoever it were,

In vay of company.
It is said of old, soon hot, soon cold ;

And so is a woman,
Wherefore I to the wood will go,

Alone, a banished man.
SHE.-If ye take heed, it is no need

Such words to say by me;
For oft ye prayed and me assayed,

Ere I loved you, pardie :
And though that I, of ancestry,

A baron's daughter be,
Yet have you proved how I you loved,

A equire of low degree;
And ever shall, whatso befal;

To die therefore anon ;
For, in my mind, of all mankind

I lore but you alone.
HE-A baron's child to be beguiled,

It were a cursed deed !
To be fellàw with an outlaw,

Almighty God forbid !
It better were, the poor squièr

Alone to forest yede,
Than I should say, another day,

That, by my cursed deed,
We were betrayed : wherefore, good maid,

The best rede that I can,
Is, that I to the greenwood go,
Alone, a banished man.

1 Disposition.

SHE.--Whatever befall, I never shall,

Of this thing you upbraid ; But, if ye go, and leave me so,

Than have ye me betrayed.
Remeinber weel, bow that you deal ;

For if ye, as ye said,
Be so unkind to leave behind,

Your love, the Nut-Brown Maid,
Trust me truly, that I shall die
Soon after

gone ;
For, in my mind, of all mankind

I love but you alone.
HE.--If that ye went, ye should repent;

For in the forest now
I have purveyed me of a maid,

Whom I love more than you ;
Another fairer than ever ye were,

I dare it weel avow,
And of you both each should be wroth

With other, as I trow :
It were mine case to live in peace ;

So will I, if I can ;
Wherefore I to the wood will go,

Alone, a banished man.
ShE.—Though in the wood I understood

Ye had a paramour,
All this may not remove my thought,

But that I will be your.
And she shall find me soft and kind

And courteous every hour ;
Glad to fulfill all that she will

Command me to iny power.
For had ye, lo, an hundred mo,

Of them I would be one ;
For, in iny mind, of all mankind

I love but you alone.
He-Mine own dear love, I see thee prore


be kind and true ;
Of maid and wife, in all my life,

The best that ever I knew.
Be merry and glad ; no more be sad ;

The case is changed now ;
For it were ruth, that, for your truth,

Ye should have cause to rue.
Be not dismayed ; whatever I said

To you, when I began ;
I will not to the greenwood go :

I am no banished man.

SHE—These tidings be more glad to me,

Than to be made a queen,
If I were sure they would endure :

But it is often seen,
Wiben men will break promise, they speak

The wordes on the spleen.
Ye shape some wile me to beguile,

And steal from me, I ween :
Than were the case worse than it was,

And I more woc-begone :
For, in my mind, of all mankind

I love but you alone.
HE-Ye shall not need further to dread :

I will not disparàge,
You (God defend !) sith ye descend

Of so great a lineage.
Now understand ; to Westmoreland,

Which is mine heritage,
I will you bring; and with a ring,

By way of marriaye,
I will you take, and lady make,

As shortly as I can :
Thus have you won an earl's son,
And not a banished man.


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is to say, they that seen few things woll soon say their PROSE WRITERS.

advice. Forsooth those folks consideren little the good of the realm, whereof the might most stondeth

And if they is called to a prose writer of eminence, the first wherewith to buy them bows, arrowe, jacks, or any Not long after the time of Lydgate, our attention upon archers, which be no rich men.

were made poorer than they be, they should not have since the time of Chancer and Wickliffe. This was other armour of defence, whereby they might be able Sir John FortESCUE, Chief Justice of the King's to resist our enemies when they list to come upon us, Bench under Henry VI., and a constant adherent of which they may do on every side, considering that we the fortunes of that monarch. He flourished be- be an island ; and, as it is said before, we may not tween the years 1430 and 1470. Besides several Latin have soon succours of any other realm. Wherefore tracts, Chief Justice Fortescue wrote one in the we should be a prey to all other enemies, but if we be common language, entitled, The Difference between an mighty of ourself, which might standeth most upon Absolute and Limited Monarchy, as it more particularly our pöer archers; and therefore they needen not only regards the English Constitution, in which he driws å

to hare such habiliments as now is spoken of, but also striking, though perhaps exaggerated, contrast be- they needen to be much exercised in shooting, which tween the condition of the French under an arbi- may not be done without right great expenses, as trary monarch, and that of his own countrymen, erery man expert therein knoweth right well. Wherewho even then possessed considerable privileges as fore the making poor of the commons, which is the ! subjects. The following extracts convey at once an making poor of our archers, should be the destruction idea of the literary style, and of the manner of of the greatest might of our realm. Item, if poor inen thinking, of that age.

may not lightly rise, as is the opinion of those men,

which for that cause would have the commons poor; [English Courage.]

how then, if a mighty man made a rising, should he

be repressed, when all the commons be so poor, that [Original spelling.--It is cowardise and lack of hartes and after such opinion they may not fight, and by that corage, that kepith the Frenchmen from rysyng, and not po.

reason not help the king with fighting? And why i vertye; which corage no Frenche man hath like to the English man. It hath ben often seen in Englond that iij or iv thefes, maketh the king the commons to be every year musfor povertie, hath sett upon vij or viij true men, and robbyd tered, sithen it was good they had no harness, nor them al. But it hath not ben seen in Fraunce, that vij or viij were able to fight? Oh, how unwise is the opinion of thefes have ben hardy to robbe iij or iv true men. Wherfor these men ; for it may not be maintained by any it is right seld that French men be hangyd for robberye, for reason! Item, when any rising hath been made in that thay have no herty's to do so terryble an acte. There be this land, before these days by commons, the poorest therfor mo men hangyd in Englond, in a yere, for robberye men thereof hath been the greatest causers and doers and manslaughter, than ther be hangid in Fraunce for such therein. And thrifty men have been loth thereto, for cause of crime in vij yers, &c.]

dread of losing of their goods, yet osten times they

have gone with them through menaces, or else the It is cowardice and lack of hearts and courage, that same poor men would have taken their goods ; wherein keepeth the Frenchmen from rising, and not poverty ; it seemeth that poverty hath been the whole and chief which courage no French man hath like to the

cause of all such rising. The poor man hath been English man. It hath been often seen in England stirred thereto by occasion of his poverty for to get that three or four thieves, for poverty, hath set upon good; and the rich men have gone with them because seven or eight true men, and robbed them all. But they wold not be poor by losing of their goods. What it hath not been seen in France, that seven or eight then would fall, if all the commons were poor ? thieves have been hardy to rob three or four true men. Wherefore it is right seld' that Frenchmen be hanged for robbery, for that they have no hearts to do so terrible an act. There be therefore mo men hanged in England, in a year, for robbery and manslaughter,

The next writer of note was WILLIAM CAXTON, than there be hånged in France for such cause of the celebrated printer; a man of plain understandcrime in seven years. There is no man hanged in ing, but great enthusiasm in the cause of literature. Scotland in seven years together for robbery, and yet While acting as an agent for English merchants in they be often times hanged for larceny, and stealing Holland, he made himself master of the art of printof goods in the absence of the owner thcreof; but ing, then recently introduced on the Continent; and, their hearts serve them not to take a man's goods having translated a French book styled, The Recuyell while he is present and will defend it ; which manner of the Histories of Troye, he printed it at Ghent, in of taking is called robbery. But the English man be 1471, being the first book in the English language of another courage ; for if he be poor, and see another ever put to the press.* Afterwards he established man having riches which may be taken from him by a printing-office at Westminster, and in 1474, promight, he wol not spare to do so, but if? that poor man duced The Game of Chess, which was the first book be right true. Wherefore it is not porerty, but it is printed in Britain. Caxton translated or wrote about lack of heart and cowardice, that keepeth the French sixty different books, all of which went through his men from rising.

own press before his death in 1491. As a specimen

of his manner of writing, and of the literary language What harm would come to England if the Commons of this age, a passage is here extracted, in modern thereof were Poor.

* In a note to this publication, Caxton says—Forasmuch Some men have said that it were good for the king as age creepeth on me daily, and feebleth all the bodie, and also that the commons of England were made poor, as be because I have promised divers gentlemen, and to my friends, the commons of France. For then they would not to address to them, as hastily as I might, this said book, there. rebel, as now they done often times, which the com- fore I have practised and learned, at my great charge and dismons of France do not, nor may do; for they have no pence, to ordain this said book in print, after the manner and weapon, nor armour, nor good to buy it withall. To form as ye may here see, and is not written with pen and ink, these manner of men may be said, with the philoso- as other books ben, to the end that all men may have them at pher, Ad parra respicientes, de facili enunciant; that once, for all the books of this story, named The Recule of the


Ilistoreys of Troyes, thus emprinted, as ye here see, were begun 1 Seldom.

in one day, and also finished in one day.'

9 But if-unless.

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spelling, from the conclusion of his translation of he came at the last hour, le slept in our Lord; of The Golden Legend.

whom a friar saw the soul, in manner of a star, like to the inoon in quantity, and the sun in clearness.

Prose history may be said to have taken its rise in the reigns of Henry VII. and VI ; but its first examples are of a very homely character. ROBERT FABIAN and EDWARD Hall may be regarded as the first writers in this department of our national literature. They aimed at no literary excellence, nor at any arrangement calculated to make their writings more useful. Their sole object was to narrate minutely, and as far as their opportunities allowed, faithfully, the events of the history of their country.

Written in a dull and tedious manner, without any .

exercise of taste or judgment, with an absolute want of discrimination as to the comparative importance of facts, and no attempt to penetrate the motives of the actors, or to describe more than the external features of even the greatest of transactions, the Chronicles, as they are called, form masses of matter which only a modern reader of a peculiar taste, curiosity, or a writer in quest of materials, would now willingly peruse. Yet it must be admitted, that to their

minuteness and indiscrimination we are indebted for William Caxton.

the preservation of many curious facts and illustrations of manners, which would have otherwise been

lost. [Legend of St Francis.]

Fabian, who was an alderman and sheriff of LonFrancis, servant and friend of Almighty God, was don, and died in 1512, wrote a general chronicle of born in the city of Assyse, and was made a merchant English history, which he called The Concordance of anto the 25th year of his age, and wasted his time by Stories, and which has been several times printed, liring rainly, whom our Lord corrected by the scourge the last time in 1811, under the care of Sir Henry of sickness, and suddenly changed him into another Ellis. It is particularly minute with regard to what man ; so that he began to shine by the spirit of pro- would probably appear the most important of all phecy. For on a time, he, with other men of Peruse, things to the worthy aldernian, the succession of was taken prisoner, and were put in a cruel prison, officers of all kinds serving in the city of London ; where all the other wailed and sorrowed, and he only and amongst other events of the reign of Henry V., was glad and enjoyed. And when they had repreved! the author does not omit to note that a new weatherhim thereof, he answered, “Know ye,' said he, 'that I cock was placed on the top of St Paul's steeple. am joyful: for I shall be worshipped as a saint Fabian repeats all the fabulous stories of early Engthroughout all the world.'

lish history, which had first been circulated by On a time as this holy man was in prayer, the devil Geoffrey of Monmouth. called him thrice by his own name. And when the

holy man had answered him, he said, none in this i world is so great a sinner, but if he convert him, our

[The Deposition of King Vortigern.) Lord would pardon him; but who that sleeth himself (Vortigern had lost much of the affections of his with hard penance, shall never find mercy. And anon, people by marriage with Queen Rowena.] Over that, this holy man knew by revelation the fallacy and an heresy, called Arian's heresy, began then to spring deceit of the fiend, how he would have withdrawn him up in Britain. For the which, two holy bishops, fro to do well. And when the devil saw that he named Germanus and Lupus, as of Gaufryde is witmight not prevail against him, he tempted him by nessed, came into Britain to reform the king, and grievous temptation of the flesh. And when this holy all other that erred from the


of truth. servant of God felt that, he despoiled? his cloaths, and Of this holy man, St Germain, Vincent Historial beat himself right hard with an hard cord, saying, saith, that upon an evening when the weather was *Thus, brother ass, it behoveth thee to remain and passing cold, and the snow fell very fast, he axed to be beaten.' And when the temptation departed lodging of the king of Britain, for him and his coinnot, he went out and plunged himself in the snow, all peers, which was denied. Then he, after sitting under naked, and made seven great balls of snow, and pur- a bush in the field, the king's herdman passed by, posed to have taken them into3 his body, and said, and seeing this bishop with his company sitting in

This greatest is thy wife ; and these four, two ben the weather, desired him to his house to take there thy daughters, and two thy sons; and the other twain, such poor lodging as he had. Whereof the bishop that one thy chambrere, and that other thy varlet or being glad and fain, yodel unto the house of the said Feman; haste and clothe them: for they all die for herdman, the which received him with glad cheer. cold. And if thy business that thou hast about them, And for him and his company, willed his wife to kill grieve ye sore, then serve our Lord perfectly. And his only calf, and to dress it for his guest's supper ; anon, the devil departed from him all confused ; and the which was also done. When the holy man had St Francis returned again unto his cell glorifying supped, he called to him his hostess, willing and deGod.

siring her, that she should diligently gather together He was enobled in his life by many miracles * all the bones of the dead calf; and them so gathered, and the rery death, which is to all men horrible and to wrap together within the skin of the said calf. And hateful, he admonished them to praise it. And also then it lay in the stall before the rack near unto the he warned and admonished death to come to him, and dame. Which done according to the commandment said “Death, my sister, welcome be you.' And when of the holy man, shortly after the calf was restored 1 Reproved. 8 Took off. 3 Unto.




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1 Went.

to life ; and forth with ate hay with the dam at the from Greenwich to London, and there with his host rack. At which marvel all the house was greatly rested him a while. astonished, and yielded thanking unto Almighty God, And so soon as Jack Cade had thus overcome the and to that holy bishop.

Staffords, he anon apparelled him with the knight's Upon the morrow, this holy bishop took with him apparel, and did on him his bryganders set with gilt the herdman, and yode unto the presence of the king, nails, and his salet and gilt spurs ; and after he had and axed of him in sharp wise, why that overnight refreshed his people, he returned again to Black he had denied to him lodging. Wherewith the king Heath, and there pightl again his field, as heretofore was so abashed, that he had no power to give unto he had done, and lay there from the 29th day of the holy man answer. Then, St Germain said to him: June, being St Peter's day, till the first day of I charge thee, in the name of the Lord God, that thou July. In which season came unto him the Archand thine depart from this palace, and resign it and bishop of Canterbury, and the Duke of Buckingham, the rule of thy land to him that is more worthy this with whom they had long communication, and found room than thou art. The which all thing by power him right discreet in his answers : how be it they divine was observed and done; and the said herdman, could not cause him to lay down his people, and to by the holy bishop's authority, was set into the same submit him unto the king's grace. dignity; of whom after descended all the kings of In this while, the king and the queen, hearing of Britain.

the increasing of his rebels, and also the lords fearing their own servants, lest they would take the Captain's

party, removed from London to Killingworth, leaving (Jack Cade's Insurrection.]

the city without aid, except only the Lord Scales,

which was left to keep the Tower, and with him a manly [Original Spelling. And in the moneth of Juny this yere; and warly man named Matthew Gowth. Then the the comons of Kent assemblyd thern in grete multytude, and chase to them a capitayne, and named hym Mortymer, and Captain of Kent thus hoving? at Blackheath, to the cosyn to the Duke of Yorke; but of moste he was named end to blind the more the people, and to bring him in Jack Cade. This kepte the people wondrouslie togader, and fame that he kept good justice, beheaded there a petty made such ordenaunces amonge theym, that he brought a Captain of his, named Paris, for so much as he had grete nombre of people of theym vnto the Blak Heth, where he offended again' such ordinance as he had stablished deuysed a bylle of petycions to the kynge and his coun. in his host. And hearing that the king and all his sayll, &c.]

lords were thus departed, drew him near unto the city,

so that upon the first day of July he entered the burgh And in the mouth of June this year (1450), the of Southwark, being then Wednesday, and lodged him commons of Kent assemble them in great multitude, there that night, he might not be suffered to enter and chase to them a Captain, and named him Morti- that city. mer, and cousin to the Duke of York; but of most he And upon the same day the commons of Essex, in was named Jack Cade. This kept the people won- great number, pight them a field upon the plain at drously together, and made such ordinances among Miles End. Upon the second day of the said month, them, that he brought a great number of people of the mayor called a common council at the Guildhall, them into the Black Heath, where he devised a bill for to purvey the withstanding of these rebels, and of petitions to the king and his council, and showed other matters, in which assembled were divers opinions, therein what injuries and oppressions the poor com- so that some thought good that the said rebels should mons suffered by such as were about the king, a few be received into the city, and some otherwise ; among persons in number, and all under colour to come to the which, Robert Hornie, stock-tishmonger, then being his above. The king's council, seeing this bill, dis- an alderman, spake sore again' them that would have allowed it, and counselled the king, which by the them enter. For the which sayings, the commons 7th day of June had gathered to him a strong host of were so amoved again' him, that they ceased not till people, to go again' his rebels, and to give unto them they had him committed to ward. battle. Then the king, after the said rebels had And the same afternoon, about five of the clock, the holden their field upon Black Heath seven days, Captain with his people entered by the bridge ; and maile toward them. Whereof hearing, the Captain when he came upon the drawbridge, he hewed the drew back with his people to a village called Seven- ropes that drew the bridge in sunder with his sword, oaks, and there embattled.

and so passed into the city, and made in sundry places Then it was agreed by the king's council, that Sir thereof proclamations in the king's name, that no man, Humphrey Stafford, knight, with William his brother, upon pain of death, should rob or take anything per and other certain gentlemen should follow the chase, force without paying therefor. By reason whereof he and the king with his lords should return unto Green- yon many hearts of the commons of the city ; but all wich, weening to them that the rebels were fled and was done to beguile the people, as after shall evidently gone. But, as before I have showed, when Sir Hum- appear. He rode through divers streets of the city, phrey with his company drew near unto Sevenoaks, and as he came by London Stone, he strake it with he was warned of the Captain, that there abode with his sword and said, “Now is Mortimer lord of this his people. And when he had counselled with the city.' And when he had thus showed himself in other gentlemen, he, like a manful knight, set upon divers places of the city, and showed his mind to the the rebels and fouglit with them long; but in the mayor for the ordering of his people, he returned into end the Captain slew him and his brother, with many Southwark, and there abode as he before had done, other, and caused the rest to give back. All which his people coming and going at lawful hours when season, the king's host lay still upon Black Heath, they would. Then upon the morn, being the third being among them sundry opinions; so that some and day of July and Friday, the said Captain entered again many faroured the Captain. But, finally, when word the city, and caused the Lord Saye to be fette3 from came of the overthrow of the Staffords, they said the Tower, and led into the Guildhall, where he was plainly and boldly, that, except the Lord Saye and arraigned before the mayor and other of the king's other before rehearsed were coinmitted to ward, they justices. In which pastime he intended to have would take the Captain's party. For the appeasing of brought before the said justices the foresaid Robert which rumour the Lord Saye was put into the Tower ; Horne ; but his wife and friends made to him such but that other as then were not at hand. Then the instant labour, that finally, for five hundred marks, he king having knowledge of the scomfiture of his men and also of the rumour of his hosting people, removed

? Hovering.

8 Fetched.

I Pitched.

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