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TIME CALCULATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS OF SIGNS AND ABBREVIA

TIONS. All the calculations except the Moon's Phases, Tides and seasons are in meas local time. (See table for its conversion into Standard Time.) The Sun's rising and setting is for the upper limb and corrected for refraction. The signs used are follows: ó conjunction or near approach, at which time a line from the Yearth Star through one will also pass through the other; 8. opposition or 180° from the sun at which time the Superior Planets are the brightest; a quadrature or 90 from us Sun; . Sun; . Earth; 0, Mercury; R. Venus; Mars; 4. Jupiter; 1). Saturn 8. Uranus; Moon lowest: A, Moon highest; Moon generally; 2. Ascendine Node; 8. Descending Node.

Per.--Perhelion, or nearest to Sun; opposed to Planete.
Aph.---- Aphelion, or furthest from Sun; applied to Planets.
Per.---Perigee, or nearest to Earth; applied to the Moon.
So.---Southing, or Meridian Passage.

STANDARD TIME TABI.E.
To obtain standard time, add or subtract the figures given to local time.
Standard Correc-

Standard Correc
City.

of
tion,
City.

of

tion Division. Minutes.

Division. Monte Albany. N. Y.

Eastern
5 1 Little Rock .Ark

Central
Austin, Texas.
Central + 31 Louisville, Ky

Central

18 Baltimore, Md.

Eastern + 6
Lynchburg, Va.

Eastern

+ 17 Baton Rouge, La. Central + 4 Memphis, Tenn.

Central Bismarck, N. Dak. Central + 13 Milwaukee, Wis

Central Boston, Mass.

Eastern

16
Mobile. Ala..

Central
Buffalo, N. Y.

Eastern

16
Montgomery':

Central
Burlington, lowa Central

Nashville, Tenn.. (entral Cairo, 111...

Central

New Haven, Conn Eastern Charleston, 9. C. Eastern

20

New Orleans, La. Central Chicago, Ill.

Central

10 New York, N. Y. Eastern Cincinnati, Ohio

Central
Yorfolk, Va..

Eastern
Cleveland, Ohio

Central

33 Ogdensburg. N. Y Eastern Columbia, S. C. Eastern + 24 Omaha, Neb.

Central
Columbus, Ohio.

Central
28 Pensacola, Fla.

Central
Dayton, Ohio

Central
Philadelphia, Pa

Eastern
Denver, Col.

Mountain
Pittsburg,

Eastern
Des Moines, Iowa Central + 14 Portland, Me.

Eastern
Detroit, Mich...

Central
Providence, R. I.

Eastern
Dubuque, Iowa

Central
Quincy, III.

Central
Duluth, Minn..

Central
Raleigh. N. .

Eastern
Erie, Pa.

Central
39 Richmond, Va.

Eastern
Evansville, Ind..

Central
10 Rochester, N. Y

Eastern
Ft. Gibson, Cher. N. Central

21 Rock Island. III.

Central Fort Smith, Ark.

Central - 19 San Francisco, Cal. Pacific Fort Wayne, Ind. Central

Santa Fe, N. M.

Mountain Galena, Ill..

Central

Savannah
Ga.

Central
Galveston, Texas, Central

19
Shreveport, La

Central
Grand Haven. Mich. Central

15
Springfield, Ill.

Central
Harrisburg, Pa.. Eastern

St. Joseph, Mo.

Central
Houston,
Texas.
Central
St. Louis, Mo..

Central
Huntsville, Ala.

Central
12 Si Paul, Minn.

Central
Indianapolis, Ind. Central

16 Superior City, Wis.. Central Jackson, Miss..

Central
1 Syracuse, N. Y.

Eastern
Jacksonville, Fla..

Central
33 Toledo, Ohio.

Central
Janesville, Wis.

Central
4 Trenton, N. J.

Eastern
Jefferson City, Mo. Central

9 Utica, N. I.

Eastern Kansas City, Mo.. Central

19

Washington, D. C. Eastern Keokuk, Iowa.

Central

6 Wheeling, W. Va. Eastern Knoxville, Tenn.. Central - 24 Wilmington, Del.

Eastern La Crosse, Wis.

Central

5

Wilmington, N. C.... Eastern Lawrence, Kan.

Central

21 Yankton, S. Dak. Central Lexington, Ky

Central

23

TIME STANDARDS. The following is the table of times, based upon the meridian used by the United States and Canada:

Central Meridian.! Name of Time, Degree. From Greenwich.

Nearest Place. Intercolonial

60 4 hours west, About 316° east of Halifax, N. S. Eastern

75

5 hours west. Between New York and Philadelphia Central

6 hours west. St. Louis and New Orleans. Mountain

105

7 hours west Denver, Col. Pacific

120

8 hours west. 15° east of Sacramento, Cal. Sitka

135 9 hours west. 14° east of Sitka, Alaska, Tahiti

150 10 hours west. 2° west of the island of Tahiti. Hawaiian

15716 (10 b. 31 m. west. Near centre of Molokai,

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CHINESE CALENDAR The year 1907 corresponds nearly to the year 4604 of the Chinese era, and is the 44th of the 76th cycle of 60 years. 1907.

1907. First month begins.. February 13 Seventh montb begins.

•August 9 Second month begins.

•March 14, Eighth montb begins. September Third month begins. April 13 Ninth month begins.

*October 7 Fourth month begins. *May 12 Tenth month begins.

November Fifth month begins.

June 11 Eleventh month begins. December 5 Sixth month begins.. July 10

1908

Twelfth month begins. .January *30 days; all others 29 days.

THE MEMBERS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM,

Name.

Sun Mercury Venug Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

From sun, Siuereal Orbit

njilions period, loc., miles Diameter,
of miles. days. per sec. miles.

866,400
36.0

87.969 23 to 37 3,030 67.2 224.701

21.9 7,700 92.8 365.256

18.5 7,918 141.5 686.95

15.0 4,230 483.3 4332.58

8.1 86,500 886.0! 10759.22

6.01 71,000 1781.91 30686.82

4.2 31,900 2791.61 60181.11

3.4

34,800

Mass, Volume, Density,
Earth=1. Earth-1. Earth=).

33110) 1310001
0.125 0.0501

2.23
0.78
0.92

0.86 1.6 1.00

1.00 0.107 0.152

0.72 316.0 1309

0.24 94.9 721

0.13 14.7 65

0.22 17.1 85

0.20

22

THE SUN'S COURSE THROUGH THE ZODIAC AND THE SEASONS. un

Washington mean time.
enters
Sign.Con.
D. H. M.

D. H. M.
Dec. (*06) 22

0 37 p.m.

W’inter begins, and lasts 89 040 S. of Equator,
W Jan'y 107) 20 11 14 p.m.
February

19

1 42 p.m. March

21 1 17 p.m. Spring begins, and lasts 92 20 10 N. of Equator, \April

21 1 ( a.m. May

22

( 17 a.m. June

9 27 a.m. Summer begins, and lasts 93 14 35 N. of Equator. July

23

8 1p.m. August 23

8 51 a.m. TIR September 24 0 2 a.m. Autumn begins, and lasts 89 18 34 S. of Equator. m

October 24 8 35 a.m. m November 23

5 36 a.m.
1 December 22

6 36 p.m.
Winter begins

Tropical year..365 5 59
Tire north of the Equator, 186d. 10b. 45m.
Time south of the Equator, 178d. 19h. 14m.

7d. 15h. 31m. longer north of the Equator than south of it This is due to the slower motion of the Earth (Sun's apparent motion) while in that portion of its orbit most distant from the Sun (aphelion). Hence in the summer months we are further from the Sun than in the winter time.

THE PLANETS. MORNING STARS-WEST OF SUN. H-Just before inferior conjunction, INFERIOR PLANETS.

July 1, 1908. Mercury (), until February 2, March

SUPERIOR PLANETS. 13 to May 24, July 24 to September 6,

Mars (0), until March 9. and after November 14.

Jupiter (4), from July 16 to November Venus (9), until September 14.

Satum (h), from March 9 to June 19. The planet Venus will present the

Uranus (*), until April 3. Various phases, as shown on page 7, as

Neptune (*), from July 5 to October 9. follows:

EVENING STARS-EAST OF SUN. A--Fifteen days after superior conjunc

INFERIOR PLANETS. toa, or September 29. B-At greatest elongation west, Febru

Mercury, from February 2 to March 18,
May 24 to July 24, and September 6 to

November 14.
C-When brightest as a morning star,
January 4.

Venus, after September 14.
D-Just after inferior conjunction, or

SUPERIOR PLANETS. July 10, 1908.

Mars, after March 9. E--Fifteen days before superior con- Jupiter, until July 16 and after Novemjunction, August 31.

ber 5. T-At greatest elongation east, April Saturn, until March 9 and after June 19. 26. 1908.

Uranus, after April 3. G--When brightest ag an evening star, Neptune, until July 6 and after Oc May 29, 1908

tober 9.

ary 8.

(

doo

THE PLANETS (Continued). Mercury will be brightest February 20-28, setting shortly after the Sun; also August 18-28, rising shortly before the sun.

Venus will be brightest as a morning star January 4, but will not get around on the other side of the Sun at her point of greatest brilliancy as an evening star until May 29, 1908, She will be at her greatest elongation (angular distance) west of the Sun, 46° 53', Febri ary 8. An opera glass or small telescope will

Toward bring out her phases, as shown in the an

the Sun. nexed cut. Her difference in apparent size

N or diameter is due to her varying distance

Phases of
from the Earth, according as she is between
us and the Sun or in the opposite portion of
her orbit. See the table following this divi- €
sion for her motion in her orbit; also that
of the other principal planets, page 8.

Venus.
MARS NEAREST THE EARTH,
The planet Mars will attract the atten-

S tion of the world this year because of the As seen in the

As seen in the tact that he will approach nearer to us than Morning

Evening ne has been within the last fifteen years, or will be again in the following fifteen years. The reason for this will be understood by an inspection of the annexed figure. When the points (Aphelion) in the Earth's orbit, and A (Perihelion) in Mars's orbit. come in line with the Sun, then the Earth and Mars will be the nearest possible. A moderately close approach to these conditions occurs every

fifteen years.

This year, on July 12, these planets will occupy the positions in their respective orbits E and F. On July 5 the Earth will be at C, or farthest from the Sun, and on September 26 Mars will be at A, or nearest to the Sun. It is apparent that there must be a point between A and C where these bodies are in line with the Sun, and where they will be nearest, and, as has been said, this occurs at E and F. At such times Mars is Some 30,000,000 miles nearer to us than when these conditions shown in the figure are reversed. with Mars at or near D and the Earth at or near B. While Mars will be mathemati

cally brightest July 6, he will be by far the most conspicuous object in the stellar or planetary hosts für' weeks before and after that date, and will be most carefully watched and photographed at observatories. Comparisons of these with former photographs may disclose important hauges.

Jupiter will not be at his brightest this year, but will be very bright in December, as he will attain his point opposition the Sun January 29, 1908.

Saturn will be brightest, on September 17. He will then be in the last degrees of Aquarius and close to the Equinoctial Colure, or First Meridian of the heavens, corresponding to the Meridian of Greenwich or Washington on the Earth.

Uranus will be brightest July 3 and Neptune January 2.

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MARS ORBIT.

ORB

Aug.

CHURCH DAYS AND MOVABLE FEASTS.
Epiphany
..Jan. 6 Ascension Thursday.

Vay

9 Conversion of St. Paul.

Jan. 25
Whit Sunday (Pentecost)

May 19
Septuagesima Sunday
Jan, 27 Trinity Sunday

May 26 Purification B. V. M. .Jan. 2 Corpus Christi.

May 30 Sexagesima Sunday. Feb. 3 St. Barnabas.

.June 11 Quinquagesima Sunday. Feb. 10 St. John the Baptist.

.June 24 Sbrove Tuesday, Feh. 12 Saints Peter and Paul.

June 29 Ash Wednesday (Lent begins) Feb. 13 St. James,

July 21 St. Valentine.. .Feb. 14 Transfiguration

Aug. Quadragesima Sunday. Tex. 17 St Bartholomew

4 st. Matthias...... ..Feb. x St. Matthew.

.Sept. 21 St. David..

March 1 Michaelmas (St. John and all
Mid-Lent Sunday.
March 10 Angels)

. Sept. 20 St. Patrick. March 17 St. Luke.

Oct 18 Palm Sunday March 24 Saints Simon and Jude

.Oct, 28 innunciation (Lady Day)........March 25 All Saints' Day.

.Nov. 7 Good Friday. .March 29 All Souls' Day

.NCV. Easter Even. March 30 Thanksgiving Day.

Nov. Easter Sunday .March 31 St. Andrew.

.Nov 30 Low Sunday ....April 7 St. Thomas.

.Dec. 21 Maundy Thursday

April 12 Christmas Day Wednesday) ..Dec. 25 Bt. George. April 23 St. Stephen.

..Dec. 26 Bt. Mark.

April 25 St. John the Evangelist...........Dec. 27 Saints Phillip and James, .May 1 Holy Innocents.

Dec. 28 Rogation Sunday.......

May 5

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MERIDIAN PASSAGE, RISING AND SETTING OF THE PLANETS,
Washington mean time, (All D. m. figures are in black type.)
VENUS

MARS.
JUPITER

SATURN

Days

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Southern

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Southern

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Rises
Sets
-Sets.

-Sets,
H MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MH MHY
January......

1/ 9231 4 11 4 20 7 491 2 21 2 37 11 411 6 41 7 11 4 10 9 481 9 87 January...

111 9 7 348 4 8 7 33 7 10 2 2810 561 5 57 6 26 3 34 9 13 9 January 21) 8 591 343

7 18 1 59 2 19/10 12 5 13 5 42 2 58 8 88 891 February

1 8 57 3 44 48 7 1 1 46 % 9 9 241 4 261 4 56 2 191 80 79 February 111 8 53 3 471 4 12 6 451 1 33) 1 58 8421 3 441 4 14 144 26! 711 February

71 9 4 3 521 4 17 6 30 1 21 1 47 8 11 3 3 3 33 1 9 6 51 645 March.

1 9 101 3 57 4 21 6 171 1 11 1 38 7 30 2 32 3 21 12 41! 6 25 617 March.

11 9 17 4 0 4 22 6 1/12 561 1 25 6 52 1 54 2 24 12 06 Ó O sth March.

21 9 24 4 21 4 21 5 44 12 411 1 10 6 151 1 17 147|11 32 April

11 9 32 4 0 4 14 5 25 12 23 12 53 5 36 12 381 1 810 531 Invisible. April

11 9 37 357 4 7 5 5 12 4 12 35 5 2 12 0 12 3410 18 Rises. April

121 9 421 351 356 4 45 11 47112 15 4 29/11 27/11 57 9 43 354 4 Мау.

11 9 47 3 461 3461 4 22 11 24/11 54 357|10 55 11 25 9 7 3 17 3 21

11) 9521 3 401 3 35 3 56 10 58 11 26 3 25 10 22 10 61 8 321 2 411 2 44 May.

21 9 571 3 35 3 24 3 26 10 28 10 58 2 84 9 51 10 20 7 55 2 3 2 June.

1 10 4 3 301 3 15 2 481 9 52 10 25 2 201 9 16 9 44 7 15 1 23 1 58 Jano.

11/10 13 3 31 3 101 2 9 9 16 9 50 1 50 8 45 9 13 638 12 46112 49 June.

21 10 23 3 34 3 8 1 24 83 9 8 1 20 8 151 843 6 0 12 7112 10 July.

1/10 35 3 40 3 1212 35 8 5th 12 501 7 46 8 12 5 21 11 32 11 35 July

1110 48 3 511 3 22 11 38 Sets. 12 20 1 141 142 4 42 10 53 10 56 July.

21 11 2 4 5 3 36 10 47 3 35 2 55||11 501 o 16th 4 21 10 13 10 16 August.

1/11 17 4 26 4 0 9 55 2 37 1 57 11 17 Invisible. 3 18 9 301 9 39 August.

11/11 29 4 431 4 20 8 14 2 2 1 1910 47 Rises, 2 37 8 491 8 53 August. 21 11 391 0 14th 8 40 1 40 12 49 10 17 3 271 3 2 1 56! 8 9 8 13 September 1111 48 Invisible. 8 8 12 53 12 20 9 43 2 55 2 30 1 9 7 221 7 %* Septemher. 11/11 56 Sets. 7 44 12 38 11 54 9 12 2 25 2 112 271 6 41 6 41 September 21 12 021 6 41 6 5 7 24 12 21 11 45 8 4 0 1 54 1 31 11 41 6 17h. October.

1/12 08! 6 00 5 56 612 611 31 8 7 1 23 1 010 59 Sets. October. 1112 151 5 551 5 45 6 50 11 53 11 23 7 3412 50/12 29/10 17 4 81 4 3 October

21 12 231 5 521 5 37 6 35 11 43 11 16 7.0 12 1711 58 9 36 3 271 3 20 November. 1112 33 553 5 28 S 20 11 34 11 10 62211 43 11 22 8 50

2 41 2 34 November 11\12 45 5 541 5 28 6 6 11 25 11 5 5 46 11 8110 47 8 10 2 11 1 54 November 21 12 59 6 11 5 31 5 52 11 18/11 1 5 8/10 30 10 9 30 1 21 1 14 December

1 1 141 6 141 542 5 39 11 1110 57 4 301 9531 9 32 6 51 12 42 12 33 December. 111 1 29 6 29 5 57 5 26 11 5 10 55 3 501 9 13 8 52 6 12 12

3/11 59 December 21 1 44 647 6 18 5 12 10 5810 51 3 & 8 30 8 9 5 34 11 211u 15 December. 31 1577 6 42 4 58 10 50 10 46 2 26 748 26 4 57110 45 10 31 CHRONOLOGICAL ERAS.

EMBER DAYS.

Wednesday, Friday and Saturday after The year 1907, which comprises the lat

First Sunday in Lent-February 20, 2 ter part of the 131st and the beginning of

and 23. the 1320 year of the independence of the

Pentecost-May 22, 24 and 25. United States of America, corresponds

September 14 September 18, 20 and 21. nearly to

December 13-December, 18, 20 and 21. The Manometan year 1325, which be- MAHOMETAN CALENDAR–A, M. 8016 gins on February 14

-1907 A. D. The year 5668 of the Jews, which be

The Mahometan year 1325 is the 5th of gins on September 9, or at sunset Sep- the 44th cycle of 30 years, and contains tember 8,

355 days.

Lasts The Chinese rear 4604, which begins

Year.
Month.

Begins. days February 13.

1324...11...Dul Kaeda (1906). Dec, 13 30 The year 7415-16 of the Byzantine Era,

1324...12...Dulhegge (1907)..Jan, 18 beginning September 1.

1325,.. 1...Muharrem Feb. 14 The year 2219 of the Grecian Era, which

1325. 2... Saphar

March 16

29 began near the Vernal Equinox, B. C. 312.

1325...3... Rabia I.. April 14 30 The year 2567 of the Japanese Era.

1325.. 4...Rabia II.... May 14 29

1325... 5...Jomhadi I.......June 12 80 CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES.

1325. 6...Jomhadi II......July 12 29 F

1325... Dominical Letter....

7... Rajeb

.Aug. 10 16

1325... 3... Shaban ......... Sept. Epact (Moon's age, January 1).

9 8

1325... 9...Ramadan* Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number

Oct. Solar Cycle..

12

1325...10...Schawall ..Nov. Roman Indiction.....................

8

1325...11...Dul Kaeda......Dec. Julian Period.

6620

1325...12...Dulhegge (1908)..Jan. 5 Dionyrian Period.

238 1326... 1... Muharrem (1908), Feb. Jewisb Lunar Cycle..

*Fasting.

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