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or (6) the holder of an office for the time being. Where the instrument is payable to order the payee must be named or otherwise indicated therein with reasonable certainty. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

$ 9. When payable to bearer.— The instrument is payable to bearer, (1) when it is expressed to be so payable; or (2) when it is payable to a person named therein or bearer; or (3) when it is payable to the order of a fictitious or non-existing person and such fact was known to the person making it so payable; or (4) when the name of the payee does not purport to be the name of any person; or (5) when the only or last indorsement is an indorsement in blank. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

§ 10. Language of statute not essential.—The negotiable instrument need not follow the language of this act, but any terms are sufficient which clearly indicate an intention to conform to the requirements thereof. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

$ 11. Date: as prima facie evidence. When the instrument or an acceptance or any indorsement therein is dated, such date is deemed prima facie to be the true date of the making, drawing, acceptance or endorsement as the case may be. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

$ 12. Same: instrument ante-dated or post-dated. The instrument is not invalid for the reason only that it is ante-dated or post-dated, provided this is not done for an illegal or fraudulent purpose; the person to whom an instrument so dated is delivered acquires the title thereto as of the date of delivery. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

$ 13. Same: insertion of date.--Where an instrument expressed to be payable at a fixed period after date is issued undated or where the acceptance of an instrument payable at a fixed period after sight is undated, any holder may insert therein the true date of issue or acceptance and the instrument shall be payable accordingly; the insertion of a wrong date does not avoid the instrument in the hands of a subsequent holder in due course, but as to him, the date so inserted is to be regarded as the true date. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

§ 14. Incomplete instrument: filling blanks.—Where the instrument is wanting in any material particular, the person in possession thereof has a prima facie authority to complete it by filling up the blanks therein; and a signature on a blank paper delivered by the person making the signature in order that the paper may be converted into a negotiable instrument operates as a prima facie authority to fill it up as such for any amount; in order, however, that any such instrument when completed may be enforced ågainst any person who became a party thereto prior to its completion it must be filled up strictly in accordance with the authority given and within a reasonable time; but if any such instrument after completion, is negotiated to a holder in due course it is valid and effectual for all purposes in his hands and he may enforce it as if it had been filled up strictly in accordance with the authority given and within a reasonable time. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

§ 15. Same: delivery essential to validity.—Where an incomplete instrument has not been delivered it will not, if completed and negotiated without authority, be a valid contract in the hands of any holder as against any person whose signature was placed thereon before delivery. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

$ 16. Delivery: who must make; explanation by parol evidence; presumptions.—Every contract on a negotiable instrument is incomplete and revocable until delivery of the instrument for the purpose of giving effect thereto. As between immediate parties and as regards a remote party other than a holder in due course, the delivery, in order to be effectual must be made either by or under the authority of the party making, drawing, accepting or indorsing as the case may be; and in such case the delivery may be shown to have been conditional or for a special purpose only and not for the purpose of transferring the property in the instrument; but where the instrument is in the hands of a holder in due course, a valid delivery thereof by all parties prior to him so as to make them liable to him, is conclusively presumed; and where the instrument is no longer in the possession of a party whose signature appears thereon, a valid and intentional delivery by him is presumed until the contrary is proved. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

$ 17. Rules of construction.--Where the language of the instrument is ambiguous or there are omissions therein the following rules of construction apply: (1) Where the sum payable is expressed in words and also in figures and there is a discrepancy between the two the sum denoted by the words is the sum payable; but if the words are ambiguous or uncertain, reference may be had to the figures to fix the amount. (2) Where the instrument provides for the payment of interest without specifying the date from which interest is to run, the interest runs from the date of the instrument and if the instrument is undated, from the issue thereof. (3) Where the instrument is not dáted it will be considered to be dated as of the time it was issued. (4) Where there is a conflict between the written and printed provisions of the instrument, the written provisions prevail. (5) Where the instrument is so ambiguous that there is doubt whether it is a bill or a note, the holder may treat it as either at his election. (6) Where a signature is so placed upon the instrument that it is not clear in what capacity the person making the same intended to sign, he is to be deemed an endorser. (7) Where an instrument containing the words “I promise to pay” is signed by two or more persons they are deemed to be jointly and severally liable thereon. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

§ 18. Signature: necessity; when in trade or assumed name.No person is liable on the instrument whose signature does not appear thereon except as herein otherwise expressly provided ; but one who signs in a trade or assumed name will be liable to the same extent as if he had signed in his own name. (Acts 1907, Reg Sess., c. 81.)

$ 19. Same: by agent.--The signature of any party may be made by a duly authorized agent; no particular form of appointment is necessary for this purpose, and the authority of the agent may be established as in other cases of agency. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

§ 20. Where the instrument contains, or a person adds to his signature words indicating that he signs for or on behalf of the principal or in a representative capacity, he is not liable on the instrument if he was duly authorized; but the mere addition of words describing him as an agent or as filling a representative character without disclosing his principal, does not exempt him from personal liability. (Acts 1907, Reg Sess., c. 81.)

$ 21. A signature by procuration operates as notice that the agent has but limited authority to sign, and the principal is bound only in case the agent in so signing acted within the actual limits of his authority. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

§ 22. Negotiation by corporation or infant.—The indorsement or assignment of the instrument by a corporation or by an infant passes the property therein, notwithstanding that from want of capacity the corporation or infant may incur no liability thereon. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

$ 23. When signature forged or made without authority.Where a signature is forged or made without the authority of the person whose signature it purports to be, it is wholly inoperative and no right to retain the instrument or to give a discharge therefor or to enforce payment thereof against any party thereto, can be acquired through or under such signature unless the party against whom it is sought to enforce such right is precluded from setting up the forgery or want of authority. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

ARTICLE II.-CONSIDERATION.

$ 24. Presumption of consideration.--Every negotiable instrument is deemed prima facie to have been issued for a valuable consideration, and every person whose signature appears thereon to have become a party thereto for value. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

25. What is value.-Value is any consideration sufficient to support a simple contract; an antecedent or pre-existing debt constitutes value, and is deemed such, whether the instrument is payable on demand or at a future time. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

§ 26. When one holder for value; lien.—Where value has at any time been given for the instrument, the holder is deemed a holder for value in respect to all parties who became such prior to that time. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

$ 27. Whether the holder has a lien on the instrument, arising either from contract or by implication of law, he is deemed a holder for value to the extent of his lien. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

§ 28. Failure of consideration as matter of defense.—Absence or failure of consideration is a matter of defense as against any person not a holder in due course, and partial failure of consideration is a defense pro tanto, whether the failure is an ascertained and a liquidated amount or otherwise. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

$ 29. Who accommodation party; liability.--An accommodation party is one who has signed the instrument as maker, drawer, acceptor or indorser, without receiving value therefor, and for the purpose of lending his name to some other person ; such a person is liable on the instrument to a holder for value, notwithstanding such holder, at the time of taking the instrument, knew him to be only an accommodation party. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

ARTICLE III.-NEGOTIATION.

$ 30. When instrument negotiated.-An instrument is negotiated when it is transferred from one person to another in such manner as to constitute the transferee the holder thereof; if payable to bearer it is negotiable by delivery; if payable to order it is negotiated by the indorsement of the holder, completed by delivery. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

$ 31. Indorsements; place; signature sufficient. The indorsement must be written on the instrument itself or upon a paper attached thereto; the signature of the indorser, without additional words, is a sufficient endorsement. (Acts 1907, Reg. Sess., c. 81.)

§ 32. Same: must be of entire instrument.—The indorsement must be an indorsement of the entire instrument; an indorsement which purports to transfer to the endorsee a part only of the amount payable, or which purports to transfer the instrument to two or more endorsees severally, does not operate as a negotiation of the instrument; but where the instrument has been paid

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