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INDIA

IN THE

VICTORIAN AGE

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LECTURER IN INDIAN HISTORY AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON ;
LATE OFF. COMISSIONER OF ORIBSA AND MEMBER OP

THE BENGAL LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL ;.
AUTHOR OF "THE ECONOMIC HISTORY OF BRITISH INDIA,

1757 TO 1837,” ETC.

LONDON
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRÜBNER & CO. LTM
DRYDEN HOUSE, GERRARD STREET, W.

HC. 435 · 0979

1904

The rights of translation and of reproduction are reserved

Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & Co.

At the Ballantyne Press

PREFACE

Six years ago, there was a celebration in London which was like a scenic representation of the Unity of the British Empire. Men from all British Colonies and Dependencies came together to take part in the Diamond Jubilee of a Great Queen's reign. Indian Princes stood. by the side of loyal Canadians and hardy Australians. The demonstration called forth an outburst of enthusiasm seldom witnessed in these islands. And to thoughtful minds it recalled a long history of bold enterprises, arduous struggles, and a wise conciliation, which had cemented a world - wide Empire. Nations, living in different latitudes and under different skies, joined in a celebration worthy of the occasion.

One painful thought, however, disturbed the minds of the people. Amidst signs of progress and prosperity from all parts of the Empire, India alone presented a scene of poverty and distress. A famine, the most intense and the most widely extended yet known, desolated the country in 1897. The most populous portion of the Empire had not shared its prosperity. Increasing wealth, prospering industries, and flourishing agriculture, had not followed the flag of England ia her greatest dependency.

The famine was not over till 1898. There was a pause in 1899. A fresh famine broke out in 1900 over a-larger area, and continued for a longer period. The terrible calamity lasted for three years, and millions of men perished. Tens of thousands were still in relief camps when the Delhi Darbar was held in January

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