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the manufacturing districts, 2; infant serfs of a parative expense at large and small hotels, 276;
ter of the lower classes, 289; influence of the
principal parties in Italy, and how far they are
the constitutional party, Azeglio, ib.; the Federal
party, Manin, 294; the Republicans, Mazzini,
ib.; extinction of the divisions of Italy not desira-
ble, 296; difficulties in the way, Sicily, ib.; the
Pope, how to be disposed of, 298; how the Italian
his plays, the irregularity of his life, 109; his English, 300; absurdities of the Vienna Congress
arrangement, 300, 301 ; union of moral and mate-
"Amelia," 113; anecdotes of Fielding, ib.
origin of the alliance, ib.; Scotland before the Jones, Inigo, associated with Ben Jonson in the
portrait of him too unfavourable, 254; his peculi-
arities as a poet and dramatist, ib.
Hotels, 269; the "line" has supplanted the road, and Manufacturing system of education, 6.
the railway hotel the roadside hotel, ib. ; pleasure Mettray and Red-Hill farm-schools, 222; the train-
school system, ib.; description of Mettray, 227; |
holidays, 235; necessity of religious teaching, 237. land, 77; London compared with continental
towns, ib. ; how far the clergy have lost the confi-
tion from the trammels of polemical theologies, ib. ; Wales compared, ib.; the English Church, its de-
sions, David Nasmyth, 88; fundamental idea of
labourers, 89, 90, their training, 90; scene from Mr.
Vanderkiste's experience, 91, 92; religious tracts,
92; results of city missiong, 93, 94; open-air
Nash, 95; progress towards Christian union, 96.
, in France, 48; Louis Schools (Scottish) for the middle classes, 192 ; ex-
amination for East India Civil Service, ib.; Scot-
tish share of the prizes, 193; reason of the small
success, ib. ; High School of Edinburgh, 194;
yearly examinations, 195; how Scottish schools
differ from English, 196; lowering of the Scottish
Universities into drill schools, ib.; Scottish en.
dowments compared with English, 198; Scottish
University Extension, 200; false position of the
universities, “poaching upon the schools," 201 ;
professional schools, 204; examination for the
Royal Artillery and Engineers, 205.
lish Norman kings, attempts of, to annex Scotland,
Secret service-money in France, 54.
Dr. Blair's, ib.; Dr. Chalmers's, ib. ; Dr. Guthrie's
discourses, 256; illustrative word-pictures, 257;
undue fetters upon the freedom of the pulpit, 260;
prospects of the future, 261; the Episcopalian
pulpit, 262; Mr. Stanley's sermons on the Apostol-
exhibitions, 123; the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, their peculiar excellences, 268.
viewed in contrast with Ben Jonson, 252.
tions, 71; produces the play of " Adelaide," and
Sketches, Legal and Political,” 72 ; his speeches,
posed of by Bunsen, 220.
, 139; parliamentary committee of the Steven's (Dr.) history of the High School of Edin-
Teulet's State Papers reviewed, 155.
moral imperfection of his characters, 104, 105; his view of the British people, ib.; colder views of the
the present European arrangements indefensible,
146; the Vienna Congress, ib.; the three Eastern
Powers in reference to the status quo, 146, 147;
Turkey, 147; the Russian dominions, 148; the
Austrian dominions, 149; disposal of the Crimea
and the Trans-Caucasian provinces, 151.
Wartmann, Professor, analysis of his Memoirs on co-
missionary machinery which the National Church
count of his researches on colour-blindness, 177.
NORTH BRITISH REVIEW.
1 8 5 5.
Art. 1.- Owens College. Annual Report even this, or, say both in different senses,
of the PRINCIPAL, read in the Common have become what they are as they stand Hall, at the Meeting for the Distribution related to that IndUSTRIAL Greatness of of Prizes, 29th June 1855.
Britain, which, with its bone and sinew, and
with its Titan force, rises up new every LAY before you, on the right hand, a map of morning from the bowels of the earth. If the Geology of the British Islands, and on then we were in search of the final causes of the left hand Bradshaw's (much needed) il- the railway system, as it now covers the lustration of the mysteries of his “Railway land, or of its efficient causes, or of its hisGuide.” Volumes of thought are suggested toric origin—in search of the first, and of the by a comparison of the two sheets! Tell us, second, and of the third, we must go
whither? if any can tell us, how many cycles of cen- we must do what? book ourselves at Euston turies, or millions of Telluric millenniums Square for Manchester. have run themselves out to make up the in In the present grave aspect of European terval of duration which separates those affairs, who shall come forward and assure physical evolutions that are set forth in the us that, ere long, Her Most Gracious Maone sheet, from those engineering operations jesty will not be called by the voice of the that are set forth in the other ! Neverthe British people to fight the world almost sinless, the causal relationship of the one to the gle-handed, in defence of that one spot on other is obvious and unquestionable. So far earth where liberty, political, civil, and relias the ways and works of man are concern- gious, is truly understood and is fully enjoy. ed, it is a thesis not needing much argument ed? But should such a time come--and to establish it, that those interlacings and may God avert it!-whence will be drawn perplexed crossings which belt the island the funds and material of so mighty a confrom Birkenhead to Grimsby—from Ripon flict? From the sources whence has come to Stafford or Birmingham, are the direct the iron ribbing which Bradshaw's map consequences of those treasures of the mate- brings under the eye. Let the other sources rials of industry which underlay the same of the nation's surplus wealth be reckoned areas, and which our recent geology has at their utmost, it might easily be shewn mapped out.
that the share contributed, directly or indiBut, looking beyond this region, there is rectly, by the manufacturing energies of the a true sense in which these wonders of na- manufacturing districts, is large almost be. tional wealth and of mechanic art, which yond computation. Bradshaw's map exhibits-netting with iron We need not therefore stay to prove that the Island, from Falmouth to Aberdeen, re- the prosperity of these districts is every ceive their explication from the geological Englishman's concern. Though he be a chart. Grant it that the agricultural wealth grower of corn in the eastern or southern of England has contributed its share to this counties, or a trader in a dull provincial network: Grant it too, that the colonial town, far remote from the din of machinery, greatness of England, and that its vast com- he may, nevertheless, from time to time, merce have furnished a large share; yet make the anxious inquiry, “How are things
going on at Birmingham, at Sheffield, at physical result of their peculiar modes of Leeds, at Preston, at Stockport, at Manches. life. This is true to some extent, but no ter ?" The artillery of England's future safe- more than superficially. The races indigety is at this moment either a-making, or it is nous to this region claim a high antiquity, not a-making in these towns, and in the hun- and their characteristics are manifestly such dred towns around them; and it is so what- as must be of a permanent kind. At this ever their line of business may be, whether present time, and if we are walking the in iron or in cotton, or in silk, or in wool, or streets and lanes of the principal manufacin clay. It can be no impertinence then, on turing towns, we must of course set off a the part of any one who seeks to inform him- large percentage of all whom we meet as self concerning these vital interests, or who an alien population, attracted from distant even ventures to suggest what he thinks districts by the higher rate of wages which might perhaps promote and secure them, usually, or at certain times, are there to be and which at present may be wanting. obtained. On all sides, too, we encounter
But it may seem to the reader that man- the people of Scotland, and, alas ! abundant ufactures, and that manufacturers might overflowings from the Sister Isle, as well as safely be left to take care of themselves. a mixed multitude always filtering in from Can one push one's way through the sunless the agricultural counties, proximate and restreets of these great towns, or mount from mote. Yet amidst these alloys it is never story to story in the mills, and shops, and dificult to attach the genuine man of the warehouses to the right and left, and then region—the Lancashire man, or the Yorkentertain a doubt as to the energy, or the shire man. His osteology alone would dauntless, untiring, well-skilled determina- mark him; then the set of his muscular tion of the Principals and the subordinates system-his tendency to adipose accumulawhich have been, and which are, the soul of tions—the peculiar hinging of the lower these mighty movements ? What need can limbs upon the pelvis-and, not least, his there be either to stimulate this productive speech bewrays him; his twang, and the ardour, or to inform it? Is it not firmly re- ample justice which he does to certain fasolved, and does it not thoroughly under-voured vowels, and to some much loved stand its days' work? Is it not eager enough, diphthongs. and bold too, in pursuit of its object? Is it Gentlefolk, inhabitants of the southern, not astute, experienced, and endlessly patient eastern, and south-midland counties, who of toil ? All this must be granted, and much seldom if ever visit the manufacturing more to the same purport might be affirmed region, or do so only to rush through it in without exaggeration. Truly it is admirable the “ Express," on their way to Scotland or to see with what spirit and courage, with the Lakes, such persons amuse themselves what largeness of view, with what perfection sometimes by talking about the manufacof method, with what address, with what turing population" in tones of pity, which force, with what niceness, with what power, show strikingly how utterly at fault even with what massiveness and volume, with well-informed people may be concerning what infinitesimal parsimony in the details, broad and obvious facts, a true knowledge with what freedom and nobleness, with what of which might be acquired by a three rigidness and care, the men of these manu- days' sojourn in a region that is not more facturing districts are now working up, and than seven hours distant from their homes. are turning to the best account, those trea- There are, indeed, times of awful stagnasures of fuel and of mineral which were laid tion, and there are also clusters of towns up for their use, and hidden deep beneath and villages devoted to peculiar lines of the soil, at the morning hour of the planeta- business, when and where a manufacturing ry system.
population wears the aspect of sad priVery little of the tendency to theorize, vation, of squalor, of extreme wretchedness; or to catch at imaginary relationships, suf- but such times and such spots are excepfices for suggesting the belief that the tional. It should also always be recollected, aboriginal population which occupies the that a dense population will not fail, even at area now in view, strongly marked as it is, the best, to shew its scum, and that it will in its physical and mental characteristics, conceal, until it be searched for, its feculent has a predestinated adaptation to the part as- sediment—the intemperate, the dissolute, signed to it, as the working force upon this the debauched, the blind and the maimed ground. Let those who profess the “ De- also, and, alas! (it is a grief to say it ever velopment” philosophy, as applicable to all and again) the Irish! things, affirm, if they please, that the peo But now let us invite the reader to travel ple have become what they are as the con- with us a hundred or two miles, and, within sequence of their occupations, and as the the compass of a ten hours journey, to