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I must now come to the subject more Up to November, 1874, fifteen parties of nearly affecting us as Canadians, namely, children passed through the Home, emthe plan first suggested and put into prac. | bracing 727 workhouse girls and 160 worktice by Miss Rye,* and now carried on by house boys from all parts of England and so many others in a similar manner.t Wales, and 259 stray girls and 40 stray
This plan of infant pauper emigration arab' boys, making up a total of 1186. has met with high approval, and I cannot | We have given the figures up to the a do better than quote the words of the his-date, as Miss Rye's report to Mr. Sclatertorian who has the most intimate practical Booth, printed in 1876, gives an exhaustive acquaintance with the British Colonies, I and tabulated synopsis of these 1186 chilmean Mr. Froude. In his Short Studies | dren. on Great Subjects,after commenting on | The method employed by Miss Rye in the difficulties attendant upon Government managing the importation of children has taking upon itself to assist adult emigration been diametrically opposed to the system, on a large scale, he goes on: There is the working of which we have seen so much not the same difficulty in providing for the cause to condemn in the work house-schools young. When Mr. Forster's Education Bill at home. Individuality and freedom from is fairly in work, in one shape or another cramping, cast-iron regulations seem to add we shall have more than a million boys and redoubled vigour to the Anglo-Saxon chargirls in these islands, of whom at least a acier in grappling with a great moral probfourth will be adrift when their teaching is lem or social difficulty. English troops over, with no definite outlook. Let the were starved and frozen to death in the State for once resume its old character and trenches round Sebastopol, and English constitute itself the constable of some, at volunteer pluck and private philanthropic least, of these helpless ones. When the energy did what centralization, with its grammatical part of their teaching is over, tangled skein of rules and regulations criplet them have a year or two of industrial pling its thousand hands and blinding its instruction, and, under understanding with thousand eyes, was hardly aware of the the colonial authorities, let them be drafted necessity of doing. And so it was in this off where their services are most in demand. case.* The workers were selected by the The settlers would be delighted to re best and only bearable competitive examinceive and clothe and feed them on the ation, viz., trial in the positions they were conditions of the old apprenticeship. .... wanted to fill. The work of distribution Welcome in some shape ihey are certain to was grouped as much as possible round be ; a continued stream of young, well centres. In towns and cities such as Newtaught, unspoilt English natures would be castle, Guelph, St. Catharines, Grimsby, the most precious gift which the colonies Oakville, Mount Forest, Chatham, and St. could receive from us.
Thomas, friends were found to take an Three years before this work was pub unpaid interest in the children's welfare. Jished, Miss Rye had taken a party of 68 Their local knowledge was turned to good children out to Canada, $ and in Decem purpose in procuring and forwarding to the ber of the same year, 1869, opened 'Our central home the applications of those who Western Home' at Niagara, Ont., as a cen. desired children, together with such infortral or distributing home for the children. mation as they could supply as to the charac
ter of the applicants. Miss Rye supple* Mr. Van Meter, of New York, had, yet earlier,
mented this information by confidential put his Wanderer's Home into working order, and
enquiries, made direct to the Minister, successfully placed many outcast girls of that city in Mavor, or Reeve, as to the person desiring a the Far West.
child, and not till these were satisfactorily + Among others may be named, Miss Macpher
answered was the child placed out. To son and Miss Bilborough, with their homes at Belleville and elsewhere; the Rev. S. Herring, Rev.
these local centres, reports would be made Geo. Rogers, Miss Fletcher, Rev. B. Stevenson working at Hamilton, Dr. Middleton at London (Ont.), and Mrs. Burt in the Province of Nova * This absence of red-tape' appears to have Scotia.
greatly prejudiced the Inspector, Mr. Doyle: food, # Vol. 2, p. 510, published 1872.
unless given on a fixed dietary, would appear to be S S. S. Hibernian sailed 28th October, 1869. | innutritious to the regular official stomach,
by the master, from them permission would lutely bad, 'did not suit,' girls who would in the first instance be sought to replace or do anything for a change and who considreturn a child, and the volunteer assistants ered it good fun to come back to Niagara acted as watchers over the material and and be placed out again for the fourth or moral welfare of the children, and commu fifth time. Some 300 of the girls have had nicated with headquarters if the necessity places found for them twice or oftener, one arose for any interference.
irreconcilable' having ten homes found her, Two modes of putting out the children and no less than three others nearly emuare practised by Miss Rye, the first is that lating her performance with nine places by which the child is bound for service, each. Of course this trouble did not dein which case it is apprenticed till the agevelop into unpleasant proportions until of eighteen. Up to fifteen the master feeds, the work had been going on for some clothes, and educates it ; for the next two years, but it is now clearly perceived by years it is paid $3 a month wages, with ihose who are interested in it, that it was a which to clothe itself, so as to induce mistake not to have had, from the first, thoughtful habits and the faculty of hus some kind of reformatory receptacle for banding its own resources. During the these girls in another locality from the Home, last year of the service the wages are a dol with a distinct staff, seeing that the two lar a month more, and after that both par- works are so different and each is so all-enties are at liberty to make their own bargain grossing that it is nearly impossible for one for the future.
head to give proper attention to both. The other method is that by which the | Again, there was the great difficulty, inchild is adopted, to be treated in a.l respects separable from the state of things in which as one of the master's and mistress's own the immigration first commenced, involved children. In either case a formal inden- in the long distances which had to be reture is entered into, and the person taking peatedly travelled by Miss Rye across the a child binds himself to perform his part of Atlantic. Fifty boards of guardians had to the bargain (including the due seeing to be interviewed all over England, and perthe child's education and church-going), the suaded that the children's welfare and the obligation being entered into with Miss diminution of the rates were alike involved Rye and her two trustees, Mr. R. N. Ball in their voting her the children and the and Mr. Paffard, both of Niagara.
money necessary to cover expenses. When . Out of the 1186 already mentioned, some the guirdians were persuaded that Canada 340 have been adopted, and the rest (with was neither a land of Ogres nor a field of the exception of some few who have gone perpetual snow, the Home Government had to their friends) have been bound to ser- to be persuaded to yield its consent as well, vice. In many cases, however, where, for and to add to this, an endless corresponinstance, the family and girl take their dence had to be carried on with the child. meals together, this 'binding' is really | ren and their employers all over Canada. nothing elie than an adoption—the 'taking In 1873 Miss Rye also started a training in' of a child into the family as a new mem- | Home at Peckham for her little waifs and ber, sharing all things with them and strays, innocent even of the tender mercies participating alike in their joys and their of the workhouse. One hundred and ninesorrows.
ty-eight of the children passed through this The work had not been going on long Home, and, with 101 other stray children, when difficulties cropped up. Some of these form a class very distinct from those taken were more or less inherent in the scheme, | from the workhouse schools. They were others were wilfully cast in its way by ob found to display a warmth of affection, a structionists and people with yet mean keenness of disposition, and a fertility of re er motives. In the first class we may rank source which bore a lively contrast to the the trouble inseparable from the occasional comparatively duller type produced on the return to the Home at Niagara of incorrigi | stereotyped workhouse pattern. And their ble and insubordinate girls, who, though morals are better, for out of the sixteen not in large numbers, proved sad trials on girls who alone out of 1186 have had ille account of the necessity of isolating them; gitimate children since their arrival in the the return of girls, who, though not abso- | Dominion, every one was a workhouse girl,
From this digression I must return to the nient to retire from the Inspectorship, but other class of difficulties which have beset though this was to some extent a withdrawal this work. I allude to those caused by pre from the contest, the mischief he had done judiced criticism and conflicting interests. was yet considerable. The Government Mention has been made of the opposition of had the necessary pretext for delay and furthe pauper officials; but the advent to powerther enquiry, which is the usual weapon of of Disraeli's Conservative Government a reactive Ministry. Ever since, the two in England, apt to discover excuses for ladies who were so cruelly attacked have checking emigration and desirous of pleas been compelled, in addition to their usual ing its plutocratic supporters by taking steps tasks, to meet this common enemy. In to prevent anything that would tend to in- | 1875 both Miss Rye and Miss Macpherson crease wages, was a far more powerful in appeared before the select committee on fluence against the work.
Immigration and Colonization at Ottawa, In June, 1874, Mr. Doyle, a local Gov and evidence of great value in rebuttal ernment Inspector, was ordered by the of Mr. Doyle's allegations was given by home authorities to report upon the system prominent members of the Dominion Parliaof juvenile pauper emigration to Canada, mentand others.* As aresult of this enquiry, and after a perfunctory inspection he made and at Miss Rye's request, an audit of her achis report in the December of that year. counts, from 1869 to 1875 inclusive, was
The report was virtually an attack upon undertaken by the Department of AgriculMiss Rye's and Miss Macpherson's labours, ture, with the result of showing a total reas no attempt was made to enquire into the ceipt of $76,693.39 (of which less than six other Canadian workers in the same | $3,500 was obtained from the Canadian field. In effect the report practically con Governments), and a vouched expenditure demned the work and was really injurious of $46,444,33 in England, and $30,298.98 by the manner in which it mixed up the de | in Canada. Immediately upon this the tails of the various systems pursued by Dominion Government made a grant of those ladies, so that whatever blame he con- $1000 to assist in keeping open the home ceived was attachable to any point, might, at Niagara, while intimating that in future as far as possible, injure them both. It the Provincial Governments would be the elicited a series of indignant protests from proper bodies to give assistance. those who knew most of the scheme in its The Ontario Government did in fact, in practical working, and who declined to be- | June, 1876, agree to make a payment of lieve that a flying visit to less than 400 $6 a head on each child brought out, to aschildren selected at haphazırd, could afford sist in covering expenses; and besides these sufficient material upon which to form a tokens of an unshaken confidence in the sound judgment as to the well-being of the | success of the scheme, the Dominion Gov. three thousand children placed out in Ca ernment ordered a house-to-house visitation nada. The superficial manner in which the of the children, which was carried out by inspection was made, appeared evident experienced immigration agents, whose from his fear least the. arab' children complete report was in every way as favourshould corrupt those who came from work-able as Mr. Doyle's imperfect one had been houses,--we have already seen that the unfavourable.t balance of morals and intellect lies in the In spite of these facts, however, the other direction. His impartiality was Home Government refuses to budge an doubted, when, after stating that full mone inch. During this summer, the Board of tary details had been offered him, and an | St. George's, Hanover Square, London, auditing of accounts requested, which he having passed a resolution that a number was compelled to decline undertaking, he of children should be sent out under Miss yet proceeds to state and assume figures Rye's care; the necessary consent by the and facts in his reports, on which to base a Local Government Board was refused by presumption that the emigration scheme was a profitable one to those who took it in hand.
* First report of Select Committee on ImmigraMr. Sclater-Booth, and a deputation from fair record. Contrasting the condition of the Board was dismissed, with a plain intima- the children in England, one brought to tion that the children's labour was wanted the Home with skull broken and arm disat home. And to support this position, it located by the kicks of a drunken father,' is now announced that Mr. Doyle has pre- or the 'two sisters found nearly starving, pared a second edition of his report, which alone, in a room, on a bundle of shavings, – has been printed at the public expense and contrasting this with even the worst place distributed with the other blue books, the obtained for them here in Canada, and Department not having had the justice to what a change for the better is at once print at the same time the elaborate report seen ! and reply of Miss Rye, which the ex-In What hope for the future may not be spector's last effusion is intended to rebut. expected from the training given by the
tion and Colonization, Ottawa, 1875. Mr. Doyle, before the matter came before + Report of Select Standing Committee on Im. the Imperial Parliament, found it conve- 1 & Col., p. 16. 1877. Ottawa.
To sum up shortly the results of the good housewife at the farm, so different work. Instead of 23 or 30 per cent. of the from the dull routine of classwork in the children being missing, 24 per cent is in workhouse-school at home? Whilst, by excess of the number who have been lost those of our country who feel the need of sight of, and of these, several cases are no domestic help, and desire to increase that doubt attributable to imperfect postal ar class of immigrants which comes to us rangements. Nearly half the girls are in without the violent wrench of associations their first homes and doing well; half of snapped asunder in mid-life, and all the the balance, though placed out more than attendant risk of unsettled habits in the once, are yet doing satisfactorily. Four future,—this work has been recognized as teen deaths have occurred, six of which a great boon, and, to such as these, the were accidental ; sixteen girls, as already prospect of its possible curtailment, to say stated, have had illegitimate children, and nothing of its entire cessation, would prove 104 have been returned to the Home for most disappointing. obstinacy and violent temper. Contrasting | Let us hope that wiser counsels will these figures with the results already quoted ultimately govern the Government at home, from Mrs. Nassau-Senior's report, or with and induce them to withdraw that interdict the 966 children who absconded in one which has, for a time at least, checked the year from English Reformatories and In- | immigration of the workhouse children. dustrial Schools, and they indeed show a
ROUND THE TABLE.
m wo of the most healthful signs of the beautiful ever varying archipelago of
1 progress at present, in the way of the St. Lawrence, where his “Thousand higher and more healthful living among us, Islands' lie locked in his Triton embrace, are-the growing taste for flower culture the white tent of the camper stands out and nature beauty about our homes, and picturesquely and suggestively against the the growing love of camping out. Certainly dark soliage, or the more stately yacht lies nothing could be a more healthful as well at anchor in some miniature harbour. Of as innocent change and relaxation from the all the summer delights of this primitive hurry and overstrain of city life than the and patriarchal life one might discourse 'camping out' parties which have been almost ad infinitum ;-the breathing the abounding, since the warm weather began fresh pure air, sweet with pine or cedar, to be felt, amid all our charming lake and itself a keen sensuous pleasure—the early river scenery. In Muskoka-beloved of morning row or “troll' to catch the parTorontonians; along the pretty chain of ticular fish predestined for your breakfast, lakes in the vicinity of Rice Lake; amid | before the magic glamour of the dawn with
its ineffable tender tints, and delicious one's eyelids, and further resistance is' mystery has yet faded into the light of vain. common day —the bracing morning bath Camping-out is indeed an attempt at which seems really to re-create one, fresh returning to the innocent, simple recreaand new—the fun over the cooking and the tions which are so much more healthful breakfast and the 'clearing away '—the and satisfactory than artificial ones; and delicious dolce far niente of the day- to the more simple and healthful modes of dippings into the books of poetry and fic- | life which were wont to produce a more tion, which temptations at home one would healthful physique. The calm and restfulsternly put aside in the forenoon—putting ness; the thousand-fold enjoyments of sunaway newspapers with the most cursory shine, and green leaves, and still waters, and glance-letting correspondence, for the fragrance of hemlock and pine ; the soothnonce, take care of itself-taking dinner at ing influence of rowing at will amid waterall sorts of irregular hours, and enjoying worn moss-grown rocks, festooned with the after-dinner siesta with an unburdened lush luxuriance of creeper and vine ; the mind and clear conscience-coming out nameless repose which abandonment to again fresh for tea, after another row and the enjoyment of Nature induces; all comand another swim, and then the long deli- , bined might well smooth out the wrinkles cious enjoyment of the evening's changing and creases of a winter of work and worry. hues, the exquisite dissolving tints of sun- | More and more may this mode of summer set, its apple-greens and rose-reds, and holiday-making prosper and grow! Only amber and amethyst gradually fading into let campers beware how they put out their the tender greys of the twilight, while the fires, lest by their carelessness they help to silver moon prolongs the delicious day into destroy the beauty of the spots they have a still more delicious, more spiritual night. enjoyed themselves. And we must earnAmong the Thousand Islands, indeed, the estly hope that government will so far resist moonlight effects are indescribably beautiful the pressure that is being put upon them and varied ; the moon, silver white or rosy to make these islands private property as in the misty veil she sometimes wears at to preserve at least the bulk of them for the her first appearing, throws a quivering free enjoyment and recreation of the people path of rich golden light over the dark pur- of Canada. ple waves, or makes a stretch of river a sea of molten silver, against which you catch | -The Township Council of Utopia have the picturesque outlines of islands traced in submitted to the intelligent electors of that dark silhouettes ; or, lovelier still, see the rural municipality a by-law to carry into efwavering shadows of the dark pines and fect an Act passed a few years since by the more rounded foliage thrown on the silver enlightened Legislative Assembly of Weisssea from which they intercept some of the nichtwo. As I happened to be strolling moonlight. Few things can be more past the town-hall, where the various speakbeautiful than the stretches of dark river ers pro and con. were dinging their argustreaked with rippling stretches of silver, ments into the ratepayers' ears, I stopped these again barred with more intense lines at the door and hearkened a while, with the of silver light, while every curve and inden- | following results :tation of the shore is picked out in gleam The orator who had the 'ear of the ing silver, and every inlet shows with an chairman was in favour of the measure, idealised picturesqueness against the bright and had a breadth of delivery and deepness background. Such nights seem too rare for of chest-notes that spoke of a generous sleep, and make one wish that some way diet. “This bill,' he said, 'my friends, aims could be devised for postponing sleep to at putting an end to a most vicious state of the moonless nights, and taking a double things which has now obtained among us, I portion then. Between the charms of sun. am sorry to say, for many years. Probably set, sunrise, and moonlight, it is indeed few among you, except the elder men, will hard to decide on the portion of time one have any clear idea brought before your is willing to sacrifice to sleep, until the minds when I mention the name of "alcotyrant Morpheus puts his strong hands on hol,” or “ fermented liquor.”' (Movement
I of attention on the part of the young men,