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us with a vividness and force with which fact where the interests or passions of the the occasionally-read history of the dim, parties testifying are enlisted on either side. uncertain past never affects us. Near ob But though aware, as I am, of the warping jects are seen in their full magnitude, while influence of such feelings, I can scarce rethe distant moon looks no bigger than a fuse to accept the report of such a man as dinner plate. But here again, we must refer Dr. Bacon for so much as his statement to Mr. Spencer. “As witnesses of social covers. Yet when he wrote, the question phenomena, men thus impressed by facts had been but a brief period on trial and was which did not before impress them, become still surrounded by a halo of novelty and perverters of evidence .... and so are expectation. The experience of a few years led to regard as a growing evil or good, that may be productive of results as unsatisfacwhich is very likely a diminishing evil or tory as those now realised in Gothenburg, good. Take an example or two.

though at first ushered in by such a flourish 'In generations not long passed away, of trumpets. It may yet be found, that, so sobriety was the exception rather than the long as character remains unaffected, we rule : a man who had never been drunk only exchange one form of vice or crime was a rarity. Condiments were used to for some other ; or that alcoholic drinks create thirst, glasses were so shaped that which had once been taken openly, will now they would not stand, but must be held till be privately indulged in ; and if I know emptied ; and a man's worth was in part anything of human nature, there is nothing measured by the number of bottles he could which deteriorates à man, which withers up take in. After a reaction had already dim all nobleness, which eats like dry-rot into inished the evil among the upper and mid the soul, like the stealthy indulgence in a dle classes, there came an open recognition secret vice—the solitary sot sneaking off of the evil, resulting in temperance societies, slily into some private corner to indulge which did their share towards further dim unseen. He either looks upon the law as inishing it. Then came the teetotal socie tyranny, and frets and vexes his soul with ties, more thorough-going in their views and an indignant sense of its usurpation; or he more energetic in their acts, which have acquiesces in its general propriety, but, been making the evil still less. Such has | | being led by temptation to violate it (though been the effect of these causes, that for a not to any personally-injurious extent) selong time past among the upper classes, the cretly, its very stringency in matters confesdrinking which was once creditable has been sedly immaterial induces a spirit and habit thought a disgrace; while among the lower of illegality, which follows him into other classes it has greatly decreased, and come departments of life. to be generally reprobated. Those, how But, thinks FIDELIS, 'if a majority deever, who, carrying on the agitations against | sire' it .... 'the minority .... must it, have had their eyes more and more just submit.' This is, I believe, a very genwidely opened to the vice, assert or imply | eral way of looking at things—divinest wisin their speeches and petitions, that the dom by a count of heads. Of course, I vice is not only great but growing. Having know all about majorities. I know, too, in the course of a generation much miti that majorities crucified Christ and murgated it by their voluntary efforts, they now dered Socrates and did many other not overmake themselves believe, and make others | wise things; but they never made justice to believe, that it is too gigantic to be dealt | be more or less than justice yet. Justice with otherwise than by repressive enact- is what it is, whether a majority or a miments-Maine laws and Permissive Pro- | nority decides it to be such. Indeed, mahibitory Bills.'

jorities, after all, are only a clumsy, roundI have heard or read so many contradic- about way (albeit, as things go, indispensable) tory statements regarding the operation of of reaching a conclusion as to what ought to the Maine liquor law, that I hardly know be done or not done. By-and-by, things what conclusion to come to, whether it be may be decided wholly on their merits as productive of the apparent benefits or real | just or unjust. And what a world of toil evils equally and as vehemently maintained and trouble it will save our Parliamentarians by its advocates or enemies. It is so hard and argumentarians, if forced to confine to get unbiassed testimony to the simplest their reasonings to this simple considera

tion, instead of wandering at large and vatism, too: for right is the only true contrying to grope their way through the long, servator; and he who builds on anything tortuous by-paths of expediency.

else may find, sooner or later, that he has But to very many—and Fidelisis not quite not been building on a rock. excluded-Government is a kind of abstract In fine, I stand by myself, and you stand entity with inherent rights and extra-human by yourself. I take care of my individuknowledge, which is bound to be always ality and you take care of yours. But if doing something, and may impose its sense you interfere with me or I with you, then of fitness on you and me, as apart and dis- Government, of right, steps in and says: tinct from it-an entity outside an entity- 'Gentlemen, you must not tread on one and may take our money to do its will. In another's toes. The world is wide enough short, it is the old idea of which so many for you both; keep apart, please. I must who ought to know better cannot divest see fair play done ; for “I am a constable themselves, but which, like so much else, is to keep the peace.” gradually becoming obsolete and dying out. Nor does this at all exclude the idea of Whereas Government is but the creature sympathy or pity or help to others, or of and representative of you and of me and of any gentle or generous or noble human the rest of us, and possesses only such pow- feeling. On the contrary it strengthens it. ers as we possess in our individual capacity But it puts every virtue into its proper and delegate to it. But as we possess no place, with justice, the foundation, chief and power to 'meddle and muddle,' neither first of all. does it.

But how could such a system be carried But this, it will be said, is radicalism pure out? It is perfect Utopia ! and simple. So it is, for all reasoning must Gentlemen, let us make ourselves famigo to the root of things. But it is conser- ' liar with the idea first.

J. A. ALLEN.

ACROSS AFRICA.*

To have accomplished that which others the Cape, from Zanzibar to Benguela, and

desire to have done but which no one has thence up again to Gibraltar, England is done is a just passport to fame. That the only the one spot of the outside world of which the two white men who have, as far as is known, natives have some cognizance. It is true, traversed Africa from the Indian to the of course, that the French hold Algiers and Atlantic coast are both Englishmen, is a certain settlements on the Gold Coast ; but factof which we are all proud; proud, not only France never has been and never will be a because of the endurance and daring to successful coloniser, and to-day, outside the which such a feat bears testimony, but also be range of the rifles of the Chasseurs cause it seems to us but another proof how | d'Afrique, the position of the Algerian colostrangely the destinies of England and that nists is not so very different from the great continent are being bound up together. sketches with which Punch ridiculed Louis How it has come about, why it has come Philippe's African enterprise thirty years about, we do not know, but no one who | ago, when the cows all carried small howhas paid even a superficial attention to itzers on their backs. In the Northern and African history and African discovery can North-Western deserts German savans have fail to be struck with the prominence which sacrificed their lives nobly in the cause of English enterprise, English trade, English geographical and physical science, and the habits, and English religion are assuming in king of the Belgians is now prominently all quarters of Africa. From Alexandria to | taking up the cause of African discovery,

*ACROSS AFRICA. By Verney Lovett Cameron, C.B.D.C.L., Commander R. N. Gold Medallist Royal

Geographical Society, etc. New York : Harper Brothers. Toronto : Hart & Rawlinson.

but it is only on the lines already laid down repeated, need not be dull, as this book by the English. Were it not for the testifies ; for the author's plain but graphic troublein the Transvaal Republic we should account of his exploits is deeply interesting. almost forget that the Dutch ever held a And so we will try to give to those to whom footing in Africa, while it would be well the book itself is not accessible, some idea for the credit of Portugal if we could alto- of what Cameron did and how he did it. gether put out of sight her great opportun Disappointed in his application for emities and the manner in which she has mis ployment on the first Livingstone Search used them. With a clear start in the race, Expedition, Cameron, intent on African with a clear opening under the noble travel somehow or other, devoted his spare ambition of Prince Henry, Portugal might time to the study of the Suahili language; but have, and for a time did, distance all Europe | six months later, in November, 1872, a new in competition for the position of being the expedition was planned and he was offered first African power. To what she has sunk, the command. Passing over the details to what a miserable, debased system of of the preliminary arrangements, we will slave-trading her policy has degenerated, a take up the story at the time, March, 1873, very small acquaintance with her possess when the trouble of hiring guides, soldiers, ions, either on the E. or W. coast will am- and porters, of arranging terms, of laying in ply testiły. As far as present indications go, stores, and of getting everybody and everyEngland seems destined to make the greater thing under weigh, having been finally surpart of Africa her own. Leaving out of mounted, the expedition, consisting of Camconsideration the aggregation of colonies at | eron, Dr. Dillon, R.N., and Lieut. Murphy, the southern extremity, look only at the | R. A., finally left Bagamoyo, the mainland effect which such journeys as those of | port of Zanzibar, and started for the West. Livingstone, Burton, Speke, Baker, and The route from the coast to Lake TanganCameron must have on the natives ; look yika, thanks to Burton, Speke, Stanley, &c., at 'Chinese' Gordon's position and exploits is now comparatively well known, and need on the Upper Nile ; look at the persistent not be dwelt upon in detail. It possesses efforts at evangelization made up the Zam. | at the best very few features of interest, besi, at the Presbyterian station on Lake very little scenery that is striking, and very Nyassa, in the attempt to reach and win | little land that is suitable for settlement. king Mtesa, and by the Universities' Mis Thanks to the slave-traders, along a great sion that is working westward from Zanzi portion of it chronic warfare is the order of bar. It is not merely a strange fascination | the day ; in fact, throughout every route that the mysterious continent exercises over | along which Arab caravans have travelled, Englishmen. There is an underlying deep every man's hand is against every man. In conviction that, as we believe, for some the track of the traders, peace is replaced good Providential purpose, the destinies of by war, security by rapine and anarchy, and the two countries are bound up together; unsuspecting confidence by well.grounded and it is this which creates so deep an suspicion. Travelling consequently is no interest in achievements such as that of easy or holiday task, but requires tact, Commander Cameron, and in such a book courage, patience, and energy. To know as the one now before us.

when to yield, when to resist the demands The actual detail of daily journeying in for black mail, when to conciliate, when to Africa is singularly dull and wearisome. It carry things with a high hand, is a gift which was, if we remember right, Richard Burton few possess, but which Cameron evidently who among the illustrations of one of his has to perfection. It is not only exceedingbooks inserted a sketch entitled “ African ly difficult to make the natives understand Travel.' A monotonous undulating land- the possibility of any one travelling witijout scape, a long straggling line of porters, fol- | the obvious inducements of trade or plunder, lowed by a listless traveller on a bare-backed but at times it is necessary for the traveller donkey—the whole caravan plodding along to ally himself to caravans even of slaveunder a pitiless sun at the rate of 172 miles traders, when to stand aloof from your coman hour-such was the uninviting, and yet | panions, still more to avoid being comprovery faithful, picture. Thenarration, however, mised by their misdeeds, is well nigh imposof a journey, if details are not wearisomely | sible. It cannot be too often remembered

that in Livingstone's last tramp, extending absolutely unable to do anything but over many years and thousands of miles, he wait. never drew trigger himself nor allowed a shot 1 The route to Ujiji was marked by painto be fired in his defence; while throughout ful incidents. A grandson of Dr. Moffatt, Cameron's march from sea to sea, from | a nephew to Livingstone, was sent by his March 1873, to November 1875, twice only mother from Natal to join the expedition. were his guns used ; and then not with On one occasion the caravan was divided fatal effect. On one occasion a very sud and Moffatt and Murphy were left behind. den and unprovoked attack was made on the A few days afterwards, when the rear party party, and an arrow glanced off Cameron's came in sight, only one white man was visible. shoulder, who, catching sight of the fellow "“Where is the other?" was the simultaneous who had shot at him lurking behind a tree ejaculation of Dillon and myself, “and who

—shot him ? no : 'I dropped my rifle and is the missing one?” At last, unable to bear started in chase. Fortune favoured me, the suspense, I limped down the hill. I for my enemy tripped and fell, and before then recognized Murphy, and to my queshe could regain his feet I was down on him, tion, "Where is Moffatt?” the answer was, and, after giving him as sound a thrashing “Dead !” Worse, however, was in store. as he ever had in his life, smashed his Few understand the terrible power of bow and arrows. This finished, I pointed | African fever. In September, six months to some of his friends who were now in view, after starting, Cameron says, 'out of fortyand considerably assisted him to join them five days I have had one fever of eight by means of stern propulsion, the kick being days, one of seven, one of five, one a hearty one.' One cannot help contrast of four, and am now just getting well from a ing the vigorous but humorous way in which violent headache which lasted for five days.' the English sailor protects his life, with the None but those who have experienced blood-and-thunder progress of Mr. Stanley, this fever can realize the extraordinary who, if his own statements are to be believed, fancies that take possession of the mind. thinks nothing of shelling a village and At times I have imagined, altho' not enpicking off the inhabitants to rehabilitate tirely losing my consciousness, that I had a his own offended dignity, and to make second head, and that I could not live in sensational paragraphs for the glorification this state. Again, on lake Tanganyika, he of his employers. Delays are, however, a writes: 'I experienced a complete sense of more conspicuous feature of African travel of duality. I imagined that another than even dangers. No man, unpossessed 1 person, a second self, was lying on the opof unlimited patience, should set foot in posite side of the boat. I thought, too, Africa. Livingstone's journals are full of that the tea-pot of cold tea, which had been the wretched delays imposed on him by placed on that side of the boat, was for his his own followers, by wars, by illness, or by ! sole benefit, and when, in my tossing about, too hospitable entertainers. At his most I rolled over to that side, I seized the teawesterly point he was laid by through sick pot and drank like a whale, and chuckled ness for months. And on one occasion at the idea of the other thirsty mortal being Cameron seems to have been detained in done out of some of his “tipple.” While honourable quasi captivity by a dusky in Unyanyembe, the chief seat of this fever, potentate named Kasongo, from October and when all were down with it, Jacob Wain1874 to June 1875, having eventually to wright's letter telling of Dr. Livingstone's build a house for that personage before he death arrived, but neither Cameron nor could proceed westwards. Even the daily Dillon could command their brains enough start of a caravan is an affair of hours ; the to understand what they read. However, donkeys, if any remain alive, have strayed; in a day or two, the faithful servants came or five or six porters have run off; or a few with the dead traveller's body. Suddenly, askari or soldiers have indulged in too therefore, the reason for continuing the Exmuch pombé and are consequently incapaci pedition, had been taken away; and what was tated for active labour. And if one of the to be done ? Cameron decided to go on, caravan has a friend in a village, that is quite at least to Ujiji and recover Livingstone's sufficient excuse for a debauch for two or papers. Dillon agreed to accompany him, three days, while the luckless traveller is | Murphy elected to go back to the coast in

3

charge of the body. Dillon, however, be- very much as Sir Samuel Baker was came so ill that a return to the sea was the thwarted in his ascent of the Nile above only chance of saving his life, and then Khartoum. The first block iwas said to Cameron was left alone. They separated ; continue four or five miles, and then alterthe one party for Zanzibar, the other for the nate portions of clear water and chokunknown West. For a few days their ing weed occurred for a great distance. routes lay nearly parallel, and one day a The local chief said that his people had messenger came across country from travelled for more than a month along its Murphy with the painful news that in an banks, and that it eventually fell into a agony of fever poor Dillon had shot himself. great river, the Lualaba. Stanley, however, What must have been the loneliness of the affirms that he followed the Lukuga for man who, receiving this dreadful news, was | several miles, when it gradually thinned then a third of the way across Africa and out and ended in a small stream running had set himself to accomplish the other two. into the lake. Cameron on the other hand thirds, without the possibility of meeting | distinctly saw driftwood and vegetation one white face till he accomplished his task carried by the stream out of the lake into or, as was most probable, perished himself the mouth of the Lukuga, and growing in the attempt ?

weeds were all turned in the same direction. After leaving the unhealthy Unyanyembe, Were it not for Baker's experiences on the however, his health much improved, though | Nile we should attach more weight to he frequently suffered from sprains and Stanley's investigation, but we know from bruises. At Ujiji he found and despatched those how impossible it is to trace the to the coast Dr. Livingstone's papers, and course or the very existence of such a vast then, chartering and rigging two small boats river as the Nile itself, under the matted which he named “Betsey' and ` Pickle,' he conglomeration of tropical vegetation ; so started on an exploratory survey of Lake it is still possible that the Lukuga may yet Tanganyika. Livingstone went on foot | flow to the westward, though Stanley could along the lower half of the eastern shore not detect its course. Or, again, it is possiof the lake, and he coasted along a small ble that it is an intermittent outlet, necespart of the western side, as well as along sary only when the lake has received in the the east coast, between Ujiji and its north-| rainy and cloudy season more water than ern head; but Cameron sailed and mapped its surface can evaporate. If it is a little as he went, the whole length of both shores, disappointing to find that the Tanganyika from Ujiji to the south end and back again. | problem is still unsolved, we must remember We are told that Mr. Stanley has since cir that it is only eighteen years since Burton cumnavigated the whole lake, but the de first set eyes upon that unknown lovely strip tails of his journey are not before us. The of water, lying embosomed in steep mounmystery of the outlet, if there be any, of Tan- tains and bordered by some of the grandest ganyika is not yet wholly cleared up./ cliff scenery in the world. Several large rivers enter it, and down its Having returned to Ujiji and despatched rocky sides countless torrents pour in the Livingstone's papers and his own journals rainy season, and the question arises, is the and maps to the coast, Cameron, after the evaporation from its long but narrow sur usual delays and difficulties, ferried his face sufficient to account for all the water party across the lake, and thence beit receives. Livingstone was confident that gan his real tramp to the Atlantic coast. he detected a northerly flow in the lake, | To reach his first objective point, Nyangwe, and he placed the possible outlet at a | which was also Livingstone's furthest point point on the western shore nearly opposite west, he followed nearly in his predecessor's Ujiji. This conjecture seems to be disproved. steps, whose peaceful and unoffending Cameron found, about 80 miles further progress through this land has tended to south, a large river called Lukuga, Alowing make an Englishman respected by the out of the lake through the only gap in the natives.' Manyuema, as we learnt from surrounding mountains. He sailed three Livingstone's last journals, is one of the or four miles down this stream until his most promising districts in Central Africa. course was arrested by the floating vegeta Its people, naturally, are orderly and, by tion which completely choked the passage, / comparison with their neighbors, civilized,

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