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IN past uncivilized times Protestantsi Is it not a strange phenomenon, which

persecuted Catholics, and Catholics the results of Christian teaching have Protestants, and we and they had equally brought into such relief on the very foreour penal laws. But now, wherever ihe ground of our human history, that a religEnglish language is spoken, Protestants ion based on the paramount claims of conhave proclaimed all persecution for relig science and the purity of the affections, ion's sake, as, in practice and principle, and of which it is a fundamental principle, immoral and irreligious. To force a man that, whatever other gifts we may possess, to profess what he does not believe, we re without charity we are as sounding brass gard as grotesque and horrible. This is of and a tinkling cymbal,' should, through the the very essence of our mode of thinking perversity and dogmatism of the human

-an integral portion of our Protestant faith mind,* be so transmuted, that men have and of our Protestant selves. Whatever hated one another with the hatred almost differences among us may exist, there is no of fiends, and persecuted to the death, with difference here. To this we have grown fearful tortures, their fellow-men, under the irreversibly under the tuition of a common horrible delusion that they were honouring Protestantism.

God by destroying His creatures ? + But can the same be said of Catholicism? | And this seems especially strange when Has this, too, been rising out of the slough it is considered that the Founder of their of the past ? Has the teaching of the Faith had not only rebuked all persecution, Ages impressed the same lesson on the but had laid down the broadest principles of Church of Rome? Now, that that lesson universal toleration ; for, when appealed to has never been learned there, is what fills on this subject by His disciples, He replied, the minds of Protestants with a feeling of let the tares and the wheat grow up toinsecurity : and this feeling, the late decree | gether in the world until the harvest at the vesting infallibility in one man; the mak end of it, then will God see that the bad ing absolute submission to the will of the be separated from amongst the good, Pope the duty of all Catholics; and the | (Matth. xiii., 24-30). news of a new Universal Catholic League,' | It is singular, too, that that which is not having for its end the annihilation of all formally and precisely defined—the dogindividualism and of the free play of the matic creed-should have usurped the human faculties, have tended largely to place of that which is of essential and augment.

Is the Protestant mind alarming itself | * The Latin proverb- Deorum offensa Diis needlessly? When, in Spain, an archbishop

cura,' Offences against the gods are the gods' affair,

which may thus be paraphrased : Crimes against commands the people to vote for no one

man are man's concern; the gods are competent to who tolerates the heretical doctrine of guard the rights of gods-is worth attending to. If liberty of speech or liberty of worship; and this short proverb had been duly weighed ; if the this (he says) because the Pope commands

command of Christ, to suffer the tares and the wheat

to grow together until the end of the world, had it ; and when he and his subordinates try

been obeyed; what oceans of blood; what crimes, to gag the press and so strangle in its and murders, and miseries, and madness would cradle this Hercules of our liberties, what have been spared the world. This would, indeed, are we to infer? And then compare the

have been a gospel of peace ; but what has `Infalli

bility' done for us, but set the world by the ears, magnificent men of this magnificent coun

embittering existence and poisoning humanity at its try, now plunged in half-anarchy and whole source, ignorance, with the same country under its + The reader--and every one ought to be a Moorish rulers, holding up the beacon-lights

reader here--will find some very able and strik

ing remarks on this aspect of our subject, in an of learning and science to a dark and dis

article on The Ethics of Vivisection,' in the July tracted age.

number of the CANADIAN MONTHLY.

primary importance—the character of the mouth of two or three witnesses every word individual ; and that instead of man's may be established. And if he neglect to destiny being made to depend on his obe- hear them, tell it to the Church (ecclesia, dience to the behests of his conscience ac | assembly); but if he neglect to hear the cording to the best lights he can attain to, Church, let him be unto thee as an heathen he is believed to be a subject for punish- man and a publican.' ment however fearful, because of not be | Now remark that the case put by Christ lieving some dogma, which, owing to the is not one of faith at all-not one of orthonative build of his mind, or the fashioning dox or heterodoxy—but simply of wrong conditions of his life, or to both, it is morally done by one member of the Church in any impossible that he ever can believe. And particular locality to another member of yet men have persecuted one another for the same. If he neglect to hear you prinot being able to scale this wall of iron im- vately, or the brethren you take with you, possibility. They might just as wall perse or the church ; if he ignore or spurn all cute them for not being able to climb to advice tendered from every quarter, he the moon.

must be content to be henceforth to you One would think that a man inight be no more than any other outsider; and all saved, who, trying to believe aright, strove this being premised, God ratifies your deconscientiously to do his duty to God and cree of exclusion against him, till at least man, whether he held to transubstantiation he repents (v. 21, 22, &c.). Of course, or believed it an absurdity; or that the earth | the church means the assembly of believers rolls on its axis and not the sun round it: in that place ; for that every private misfor what have these outside questions of understanding between man and man should the intellect to do with the ethics of the be carried to Rome could scarcely have heart, or the goodness of the life, or the been contemplated. But what has all this to spirituality of the man? But, then, the ec- do with the Council of Trent and its whole clesiastic mind is something wonderful. | lumber of obsolete, unbelievable dogmas,

But it is said, “let him hear the Church.' or with the Vatican Council, or with the He may be gentle, generous, true, and Pope's infallibility? And what a monstrous noble in all the relations of life ; but this superstructure to build on so slight a base ! one fatal flaw of not believing the infalli- | Did the world ever behold the like of it ? bility of one man in Rome-for it really But thou art Peter': what do you make amounts to this-spoils all, and he, for of that? I certainly do not make of it, that this, becomes an outcast from heaven. Peter is Pope Pius the IX. But to proceed: And yet we read in these sacred writings, 'Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will that pure religion, and undefiled before build my church, and the gates of hell God and the Father is this, to visit the | (Hades) shall not prevail against it.' fatherless and widows in their affliction, Now the argument takes this shape : the and to keep himself unspotted from the word Peter(Petros) means a rock, and on this world. And, really, this looks not so ill rock (Petra) Christ built his church. But beside the decrees of Trent-anathemas | Peter (Petros) does not mean a rock, but only a and all ! But then, religion and theology rock-fragment. The Greek word for rock, stand very wide apart.

i.e., the underlying rock on which a buildBut the whole thing looks so grotesque ing would be raised, is quite a different word and unreasonable, that prior to its adoption - Petra. Now in this, the true sense of the into the creed of any sane man, the foun word, Paul tells us that other foundation dation for such a belief ought to be sub can no man lay than that which is laid, jected to the most searching criticism. We which is Christ Jesus' (1 Cor. iii, 11.) If proceed, then, to examine the whole pas- | this be admitted, then not Peter but Christ sage, text and context. If, says Christ, is the foundation rock, the Petra, on which (Matth. xviii, 15)-'if thy brother shall tres. the church is built. But there is a sense in pass against thee, go and tell him his fault which Peter and the other Apostles might between him and thee alone; and if he be said to be the foundation of the shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy bro- building, to wit, if it, the building comther. But if he will not hear thee, take menced with them as its first or foundawith thee one or two more, that in the I tion stones, each of them a petros. But

what, in the name of common sense, has part of Canada, as we say the Silurian rock. 'thou art Peter' to do with an old gentleman We build with a Petros on a Petra. But in Rome 1800 years after. Peter had just only look at the absurdity of the thing. said, 'thou art the Christ, the son of the Christ built His church on Peter ; ergo, an living God.' Whereupon Christ says, thou old man in Rome—and, oh, how chosen ! art Peter (Petros), and upon this rock long centuries after, has the sole power to (Petra) will I build my church.' I am the | declare what every man in the world shall Christ, and upon this rock, this basis of thy | | think and how he shall act. But whatever confession, or myself, I will build my church. be the sufferings of the church in this world, It was a mode of speaking, characteristically the gates of Hades,'—the place of the dead Christ's own. When (John ïi.) he drove -shall not avail to hold them in, for my the Jews out of the temple, and they de | people shall rise again in immortality, havmanded a miracle in proof of his assumed ing burst the barriers of death and hell. authority, he said, 'destroy this temple, and But he is Peter's successor! Of that you in three days I will raise it up. Then | know as little as I do, and that is simply said the Jews, 'forty and six years was this nothing at all. But what if he be? How temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up does that alter the case. Did Christ say in three days.' But though he does not likewise that the church is built on the sucseem to have vouchsafed them the slightest | cessors of Peter. If so, then I say, God intimation of the temple that was in his help them! What! Built on Nicholas III, thoughts, his disciples inform us that he was on Boniface VIII, or Alexander VI, with all the while talking of the temple of his body. his sweet Cardinal son, Cæsar Borgia, or

But in whatever way the similarity of on two Popes excommunicating one ansound and the affinity of sense of these two other, or on three! Surely, in so stupencognate words may strike, at first sight, the | dously important a matter we ought not to casual reader of this passage, the far more | | be left without the clearest and minutest inobvious literality of interpretation involved formation. But we read nothing about it, apparently in the words this temple' (in nothing of a stationary infallible tribunal in or close to which they were then standing), | Rome for shutting down the valves of ought to lead to extreme caution in giving thought, and gagging the Galileos of science to an obscure passage an interpretation for venturing to affirm what every man towhich unfolds such fearful consequences; day, from the Pope to his postilion, equally just as their interpretation of the sun stood believes, as one of the solidest, most unasstill,' &c., once led the Roman Church to in- | sailable facts of the world. And what is fer that the earth was the centre of the uni- the use of an infallibility, which the more it verse, as poor Galileo found to his cost, and dogmatises, the more surely it goes wrong? that our present system of astronomy was | Surely by this time they ought to give it up a fearful heresy.

as a most unfortunate business. In this connection, it is curious to notice | But Popes have been so confessedly that when Pope Gregory VII. stripped fallible in so many instances, that ecclesHenry of his Crown and conferred it on | iastics have had to invent for them an ex Rodolph, he employed this hexameter | cathedra way or new church-patent-for

Petra dedit Petro, Petros diadema Rodol getting over that. Still now arises a new pho': i.e., the Rock gave the crown to Peter, question, as to what is ex cathedra and Peterto Rodolph; so that I have infallibility what is not, some affirming, some denying, with me in my interpretation. But if it so that they will have to call another genbe still insisted that the church is built on eral council to determine that. But, perPeter, what can that have to do with Pro haps, they will not; since it is a handy kind of testantism or Popery? Nothing, abso- doctrine ; for when one prefers any particulutely nothing. But He does not say that lar notion, he can affirm the ex cathedra; he will build His church on Peter, but and if he finds it inconvenient, he may changes the word petros (a masculine noun) take the other side. So that, as Dean Swift to petra (a feminine noun), a word of an al- once wittily said, they might as well be together different meaning , petra being the without infallibility as not know where to word a Greek would employ in speaking of find it when they want it. But then Dean the underlying Silurian rock-stratum of this Swift was a blockhead, for this kind of moral see-sawing just answers to a nicety 13. To effect the coalition of the noblesse and the views of the ecclesiastics. Still and the clergy in the grand struggle for the freedom and

ultimate empire of the church ; to consolidate the here is the peril—an occasion might arise

union of the clergy with the bishops, and of the to quicken men into unanimity, and then, | bishops with the pope, *All for One and One for ah then .... But I must hasten to | All.' another arm of my subject.

14. Pecuniary largess and formation of the bonds Now the Pope and Sir Francis Hincks

of fellowship between the several cities, communes,

boroughs, and persons, for the maintenance of the have no strong liking for Orangemen. The directing missionary priests, and for promoting Pope is opposed to all secret societies, and harmony of the means of action. therefore institutes the greatest the world

15. Establishment of telegraphic bureaus in the has ever known—this new UNIVERSAL

great centres in correspondence with the central one

at the Vatican, for the concurrence of all the CathoCATHOLIC LEAGUE,' which is to 'absorb all lic forces in union. existing associations, such as Catholic Clubs, the Militia of Jesus Christ, and the The real objects, however, may be relike,' with its centre in Rome, and its fin duced to the one of Article 3—'to combat gers in every man's affairs.* And yet, in individualism. Yes, that it is against presence of this vivid, gigantic, all-ramify which has been directed from the infancy ing secret society, how pales and dwarfs of the world, the enginery of all the despots, this little association of Orangemen.

political and religious, the world has ever To give some idea of the objects of the seen—to grind down, in their mill, THE MAN; League, and of the scheme of its organ to fuse him into the mass; not indeed to desization, I shall present the reader with some troy his thinking powers, but to index the extracts from the London Daily News : direction they are to take, the groove they

are to run in; to comb him down and 1. The centre of the league shall be at Rome. 2. The general presidence of the league shall

sleekly discipline him to the service of reside in the Vatican, and, with it, the personnel of ecclesiasticism; to rob himself of the brain a general sectarial board.

that nature has given him, and to give him 5. The office of the general presidence shall have seven directions, each with a head division, and

one clipped and pared to the pleasure of with secretaries.

the Pope ; and by stinting and stunting to Division first-Union of Catholic jurists; second, reduce the stalwart limbs, and so force Catholic workingmen's societies ; third, central com- | some grand Copernicus into the breeches mittees; fourth, Catholic regions ; fifth, diocesan

of a dwarf. And poor Galileo! This man, functionaries ; sixth, general depot ; seventh, academic committee for the union of the learned in

of a free, bold intellect, had embraced the the scientific efforts of Catholicism.

doctrine of a central sun and a rotating The league shall have for its objects :

world. This was then a frightful heresy. 1. The defence of right and freedom in face of Summoned to Rome, and the terrors of the the laws restricting the church and the Pope. The restoration of the temporal power, of which the

Inquisition brought to bear on him—and Pope has been despoiled in violation of the rights he knew well what they meant—the poor, of the Holy See and Christianity-a restoration to terrified soul of him, humbled and broken, be effected in the sight of justice, human and uttered this shameful lie : ' With a sincere divine. 2. To expound and demonstrate the dangers of

heart and unfeigned faith, I abjure, curse, liberty falsely so-called,

and detest the said errors and heresies.' 3. To combat individualism.

Had he not learned with a vengeance what 6. To countermine the press.

'combating individualism' meant? And 9. To reunite all the forces of civilized society, its intelligence and its material resources, for the

is it to be wondered at if we Protestants have benefit of the holy cause.

some repugnance to this system of de-indivi10. To institute a central press for the reception dualization? and distribution of communications to all Catholic Article 13 simply means that, in this journalism. II, To institute popular schools for technical in

crusade against the liberties of mankind, struction ; to institute Catholic libraries, banks for 'the noblesse and the clergy,' the Aristothe immediate advance of money, mixed clubs of cracies and the Ecclesiastics the world over, the noblesse and bourgeoisie, directing clubs for the are to unite their forces—a new nineteenth active agents of the league, workmen's aid societies.

century oligarchy of the two great castes of • Were this league to be disolved to-morrow, or

the world to bend their efforts to achieve to be non-existant my reasoning would not be

for the new age what they had effected so thereby invalidated.

"happily for the old ; to issue, as it did

before, in the darkness of a night of cen venture all, even life itself, in the heroic turies, in priestcraft and indulgences, in resolve to stand by the right or what inquisitions and autos-da-fé ; to react again | seemed to them the right. Armed though in the volcanic terrors of French Revolu they were, they were only a handful among tions—the final outcome of the outraged thousands armed too. They meant to do feelings, the inhuman miseries, and the in no harm and they returned without doing sulted rights of mankind. No; we want any-only to bury a dead brother, and with no little Churchies with their fingers in our their lives in their hands, they resolved to British pie. Stand off, gentlemen, your do or die : and they proved at least their meddling has never been for good with manhood, if they did nothing else. All us—or with any.

honour to the brave and true! All honour And for this holy cause ' (Art. 9) is in- to the men, who, whatever else they be, can voked the union of all the forces of civilised look grinning death in the face, and can society, its intelligence, and its material | dare to be martyrs for a principle and to resources. Forewarned is forearmed—said die for a right. to be. Material resources, mark ! Yes, that I have ever shewn myself the friend of sounds like business, and has a new-old | Catholics; but of Catholicism I am no ugly look about it, and summons up no | friend. I consider it a religion in clear and very pleasant pictures of the past-of Albi- l definite opposition alike to the teaching of genses, and Waldenses, and St. Dominics, Christ and to the reason of man; but I and Philips of Spain, and Dukes of Alva, can feel for and with the honest Catholic. and dark deeds of horror which ring I can look at things from his standpoint, through history with wailing and warning feel the rockings of his emotions, the tremsounds. And if Orangenen, Sir Francis, blings of his heart. How could I be intoler. read of these things, and can put two and ant or unfeeling toward him. I say to mytwo together and not make five of them, is

ke five of them, is self, the Pope even cannot help himself; it any wonder if they are not, at all times, he was born to his creed like most of us ; very calm. They are men, Sir Francis, moulded and kneaded in soft childhood to only men. And men cannot always be a fixed mental cast, which became indur. as impassive as—well, to make a dash ated with manhood and advancing years, at it-as other men may require them till the twist of culture became the set of to be ; and when, after yielding wisely, they | brain. How dare I be intolerant, then, find that a great wrong is done, their blood | when I know that the mere accident of will sometimes boil. If, when poor Hackett

birth, the geographical limits within which was murdered, you and I, Sir Francis, had we are born, become the very force which been Orangemen, and had gone with determines the creed of the millions of Orangemen to Montreal, with no intention mankind, Protestant, Papist, Turk, Greek, to harm any one, only out of sympathy to and Hindoo. But the man who expects me our dead brother, and a resolution not to to admire the stout-hearted, iron-willed, fierybe put down while paying the last dues of souled Loyola, refuses his admiration to the sepulture to the poor dead, who had been Orangeman who dares all things for a princimurdered at noonday, in the midst of our ple, and who, judged by a true standard of civilisation (!), in a public thoroughfare of right, has generally such a sense of it as the a large city, after eighteen centuries of great Jesuit leader seems never to have apChristian teaching, I suppose we (like the | proached. The Orangeman and the Cathoothers) would have been put down by lic are only phases of our civilization. Both Alderman Donovan as 'blackguards and | are of one blood, with the pulses of a comruffians and cut-throats,' whom no law was mon humanity beating beneath their skins. bound to protect.

That they differ in opinion can scarcely be Can Alderman Donovan never look at a reason why they should murder or injure any question from the standpoint of an or hate one another. The wrath of man other ? Can he not imagine-granting even worketh not the righteousness of God;' while that they were absurdly mistaken—that they the command, be pitiful,' is too often might have been enthusiastically earnest, overlooked. Yet controversies ought to all aglow with the intensity of their feelings, go on. How can I, if there be any good wound up to the point of being ready to in me, see my neighbour possessed of an

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