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his imprisonment in Mazas; the wanton the chapter of accidents might have in store assaults upon the press; the instructions of for the party. Meanwhile the continued the Prefects to prosecute all offenders, presence of the Duke Decazes at the Forcouched in terms so general as to cover the eign office, and the excessive protestations of entire Opposition party- falsehood,' to the President and his other Ministers, have be interpreted at pleasure, is one of the of not blinded Germany to the serious peril infences; and the deliberate system of in- | volved in the seizure of power by the most sulting language used by Ministers and their bigoted of the Ultramontane party. representatives in the press. They have failed to drive the party of M. Gambetta | The reception of Gen. Grant in England into extremes, and that is what chiefly galls | is, no doubt, as flattering to himself as it is the reactionists. The only thing that can evidently gratifying to his countrymen ; but possibly turn the scale in favor of De Brog | he is hardly a lion' in the strict sense of lie is some excess or intemperance of lan- | the term, and to all, save Americans themguage from the leaders of the Left; the selves, no proof was needed of English latter are quite aware of that, and, however cordiality and goodwill to the United difficult it may be to manage the masses of States. The ex-President has certainly their party, their motto will be modera | acquitted himself creditably, and if our tion,' at least until the elections are over, American cousin is put in a better humour and their triumph secured, as it will doubt | by the English demonstrations over him, less be, in spite of all the fraud and terror-so much the better, if the fit lasts long ism M. Fourton will most unscrupulously enough. It is to be feared that it will employ. The stratagem of putting forward hardly endure until the Canadian fisheries McMahon as the figure-head, and threaten are appraised and paid for, or that all the ing that he would resign and restore the expressions of satisfaction over Grant's rereign of chaos, will also be futile. To ception will add a dollar to the price they speak of the probable defeat of the Presi will be willing to pay for what they used dent, and to alarm the people with the in- | without leave, or purchased upon credit. evitable results of that event, is the best possible argument against the usurpation of The Eastern question remains, so far as May. What business had he to put himself diplomacy is concerned, in statu quo ante in a position where he was liable to defeat ? | bellum. There are from time to time newsWhose fault is it that his name will be in- | paper reports of negotiations, alliances, rupvoked at the polls by one party, and intro- tures, and reconciliations, which are not duced with anything but respect by the worth the paper on which they are printed. other? His own. The personal appeal, Austria is not going to aid Turkey, because however, will be of litile avail at the ballot to do so would be to commit suicide, or at box; since the issue will not be between least to shiver her heterogeneous empire into McMahon and Gambetta, but McMahon fifty fragments. England, considering that and Thiers—the President who settled the Russia has scarcely moved a step in the war, paid the indemnity, and restored order direction of Constantinople since Mr. Cross by the suppression of the Commune. His | gave a solemn assurance that peace should services have not been forgotten by the be preserved between her and Russia, is not mass of the French people, and when, to on the eve of proving Lord Beaconsfield's the hatred of the May coup d'etat, is added representative a deceiver, or the published their attachment to an old and tried public blue books and despatches elaborate falseservant, the issue of the elections cannot hoods. The fact is, that, in the delay in be doubtful, notwithstanding the powerful active warfare, which seems intolerable after machinery in the hands of the Government. the Italian war, the Austro-German six The Senate has, of course, been prevailed | weeks' contest, and the Franco-German on, without difficulty, to grant a dissolution duel of 1870, journalists do not know what of the Chamber. Obviously, when the lat to do with themselves. They are at their ter, by a vote of 365 to 153, repudiated De wit's end for something to pen concerning a Broglie and his set, there was nothing left war which persists in hanging fire most infor it, if ministers were to enjoy even three considerately. The pro-Turkish papers months' peace, but an attempt to see what I have gone so far afield as to have hit upon an annexation of Egypt to the British empire just now at Constantinople, where matters —a most advisable step, if only in mercy to have come to so wretched a pass that, the oppressed Egyptians, but sounding every now and again, it is a question strange when trumpeted forth by the whether Russia will shake the Turk to party which has been driven almost rabid pieces by external violence, or whether he by any proposal looking to a disintegration will perish by spontaneous combustion or of the rotten Turkish empire, whether it explosion within. The Russians, it may took the form of a free Christian govern now be considered, have crossed the Danube ment north of the Balkans, or the annexa on their extreme left. The advanced guard tion of Eastern Armenia to Russia by way passed over at Ibraila into the Dobrudscha, of war indemnity. The victory remains seized the heights above Matchin after a with Mr. Gladstone and the sound heart of brief skirmish with the Bashi-bazouks, and England, and the bondholders, who have thus forced the evacuation of that town, only themselves to blame, with their allies, which they immediately occupied. There the men of the clubs, may as well surrender are rumours of crossing also to the west, at at discretion. It is unnecessary to make Hirsova and Leni, but these are not conany guesses at the position of affairs infirmed, and we still wait patiently for the Asia Minor. The Turks, we now know, next act in the tragic drama, upon which have not retaken Ardahan, and we may be the curtain is slowly rising. perfectly sure they have not re-possessed themselves of Bayazid. Lying is necessary | June 23rd, 1877.

BOOK REVIEWS,

BRYAN WALLER PROCTER (Barry Cornwall). given, numbering in all about twenty-three

An Autobiographical Fragment and Bio besides a short account of the 'London Magagraphical Notes, with Personal Sketches of zine' and its brilliant staff. Mr. Coventry Contemporaries, unpublished Lyrics, and Patmore, who, aided by Mrs. Procter, has Letters of Literary Friends. Boston: edited this volume, tells us that they form Roberts Brothers, 1877 ; Toronto: Hart and 'but a small portion of the portrait gallery' Rawlinson.

which it seems to have been Mr. Procter's

long-cherished intention to paint, and they are This title, which we have purposely quoted evidently nothing more than very rough in full, is rich in promise to the lovers of liter draughts; the MS. having many double ary gossip who are aware of the wide circle of readings, notes to the effect of 'correct this,' Mr. Procter's acquaintance among the most etc. Nevertheless, these 'Recollections, in celebrated of two generations of writers. connection with the ‘Letters from Literary Those who need to be told of it, will find at Friends,'form undoubtedly the most interesting an early stage in this little volume, 'a limited and valuable portion of the present volume. selection from the list,' which contains over There are few pleasures in a literary way eighty names, of which, as he cannot quote surpassing that of having names, which we all, we will quote none. It must suffice to say know and love as little more than names, that it includes almost every name which rose clothed for us, as these are here, with disinto fame in English literature during the tinctive personality. Procter's style is so eighty-seven years of Mr. Procter's life. His simple and direct, that there is at first a temreminiscences, therefore, formed a mine of tation to call it unfinished; but its naïve interest which it is all the more deeply to be abruptness wins upon us, and very soon we regretted he did not work to a far greater find ourselves in the hands of a master. extent, when we see the quality of the few rich When we close the book, the impression on nuggets which he did bring up. It was not our minds of each individuality is clear and until his seventy-ninth year that he commenced firm, if broken and incomplete. Lamb, Leigh the fragmentary sketches which are here | Hunt, and Hazlitt, among all his friends, were

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most intimate with Procter personally, and simple, sincere, shy, and delicate soul ;' that exerted most influence over his literary char his conversation had little decision or“point,” acter. · The great Edinburgh reviewer, Lord in the ordinary sense, and often dwelt on Jeffrey, in a very appreciative and kindly es- | truths which a novelty-loving society banishes timate of his poems, says, 'the natural bent from its repertory as truisms, but that this of his genius is more like that of Leigh Hunt never disturbed the effect, in any assemblage, than any other author. . . . . But he has | of his real distinction. His silence seemed better taste and better judgment; or, what is wiser, his simplicity subtler, his shyness more perhaps but saying the same thing, he has less courageous, than the wit, philosophy, and asaffectation and far less conceit.' Procter could surance of others.' not but see this fault in his friend, but he The few events of his life are soon told, and softens blame of it almost into praise, saying have little interest but what they gain from his that Leigh Hunt 'had no vanity, in the usually naïve and simple relation of them. His father, accepted meaning of the word. I mean that beginning life in a merchant's counting-house, he had not that exclusive vanity which rejects was soon placed in a position of well-to-do inalmost all things beyond self. He gave as well dependence by some bequest, and Procter as received; no one more willingly. He ac was born at a comfortable distance from cepted praise less as a mark of respect from both extremes of worldly circumstances. He others, than as a delight of which we are en dwells with almost amusing insistence on the titled to partake, such as spring weather, the absence of anything remarkable, either in his scent of flowers, or the flavor of wine.' Proc life or in his own character and abilities. He ter's admiration for Hazlitt was great and un says of himself: 'Nothing particularly marked swerving, and late in his life we find him writ- my childhood. I was found to be much as ing to James W. Fields : 'I despair of the age boys usually are ... It seemed my destiny to that has forgotten to read Hazlitt. He grows float along from the cradle to the grave on a little indignant over the biographical essay the happy stream of mediocrity. My tastes, in which De Quincey disparaged Hazlitt ; but, even as I recollect, were common enough. apparently, the amenities of literature were My senses were indeed attracted by the scent thrown overboard on both sides by those of the violet, the April grass and flowers; I writers. 'Mr. De Quincey and Hazlitt thought heard music in the winds, and running river ; poorly of each other. Hazlitt pronounced . . . . Such I was, when very young (alverbally that the other would be good only most too young), sent to a small boarding“whilst the opium was trickling from his school near London. He was at this time mouth," but he never published anything de only about five years old. Leaving the subrogatory to the other's genius. De Quincey, ject from which he takes every opportunity of on the other hand, seems to have forced op- departing,-himself,-he gives at this point a portunities for sneering at Hazlitt.' For De loving and pathetic sketch of his old French Quincey, Procter has but scant praise, and, in master at this school, an emigré named Monour opinion, allows a little prejudice to influ sieur Molière, whom fortune had left only the ence him in dwelling almost altogether on his ability to labor and endure; perhaps these faults. But it is not the prejudice of ignorance, were nearly all his poor possessions. Charles and what injustice there is in his view is shown, Lamb might have written such delicate lines not in the fault-finding, but in a seeming blind- | as those in which Procter describes this man ; ness to much of De Quincey's merit. He but to attempt to convey their charm in an exdoubts whether De Quincey knew Lamb as in tract would be as wise as to cut a sample strip timately as he professes to have done in his from a water-colour. 'three straggling essays' on that writer. At about thirteen Procter was sent to HarDuring a close friendship, from 1818 to Lamb's row, where he remained four years. Among death in 1834, Proctor avers that he never his school-fellows were the future Sir Robert heard him refer to De Quincey 'or mention Peel and Lord Byron. He was fond of relathis name upon any single occasion. We are | ing how Peel once undertook 'to write for tempted to dwell at much greater length upon him an imposition of Latin verse for a considthis part of the book, and upon the letters ; eration of half-a-crown; but whether the but our space is limited, and what little we future great financier ever got paid, was more have remaining must be devoted to some ac than Mr. Procter could undertake to rememcount of the other portions, and of the lovable ber. In his ' Recollections,' he says of Lord man around whom all its interest centres. Byron, ‘ I had not seen him since about 1800,

The autobiographical fragments, which, in when he was a scholar in Dr. Drury's house, terspersed with biographical notes by the edi- with an iron cramp on one of his feet, with tor, occupy the first section of the book, are loose corduroy trousers plentifully relieved very scanty; and it is characteristic of Procter, by ink, and with finger-nails bitten to the that the sketch which is called autobiographical quick.' deals more with others than with himself. The profession for which Procter was in. Patmore says of him as a man, that he was a tended was the law, and at first there seemed every likelihood of his being added to the long scape, a noble statue, or an exquisite poem, list of those who have deserted it entirely for without telling us exactly how our enjoyment literature. Instead of reading law, he read arises from the effect produced on our nervous hard at English poetry, from Chaucer to Burns, organization by the forces of the external and then took to writing it. He produced

world. most between the years 1815 and 1823, at which It is doubly satisfactory to a Canadian critic, latter date his ‘Flood of Thessaly, and Other in noticing an able and suggestive work on this Poems' saw the light; but the work to which subject, to recognize the fact that it is written he chiefly owes his place in our literature, his by a Canadian-Mr. Grant Allen, son of Mr. 'English Songs,' appeared in 1832 ; and his J. A. Allen, of Kingston. No one who has 'Essays and Tales in Prose,' in 1853. The read Mr. Grant Allen's contributions to the lyrics published for the first time in the pre CANADIAN MONTHLY will be surprised to find sent volume are not likely to add to his that he has produced a book, of which an emilaurels, with the possible exception of the last nent authority in England speaks as a one, entitled 'Exhumo. After his marriage, 'valuable contribution to analytical philin 1824, he did as very few of those have done osophy, or to note in his treatment who have taken his first step, from law to of such a subject, clear and distinct literature ; turning once more to his profession, thought and expression, acute and delicate oband welcoming the hardand rather monotonous servation, careful and subtle analysis, and a work of a conveyancer with a zest that may | poetical as well a philosophical view when the fairly be called surprising, after his indul subject admits of it. To start with, Mr. Allen gence of almost antipodal tastes. There thus defines æsthetic pleasures and pains : are very many who have penned a sonnet ‘By the æsthetic pleasures and pains we mean while they should engross,' but by no means those which result from the contemplation of many who, having met with such success as the beautiful or the ugly, in art or nature, Barry Cornwall's, in verse, have left it to go alike in the actuality and in the idea. So that, back to the prosiest of prose. In 1831 he was speaking properly, the subject matter of our called to the bar, and in 1832 was appointed a investigation will be the feelings aroused in Commissioner of Lunacy. His long and man by the beautiful in nature, and in the arts peaceful life came to an end in 1874. Mr. of architecture, painting, sculpture, music, and Patmore has appropriately closed his biograph poetry ; special attention being paid throughical notes by the insertion of the beautiful | out to the component factors of the last.' In poem by Swinburne, which appeared on the the outset of his investigation, he first exdeath of 'Barry Cornwall’:

amines the nature of pleasures and pains genBeloved of men, whose words on our lips were honey,

erally, differentiating afterwards the feeling we Whose name in our ears and our fathers' ears was sweet.' call æsthetic. By a very ingenious and aptly There can be no question as to the enjoyment

illustrated process of investigation, he arrives which is to be derived from this volume as a

at the conclusion that pain is the subjective whole. But its very fragmentary character

concomitant of destructive action or insuffispoils it for steady perusal, making progress

cient nutrition in any sentient tissue. Pleasure through it very jerky. Its flavor is best ob

is the subjective concomitant of the normal tained by dipping into it here and there at

amount of function in any such tissue.' random.

From this position, he goes on to discuss the pleasures and pains of what are more es

pecially called the 'æsthetic' senses, in regard PHYSIOLOGICAL ÆSTHETICS. By Grant Allen, to which he makes the following suggestive B.A. London : Henry T. King & Co. 1877. || remark : 'In the lower senses, almost every

activity has a direct bearing upon life-giving The most cursory reader of the philosophy of functions. But in the higher and specially the day must be aware how closely the investi æsthetic senses, sight and hearing, no activity gation into the relations of mental phenomena bears directly upon these functions, and comwith the material organism, or as many prefer | paratively few indirectly. And it is just beto put it, their origin from it, is pursued by cause the eye and ear are so little connected some of the most profound thinkers of the age. with vitality, that theirs are specially the What we term æsthetic feelings and pleasures æsthetic senses. It is the business of Art to have hitherto been comparatively neglected in combine as many as possible of their pleasurthis investigation. Even the Germans, as able sensations, and to exclude, so far as Prof. Bain recently remarked, have been ac lies in its power, all their painful ones ; thus customed to consider them subjectively, as producing that synthetic result which we know purely mental phenomena, rather than as ef as the æsthetic thrill. Æsthetic feelings he fects from physical causes. But relentless thus differentiates :—'The æsthetically beautiscience has begun to seize now even on these tiful is that which affords the Maximum of more ethereal emotions, and will not allow us | Stimulation with the Minimum of Fatigue or any longer to simply enjoy a beautiful land Waste, in processes not directly connected

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with vital functions. The æsthetically ugly much picturesqueness of description combined is that which conspicuously fails to do so ; , with melody of expression :-which gives little stimulation, or makes exces ‘Mountain glens, hemmed in with beetling sive or wasteful demands upon certain por rocks, through which white foaming streams tions of the organs. But as in either case the rave ceaslessly ; woods and valleys, pastures emotional element is weak, it is mainly cog and meadows dappled with daisies, sweet with nized as an intellectual discrimination. And the breath of kine, vocal with the song of birds; so we get the idea of the Æsthetic Feelings as an Italian lake, bathed in sunset glory, its something noble and elevated because they overhanging terraces rich with autumn tints, are not distinctly traceable to any life-serving while a rainbow spans the tiny cataract that function. The manner in which he applies plashes musically into its unruffled bosom, this principle to the sense of sight, in the partic- and the soft sound of the vesper bell steals ular of colour, will sufficiently illustrate its use: over it from some surrounding campanile, half

If we have in one place a patch of red, the hidden amid chestnut and orange blossom, far portion of the retina which is receiving light above whose green heads the roar of the thunfrom it will have its red-perceiving fibres der and the flash of the lightning play awfully strongly excited, and, as a necessary conse around the pinacles of eternal ice-these are a quence, fatigued. If, next, it is directed upon few of the great concrete wholes with which a neighbouring patch of green, the red-per Poetry deals, whose elements can be sifted and ceiving fibres will be at rest, and undergo re referred to their proper place as we read them pair, while the fresh and vigorous green-per- over, but which would scarcely repay the toil ceiving structures will receive normal stimula of a minute and deliberate classification. tion. Hence, such interchange of colours will The chapters on the 'Intervention of the Inbe pleasurable. So that all colour-harmony | tellect and the 'Ideal' will also interest general consist in such an arrangement of tints as will readers, though we think that the most searchgive the various portions of the retina stimula ing analysis must necessarily fail in those mystion in the least fatiguing order, and all colour terious regions where purely sensuous pleasure discord in the opposite.'

seems blended with feelings which we instincWeshould like to quote more fully from a book | tively recognize as of a higher and purer order, containing so much careful thought and inter- the mysteries of immaterial mind. As the very esting matter, and to discuss more fully its word ' æsthetic' is derived from a sense, and positions, but space limits forbid a more that one of the lower ones, we may thoroughly lengthened review. We could not, cer admit the truth of the author's position, that, tainly, go along with the author, were he to in every Æsthetic Feeling, though it may incidensist on reducing the subjective sense of beauty tally contain intellectual and complex emotional and the ideal to mere physiological processes; factors, has necessarily for its ultimate and but, if Mr. Allen's positions are correct, the principal component, pleasures of sense, ideal analysis is ultimate so far as the physiologi or actual, either as tastes, smells, touches, cal side of the question is concerned. The sounds, forms, or colours.' very springs and sources of our æsthetic sense-emotions are laid bare, and what has long been believed to be inexplicable, | ROSINE. By J. G. Whyte Melville. Mont

-to be ultimate principles beyond which real : Lovell, Adam, Wesson & Co." we could not gomis shown to have a deeper foundation still—is at once explicable and The historical novel, which seemed out of explained. And to explain why 'a thing of favour for a time, seems to have again rebeauty is a joy forever,' and why the green vived. Rosine' is a vivid story, in Mr. fields and the bubbling fountain, the blue Whyte Melville's rapid, lively style, of the bending heavens, the petals of the rose, terrible days immediately preceding the and the lily's fragrant bell are lovely and French Revolution ; days of plot and counterprecious to the æsthetic sense, is not the least plot, intrigue and counter-intrigue, when no interesting subject of investigation in the in man's life was safe, and no man knew where teresting field of our complex organization, the next bolt might fall; when democrat was lifting the veil, to a very considerable degree, plotting against aristocrat, and aristocrat from the mystery of our likes and dislikes. The again against his fellow aristocrat; when the chapters on Poetry and the Imitative Arts will, vices and follies of a haughty and voluptuous perhaps, most interest non-scientific readers, aristocracy had driven an oppressed people though these will find in the other portions of into a state of excitement and disorganithe book, much food for thought and much in zation, rapidly tottering into the grand teresting information. That on Poetry, in par earthquake, which has in a manner faded ticular, is at once a piece of able analysis and from men's minds now, but which will ever poetical appreciation, containing passages of remain one of the deepest blood-stains on the much literary beauty, of which we are tempted pages of history. to give the following specimen, containing For one of the foremost figures in the pre

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