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28 European War. United States. The British steamship Armenian, with a cargo of mules from the United States, was destroyed by submarine off Cornwall, England, twenty-six members of the crew, most of them Americans, losing their lives. N. Y. Times, June 29, 1915.
28 Mexico. General Victoriano Huerta, former President of Mexico, and Gen. Pascal Orozco, were arrested by United States officials while on a train nearing the Mexican border; they were charged with violating American neutrality by planning a Mexican revolution. Later they were released on bail. General Huerta was again arrested on July 3d at El Paso, and his bail increased to $30,000, which he refused to furnish. N. Y. Times, June 29; July 4, 1915.
2 Death of Porfirio Diaz, for thirty-five years President of Mexico. N. Y. Times, July 3, 1915.
6 European War. Italy. Italy established a blockade across the
Strait of Otranto. N. Y. Times, July 7, 1915.
7 European War. The United States naval authorities assumed
control of the German-owned wireless station at Sayville, Long Island, to guarantee its neutrality. N. Y. Times, July 8, 1915.
8 European War. Germany. Germany replied to the American
note of June 10, regarding submarine war against merchant ships. Text: Special Supplement To Journal, p. 149.
9 European War. The British steamship Orduna, bound for New
York and with many American passengers, was attacked near Queenstown, by submarine, but escaped. N. Y. Times, July 9, 1915.
10 European War. Germany—United States. The German prize court rendered a decision in the case of the William P. Frye, finding the cargo contraband, the sinking justified, but admitting that the German Government must pay an indemnity for the ship and American cargo under the Prussian-American treaties of 1785 and 1799. Text of German note of July 30, 1915 in Special Supplement to Journal, p. 188.
12 European War. United States—Germany. Germany in note to the United States formally admits that the Nebraskan, a July, 1915.
United States merchant ship, was damaged without warning by a torpedo from a German submarine and not by a mine as had been claimed. Text issued by U. S. Dept. of State.
14 European War. Great Britain—United States. Note sent
to Great Britain protesting against the practice of the British prize courts acting under Orders in Council or other municipal legislation not in accordance with the recognized rules of international law. Text in Special Supplement to Journal, p. 153.
15 European War. United States—Great Britain. The United
States sent note to Great Britain protesting against the seizure of the U. S. S. Neches. Text in Special Supplement to Journal, p. 154.
16 Panama Canal. The Panama Canal was used for the first time
by United States battleships, the Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin passing through on their way to San Francisco. N. Y. Times, July 17.
21 European War. United States—Germany. The United States sent a third note to Germany relative to the rights of neutral passengers on merchant ships. Text in Special Supplement to Journal, p. 155.
23 European War. United States—Great Britain. Note sent by Great Britain in answer to the American note of April 2, relating to the interference with American trade in the war zone and presenting a legal argument to show that Great Britain is adhering to the principles of international law as modified by modern conditions and exigencies of the present situation. Text in Special Supplement to Journal, p. 157.
25 European War. United States—Germany. American ship Leelawnaw was sunk by German submarine off the northwest coast of Scotland, warning being given and the crew towed to safety; the vessel was carrying flax (declared contraband by Germany) from Russia to Ireland. N. Y. Times, July 27, 1915.
28 Haiti. Haitian revolutionists removed President Guillaume Sam from the French legation, where he had taken refuge, and killed him. The American cruiser Washington arrived at Port-auPrince and landed marines to prevent further fighting. On July 29th, Rear Admiral Caperton, with a force of American marines and sailors from the cruiser Washington, assumed control July, 1915.
of Port-au-Prince. Two American sailors were killed during a night attack by "snipers." The American control was extended to Cape Haytien on August 13th. N. Y. Times, July 29, Aug. 14, 1915.
29 Mexico. The United States demanded of the Mexican factional
leaders that railroad communication between Mexico City and Vera Cruz be re-established, to permit the sending of food into the capital, where starvation conditions are reported. N. Y. Times, July 30, 1915.
30 European War. United States—Germany. Germany replied
to the American note of June 24th, regarding the sinking of the American sailing vessel William P. Frye, stating that a German prize court had held that the sinking was justifiable, but that the owners should be indemnified; the alternative is offered of submitting the whole case to arbitration at The Hague. Text in Special Supplement To Journal, p. 188.
31 European War. United States—Great Britain. Great
Britain answered the note of the United States of July 16 , relating to the rights of American citizens under the principles and rules of international law, with legal argument in support of the practices of Great Britain. Text in Special Supplement To Journal, p. 163. 31 European War. United States—Great Britain. Great Britain answered the note of the United States relative to the Neches. Text in Special Supplement To Journal, p. 162.
2 Mexico. Mexico City for the fourth time came under the control of the Carranza faction, General Gonzales occupying the city without resistance from the retiring Zapatistas. N. Y. Times, Aug. 4.
3-6 Mexico. Upon the invitation of the United States, the diplomatic representatives at Washington of the six Latin American republics (the ambassadors from Argentine Republic, Brazil and Chile, and the ministers from Bolivia, Uruguay and Guatemala), met with the Secretary of State of the United States to discuss means for ending the chaos in Mexico. N. Y. Times, Aug. 3, August, 1915.
4 European War. The French prize court confirmed the seizure of the American steamship Dacia, which was transferred from German to American registry after the beginning of the war. The cargo of cotton was not involved, as Great Britain had stated before the vessel sailed that the cotton would not be detained. The cotton was purchased by the French government. N. Y. Times, Aug. 5, 17, 1915. Text of decision printed in this Journal, p. 1015.
6 European War. United States—Great Britain. Note verbale from British Embassy in regard to the Neches. Text issued by the Dept. of State.
6 Portugal. Bernardino Machado (former Premier) was elected President of Portugal, succeeding Manuel de Arriaga, resigned. N. Y. Times, Aug. 8.
10 United States—Germany. The United States accepted the
offer of Germany for the payment of indemnity in the case of the William P. Frye, but proposed that the alternative of reference to The Hague Court be also had as a method of interpreting the disputed points in the treaties with Prussia. Text in Special Supplement To This Journal, p. 191.
11 Mexico. General Carranza protested to those American govern
ments participating in the conference on Mexican affairs and warns of the "dangers which may ensue from a new policy of interference." N. Y. Times, Aug. 12, 1915.
12 Haiti. The Haitian National Assembly elected Gen. Sudre Dar
tiguenave, President. N. Y. Times, Aug. 12.
12 European War. Austria-hungary—United States. The United States replied to the protest of Austria-Hungary against the sale of war supplies by American manufacturers to the enemies of Austria-Hungary. Text in Special Supplement To This Journal, p. 166.
11 Mexico. An appeal sent by the American Secretary of State, the ambassadors from Argentine Republic, Brazil and Chile and the ministers from Bolivia, Guatemala and Uruguay, to many Mexicans "who possess authority and power," calling upon them to devise some means by which Mexican affairs may be settled, and proposing a conference of those directing the armed movements in Mexico and offering their friendly and disinAugust, 1915.
terested help. Text in Independent, 53:256; N. Y. Times, Aug. 14, 1915; N. Y. Times, Aug. 12, 13, 1915.
18 Peru. Dr. Jose Pardo inaugurated President of Peru. N. Y.
Times, Aug. 19.
19 European War. The British steamer Arabic sunk off the English
coast. Two Americans lost their lives. N. Y. Times, Aug. 20, 1915.
18 Mexico. General Villa, leader of one of the chief factions in Mexico, formally accepted the good offices of the United States and other American republics. N. Y. Times, Aug. 19, 1915.
21 European War. The British declaration making cotton contraband of war became effective. The declaration was signed August 20th. N. Y. Times, Aug. 22, 1915; London Gazette, No. 29273.
21 European War. Italy declared war on Turkey. N. Y. Times, Aug. 22, 1915.
1 European War. Germany—United States. The German Ambassador presented a note to the American Secretary of State informing him that the instructions of Germany to her ambassador concerning the last note of the United States on the Lusitania, contained the following passage: "Liners will not be sunk by our submarines without warning and without safety of the lives of non-combatants, provided the liners do not try to escape or offer resistance." Attention was called to the fact that this was written before the sinking of the Arabic. Text of note: N. Y. Times, Sept. 2, 1915.
4 United States—Haiti. Rear Admiral Caperton declared martial law in Haitian territory occupied by American troops. N. Y. Times, Sept. 5.
4 European War. United States—Germany. The Allan Line steamer Hesperian torpedoed on Sept. 8; the United States asked Germany for the facts as to the sinking of the Hesperian. N. Y. Times, Sept. 6.
7 United States. The President appointed Frank Lyon Polk, of New York, Counsellor for the State Department, to succeed