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The captain 386. The captain shall issue all general orders relative to the will issue orders duties of the ship through the executive officer and in other respects through the ex
keep him informed of his own methods of performing duty, in order ecutive.
that in his absence this officer may exercise command intelligently
and in accordance with his wishes. Billets for the 387. (1) He shall cause to be prepared for each member of the
crew a billet which shall assign to him his rating, watch number, part of the ship, mess, boat, and station at quarters and fire quar
ters. These billets shall be given out when the crew goes on board. Watch, quar (2) He shall, as soon as possible, cause complete watch, quarter, ter, station, fire, station, fire, and boat bills to be made out, framed, and hung up in and boat bills.
some conspicuous position. These must be kept complete, correct, and accessible at all times during the cruise. The boat bill must contain full directions for abandoning ship, including arrangements for providing the necessary supplies of food and water. The fire bill must contain full directions for extinguishing a fire during
quarters, when the regular alarm is not given. Useful infor (3) The Articles for the Government of the Navy, the daily mation to be routine, daily conduct reports, all police regulations, and routine made known to orders concerning the ship's company shall also be kept hung up in
a conspicuous position. Information concerning the movements of the ship, the mails, the address for letters, conduct classes and records, quarterly recommendations and standing, restriction lists, results of competitive drills, and other information of like nature interesting to the crew, and proper for them to know, should be
published from time to time. Articles for 388. He shall cause the Articles for the Government of the Navy government of to be read aloud to the officers and crew at general muster once in Navy; general orders.
every month. All general orders issued by the Navy Department or the commander in chief, which may in any degree affect the crew, and have not been previously published, shall be read at the same muster.
389. The ship shall not sail from a port in the United States and exercised be- until the crew has been watched, quartered, and stationed, and also fore sailing.
exercised at all important stations. To superin 390. The captain shall superintend all important evolutions, exertend evolutions cises, and inspections.
Preparation of 391. (1) He shall carefully follow the directions laid down in the the ship and crew ordnance instructions in respect to all matters treated therein, un
less inconsistent with these regulations or other later orders.
(2) Unless urgent duties prevent, or the weather renders it impossible, he shall have an exercise at general quarters at least once week, and require each division to be drilled at least once a day, except on Saturday and Sunday, until the crew is proficient. In bad weather oral instruction under cover shall be substituted for open-air drills. When in port where there are United States marine barracks, the marines shall be landed and drilled in company with those at the barracks at least once a week, when practicable.
(3) He shall cause special instruction and exercise to be given to all men under his command who evince marked inclination or aptitude for any particular branch of their profession. Every incentive shall be given to develop and maintain the professional qualifications of such men, and opportunities shall be afforded them for improvement in that branch for which they are best fitted.
Care of crew.
(4) Apprentices and seamen who exhibit mechanical ability shall be carefully instructed in all duties connected with the electric plant.
(5) He shall, so far as is within his power, comply with and carry out the instructions concerning drills and exercises contained in article 272.
(6) He shall carefully observe the requirements of article 270, paragraph 4. After men have become familiar with their stations for action they shall be instructed in the duties of other stations, in order that in times of emergency they can serve at any gun or perform any useful duty. All members of the crew, whatever their rating, shall be taught the use of small arms of all kinds and exercised in boats until proficient. All members of the crew, including the artificer and special classes, shall be instructed in the use of great guns and torpedoes.
392. (1) He shall use all proper means to preserve the health of the crew, and from time to time consult with the senior medical officer in regard to sanitary measures to be adopted for that end.
(2) He shall encourage the men to engage in athletics, fencing, Athletic exerboxing, boating, and other similar sports and exercises. Gymnas- cises. tic outfits will be furnished by the Department to vessels requesting them.
(3) He shall, so far as is in his power, keep the ship thoroughly clean Cleanliness. throughout, well ventilated, dry, at a comfortable temperature, and well supplied with light. He shall require the men to wash daily; when possible, supplies of fresh water shall be allowed for that purpose and for washing clothes. Bath and wash rooms shall be supplied with hot and cold water and kept open during the evening. Every effort shall be made to encourage cleanly personal habits. The hair and beard shall be kept short. At morning inspection, division officers shall carefully observe whether these rules have been followed, and, should it be necessary, any man may be punished for their infraction.
(4) He shall require division officers to inspect clothing once a Clothing month, just before the monthly requisitions are made out, and oftener if necessary, in order to ascertain that it is clean, properly marked, and of uniform pattern, that previous issues are duly accounted for, and to take note of any deficiencies; and he shall see that every man is provided with a proper amount of stowage space for his clothing. In granting clothing requisitions he shall have due regard to the necessities
of the individuals of the crew and the state of their accounts, keeping them, if possible, out of debt. He will permit nothing but the regulation uniform to be worn; and in arranging the dress for the day he shall prescribe such as will not injuriously affect the health. At morning inspection, from which no one shall be excused unless positively necessary, a careful examination shall be made to see that the clothing is clean, neat, and in accordance with the order for the day. Every reasonable opportunity and facility shall be given to the crew to make, mend, mark, and wash their clothing.
.(5) He shall require the bedding to be aired once a week, each Bedding. piece being separately shaken out and hung up. All bedding shall be of the uniform pattern and color; each inan shall have two mattress covers and change them frequently; the mattresses shall be picked over and the tickings washed at least once a year; blankets shall be washed as often as necessary; special facilities, if possible,
Food and water.
being given to firemen, mechanics, and others whose bedding requires frequent inspections and much care.
(6) He shall see that all cooking and mess utensils are kept clean; that the food is wholesome and well cooked; and that the water is pure. Ships on the Asiatic station and elsewhere where pure water can not be obtained from the shore shall distill all water used for cooking and drinking: No water shall be issued for drinking purposes unless it shall have been tested and approved by the senior medical officer. He shall require the senior medical officer to inspect frequently the fresh food purchased for the crew, and the fruit and
other articles of food or drink offered for sale alongside. Serving out of (7) He shall, when possible, require a junior officer and one or rations. more petty officers to be present when rations are served out; they
shall report if there is any cause for complaint in quantity or quality. Hours for mess (8) He shall establish hours for messing, having a due regard for ing.
the duties of the ship and the health of the crew. The crew shall not be disturbed during meal hours when it can be avoided. The practice of conducting visitors through the messing spaces of the inen during meal hours should be discouraged.
(9) He shall see that the crew is not exposed to the sun or to night to health of crew. dews when such exposure is injurious and can be prevented. Men
who get wet shall be permitted to change their clothing as soon as possible. In ports where there is an infectious disease, or where contagious diseases are notoriously prevalent, the captain should restrict the amount of leave given or refuse it altogether, if he so deem necessary to preserve the health of the crew. When in un healthy localities, and where necessary, the captain may engage native boatmen to attend the ship in order to preserve the health of the crew.
Men suffering from disease shall not be granted liberty, except upon recommendation of the senior medical officer. Care of bilges. 393. He shall, when fitting out, cause an examination to be
made of the bilges or double bottoms to see that all parts are accessible. If otherwise, he shall represent the fact in writing to the commandant, and if not remedied in a reasonable time, then to the
Navy Department. Care and pres 394. Captains of iron or steel ships shall give particular attention ervation of iron to the enforcement of the regulations for the care and preservation and steel ships.
of such ships. Ventilation 395. (1) The captain shall have men stationed to close the valves
in the ventilation conduits whenever the fire alarm is sounded or the signal given to close water-tight doors and valves.
(2) The branch pipes from the air conduits to the magazines and shell rooms shall be kept disconnected, except when the latter are
Closing water 396. (1) Signals shall be provided to indicate that water-tight tight doors and doors, valves, and traps must be closed. Care shall be taken that
this signal shall be accessible to the officer of the deck and kept in readiness at all times, both at sea and in port. These signals must be so arranged that the men employed in remote compartments may hear them and not be in danger of being shut in; means of escape must be provided, and those stationed to close doors must also be required to make search for and give warning to men in distant compartments.
(2) The captain shall, during an action or when at sea, in fog or at night, and at other times when sudden collisions may occur, have
As a precaution.
Fires for cook
as many of the water-tight doors and valves closed as practicable, taking into consideration the necessities of the occasion and the requirements of the officers and crew. Even in action, certain communications in the engine and fire rooms, coal bunkers, magazines, and ventilating conduits must be kept open until the last moment.
(3) He shall have men detailed who shall, upon the alarm of fire or when the signal is given, proceed with all possible speed to close the air-ducts and water-tight doors which will isolate the fire and not interfere with the water supply, and then report them closed to the officer of their division. There shall be a sufficient number of men so detailed to provide for all possible absentees from sickness or other causes.
(4) He shall have frequent exercises without previous warning in order to practice the men so stationed at their duties, and shall tioned to be excause to be entered in the log the time required fully to perform them. (5) He shall assure himself that the duty of examining and work
doors, ing, once a week, all cocks, valves, slides, doors, outlets, and hatches valves, etc., to in connection with the ventilating apparatus, pumps, and watertight compartments is faithfully performed.
397. (1) All fires used for cooking shall be extinguished at tattoo, unless specially authorized by the captain to be continued longer ing. for some specific purpose. When the weather is very warm they shall be extinguished as early as practicable, if by so doing the comfort of the crew is increased.
(2) All lights, except those in the cabins, offices, wardrooms, steer Lights extinages, staterooms, and those designated by the captain as standing guished at tatlights, shall be extinguished at tattoo.
(3) The lights on the lower decks should be reduced in number, Lights extinunless required for the comfort of the crew, before tattoo. Alí guished lights in the holds, storerooms, and orlops, and all open lights in the ship, except those in officers' quarters, inust be ext aished before 7.30 p. m., or at the time of the evening inspection by the executive officer.
(4) The lights in the wardroom and steerage country or in officers' Lights in the mess rooms, except one in each, shall be extinguished at 10 p. m., unless the time is extended on special occasions.
(5) There shall be at all times during the night a sufficient num Standing ber of standing lights thronghout the open parts of the ship to lights. enable the officers and crew to turn out, repair to the upper decks, or to attend to any duty arising from a sudden emergency.
(6) During rainy or cloudy weather and at other times, if neces Sufficient light sary, when the duties of the ship will permit, sufficient artificial at times. light shall be supplied between decks for the crew to read, write, or engage in recreation.
(7) Special lights for officers' use in their rooms, after hours, may Extra lights. be permitted by the captain, provided that they do not prevent those who may desire rest from sleeping. (8) Ships with single electric lighting plants shall always have on
Single electric hand in the dynamo room and at other places throughout the ship, lighting plants. ready for use, lamps or lanterns that will give sufficient light for emergencies. (9) The captain shall require quiet to be preserved in officers'
Quiet to be quarters after 10 o'clock, except on occasions when a special exten- preserved sion of lights is granted, as provided in paragraph 4 of this
article: hours, except.
Uncovered (10) Uncovered lights shall never be left unattended in any part lights. of the ship, and covered lights shall always be so secured as to pre
vent breaking or capsizing. Uncovered lights shall never be used in holds, storerooms, orlops, lockers, bilges, or other places below
the berth deck, except to test the air. Lights and fires (11) Such lights and fires as the captain may deem dangerous shall wheñorhandling be extinguished when the magazines are opened, or when handling powder aud explosives. or passing powder, explosives, or other dangerous combustibles. Lights in time (12) In time of war, or when necessary to conceal a ship from an
enemy, only such lights shall be used as are deemed advisable by the senior officer present.
398. (1) Except in emergencies coal shall not be taken on board be taken against in a condition that might render it dangerous. The bunkers contaveous combus: taining such coal shall be carefully watched. tion aud coal gas. (2) Coal after having been received must be kept as dry as possi
ble. Special precautions must be taken to prevent the leakage of water into the bunkers.
(3) When coal bunkers are not provided with permanent ventilators, the plates shall be removed for ventilation at least twice a week, and oftener if convenient, and kept removed for a period of several hours each time.
(4) No light except a miner's safety lamp is to be used inside the coal bunkers until they have been found to contain no explosive gas; and special precautions in this respect are to be taken for a few days after coaling.
(5) Coal bags that have been used should be examined periodically, as fine coal dust remaining in them may produce spontaneous
combustion. Oil, tallow; (6) Oil, tallow, and cotton waste shall be stowed in metallic tanks, paints, and which must be kept as far from the boilers as possible. Waste and
other similar materials saturated with oil or grease must be destroyed immediately after use.
Oiled or painted canvas, and other oiled or painted fabrics, must not be stowed below, and when not in daily use must be frequently examined. Great caution is to be used when lights are taken into
the paint room. Inflammable (8) The captain shall not permit any private property in the nature liquids and oils; of inflammable liquid or oil, explosives, or other dangerous stores liaother dangerous ble to spontaneous combustion, to be placed on board. Private am
munition must be stowed in places provided for ship's ammunition of a similar character.
(9) He shall not permit any inflammable liquid or explosive oil to come on board for ship's use, except such as is permitted by the allowance books. Spirits of turpentine, alcohol, and all varnishes and liquid driers shall be kept in metallic tanks or vessels securely stowed on an upper deck; and none of these liquids shall be taken below except in small quantities for immediate use.
(10) The captain shall require the senior medical officer to give his personal attention to the safety of all inflammable medical stores. Acids must not be kept near combustible materials; and the latter, when in bottles, should be placed in lead-lined boxes.
(11) Once a month all oil lamps used for replacing the electrical lights in case of an accident, shall be lighted and kept burning for a sufficient length of time to insure their being in good order and ready for use.