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ness of his troops to have been praiseworthy; but that fortress; and, on the morning of the 28th, he assuring the French soldiers that their disasters were commenced strenuous efforts to dislodge the allies. owing merely to the errors of their leaders, and He first attacked their left; but his troops were soon speaking very confidently about chasing the allies driven back with immense loss.
The next attempt across the Ebro, and celebrating Napoleon's ap- was made against the centre. A strong column proaching birth-day in Vittoria.
marched up the hill on which it was posted, and In the mean while, the difficulties of the British dislodging a Portuguese battalion, obtained a momengeneral were not slight. “The situation of Lord tary success; but, General Ross advancing with the Wellington,” says the author of Annals of the Fusileers, the enemy were speedily driven down Peninsular Campaigns, “ to whom the progress of the again. campaign had hitherto been little else than one con- The battle then became general along the whole tinued march of triumph, was become one of con- front of the heights occupied by the fourth division siderable hazard. Having to cover the siege of two under Sir Lowry Cole, and Soult made repeated fortresses, with a wide interval between, he was under attempts to establish himself on the line of the the necessity of extending his line in a dangerous allies; but all his efforts were unavailing. The condegree. The positions occupied by his divisions were test was severe, and the bravery of our troops was indeed strong; yet, by the impassable nature of the never more conspicuously shown; and “the gallant country, they were cut off from all direct communi-fourth division," said Lord Wellington in his despatch, cation with each other, and the enemy enjoyed the “which has so frequently been distinguished in the advantage of being able to direct the whole volume army, surpassed their former conduct.” Every of his force against a single corps, while the other regiment in it charged with the bayonet; and some divisions, separated by almost impenetrable barriers, no less than four several times. Convinced at length could lend no assistance.
of the hopelessness of his exertions, Soult drew off The distribution of the allied army was made in his troops. the manner best calculated to effect the various On the following day both armies remained quiet. objects of guarding the passes of the Pyrenees, cover- But Lord Wellington's arrangements were, in the ing the siege of St. Sebastian's, and the blockade of mean while, fully completed; Sir Rowland Hill had Pamplona, and opposing the efforts which the enemy | fallen back, and a communication was firmly estamight make for the relief of these fortresses. blished between his corps and the main body to his
The first object of Marshal Soult was to relieve right, by the intervention of the Earl of Dalhousie's the fortress of Pamplona, which possessed fewer division. “ This,” says Colonel Jones,“ was a deathmeans of resistance than St. Sebastian's. With this blow to Marshal Soult's system of maneuvres, and view he collected a large body of troops at St. Jean even placed him in an awkward dilemma, should he de Pied-de-Port, and on the morning of the 25th attempt to retire without a further effort;" but the of July, marched, with 35,000 men, against General Marshal was not a man to be easily daunted, and he Byng's post at Roncesvalles. Sir Lowry Cole moved set to work to accomplish his object by a different up to his support, and these officers maintained their system. The position which he occupied was one by post throughout the day ; but the enemy turned it nature extremely strong, and little liable to be asin the afternoon, and Sir Lowry deemed it necessary saulted if moderately guarded; he resolved, thereto withdraw. General Drouet led 13,000 men fore, to march the bulk of his troops to join General against the right of Sir Rowland Hill's position in Drouet, and thus endeavour to turn the British left. the passes of Maya. Two videttes had been stationed On the morning of the 30th his troops were obin advance, to give notice of the enemy's approach ; served moving in great numbers towards Drouet's but the heat of the day had overcome them, and position. Lord Wellington instantly perceived the they had fallen asleep. The French were thus enabled intent of this manœuvre, and determined on attackto advance unseen, and were down upon the piquet ing the formidable position in his front, that his almost before an alarm could be given. The attack right wing might not be detained inactive by an was sustained by the British with their usual steadi- | inferior force. His arrangements were completely ness; but the disparity of numbers was too great for successful, and the enemy was compelled to abandon the contest to last long, and they were compelled a position which the British general declared to be slowly to retire. Reinforcements were brought up, one of the strongest, and most difficult of access, but the necessity of guarding the other passes pre- that he had yet seen occupied by troops." vented the moving up of a sufficient number of In the mean while, reinforcements had been sent troops at once to repulse the enemy; the fight was to Sir Rowland Hill, who was vigorously attacked in unequal, and the British were gradually forced back, front, while a large body of troops were maneuvring till about six in the evening, when they were joined upon his fank, and endeavouring to turn his left. by the brigade of Sir Edward Barnes; the lost Sir Rowland repulsed every attack, and maintained ground was then regained, and by nine o'clock, the his position till Drouet was absolutely round his French were driven from the pass.
flank, when he leisurely retired to a more favourable When Soult began these attacks on the right and range of heights close in rear, and bade defiance to centre of the British line, the Marquess of Welling the enemy's utmost efforts to dislodge him. ton was at its opposite extremity, near St. Sebastian's. In the night the French withdrew from their posiThe news reached him, that the enemy were in tion, and on the morrow were discovered to be in motion on the night of the 25th, and he adopted full retreat. A pursuit was instantly commenced; immediate measures for concentrating the army several smart engagements took place, and many towards the threatened quarter, still providing for the prisoners were captured. On the l'st of August, the siege of St. Sebastian's and the blockade of Pamplona. enemy had withdrawn into France; and the allies The right wing was already in full retreat, when they were again masters of the passes through the mounreceived an order from the Marquess to halt; and tains, occupying nearly the same positions as before as they were taking up their ground, he himself the attack of the 25th of July. Such was the terarrived, and in person directed the occupation of an mination of the great conflicts which are called the advantageous position, completely covering Pamplona. Battles of the Pyrenees; and highly creditable it was
Soult had now penetrated to within a few miles of to the British general and his army.
THE NORTH WIND, THE SUN, AND THE TRAVELLER.
THE YAK OF THIBET.
The following account of a valuable animal, very little known in 'Tis said a warm dispute begun
Europe, is taken from a new volume of the Oriental Annual,
ably edited by the Rev. HOBART Caunter. The engraving is Between the North Wind and the Sun;
from one of the beautiful plates, after Mr. Daniell's drawings, They argued for at least an hour,
with which the volume is illustrated.
BEFORE we quitted Serinagur, we visited the Rajah's
stable, in which was a beautiful animal of the bovine To prove to every one, in spite
species, called a yak. It is the domestic bull of Of all your beauty, warmth, and light,
Thibet. I do not believe that a single specimen of That faine to me is justly due,
this creature now exists in Europe. In Thibet it is Being the stronger of the two!”
found both in the wild and tame state, though chiefly “ Boast not ;" replied the Orb of Day,
in the latter. As the wealth of the Tartar hordes “ But show your strength some other way; I would not willingly contend
consists principally in their cattle, they have large With one I wish to think my friend;
herds. These are their most valuable property, for But if the trial must begin,
they live almost entirely upon the milk. They sell Decide on terms, and try to win.”
the hair of the yak to great advantage, as it is in "Well,” said the North Wind," look beneath,
This animal is about five feet high, and has much
the form and bulk of a common English bull. The Whiche'er of us, ( I do not joke,)
chief point of dissimilarity between the yak and Shall from yon traveller force his cloak,
every other animal of this genus, consists in its sides Then let that pow'r at once succeed
being covered with long glossy hair which extends As conqu’ror;"-said the Sun, “ Agreed !"
over the whole body, except the head and legs, and Resting his chin upon a cloud, The North Wind raved both long and loud,
hangs from the flanks quite down to the hocks. The Bringing his utmost weight to bear
head is not so long as that of the English bull, and Upon the unconscious Traveller.
the ears are smaller. The horns are of greater length, Roar! howl! puff! whistle! went the blast,
tapering from the skull to the extremities, and formToo rough and violent to last :
ing a horizontal arch; they gradually incline towards In vain! around each active limb
each other until near the end, when they make a The good man's cloak encompass'd him.
sudden curve upwards. The forehead seems to proThen stealing sly along the ground, And flyiog upwards with a bound,
trude considerably, but this is probably owing to a The angry blast, in rapid course,
thick tuft of curly hair which traverses it, partly By sudden sleight and dreadful force,
shading the eyes, and giving rather a heavy expresLoosened the clasp that bound the neck,
sion to the animal's features. The eyes are large, But there received a final check.
though not bright, and project boldly from the sockets, Our friend about his body chill,
without, however, conveying the disagreeable impres. Folded his garment closer still. With swelling cheeks and heated brain,
sion which a projecting eye-ball is apt to create; as The North Wind owned his labour vain,
the hair of the forehead neutralizes the effect. Though he had toiled with might and main;
The yak has all the genuine marks of high breeding Then, hopeless of the victory,
and unmixed blood. The nostrils are small but open, He beckoned to the Sun to try.
the nose is also small and delicately shaped, presentPeeping from his pavilion blue,
ing likewise that roundness and smoothness of surface The Sun a genial radiance threw. Dispersed o'er all the landscape wide,
so common to animals of a pure breed. The neck His mildness breathed on every side.
is short but arched ; and, as in the Brahminee bull, Delicious contrast to the sense,
peculiar to Hindostan, there is a high hump between After th' unkind wind'o violence:
the shoulders: this is coated with a profusion of short And man for all its blessings givin,
curly hair, extremely soft, and of a texture very difLook'd up with gratitude to heav'n.
ferent from that which covers the other parts of the Our Traveller, among the rest,
body. This soft fur, for such it really is, overspreads The comfortable change confess'd, And urged by exercise before,
the shoulders, and continues, though in less profusion, Perceived the warmth through ev'ry pore.
along the back, extending to the root of the tail, Moved by the Sun's delightful touch,
which is composed of an immense tuft of long bright Said he, “ I find my dress too much;
hair, that almost sweeps the ground, and adds greatly There, Cloak, I do not want you now;"
to the elegance of this singularly beautiful animal. It Then hanging it upon a bough, Ile sat beneath the shade to trace
is far more copious than the tail of the largest English The settled calm in nature's face.
cart-horse; not so long, indeed, but much thicker, 'Twas then the Sun serenely smiled,
while the hair is finer and more glossy, entirely And thus addressed his neighbour wild;
enveloping the tail, and is as great an ornament to "I pray thee, Boreas, learn from hence,
this fine creature, as a luxuriant head of hair to a The baneful fruits of violence,
handsome woman. In some of these bulls it is Which with yon Traveller, as you see,
perfectly white, every other part of the animal being But hardened him, and wearied thee. Too oft the harsh repulsive frown,
quite black, except the soft fur which covers the Has kept the seeds of virtue down,
shoulders, hump, and spine. This order is frequently While kindness, whose divine control
reversed, though occasionally, the colours vary conExpands, improves, persuades the soul,
siderably; but black with white, as seen in the May, under God, th' affections win,
accompanying engraving, is the most prevailing order, And bring a blessed harvest in.”
and I think the most striking.
The legs of the yak are very short, while the body
appears disproportionably large, from the profusion The art of spreading rumours may be compared to the art
of hair with which it is overpread. On some of these of pin-making. There is usually some truth, which I call the wire ; as this passes from hand to hand, 'one gives animals, this is so long as to trail upon the ground it a polish, another a point, others make and put on the which gives an ungainly appearance to the creature's head, and at last the pin is completed ---Rey. J. Newton. movements, as, when walking slowly, it exhibits the
creeping motion of a large reptile. The soft fur upon furnishes at once a cloak by day and a bed by night. the hump and shoulders is manufactured by the The long hair, when carefully taken from the skin, is natives of Thibet, into a fine but strong cloth, and if skilfully manufactured into a sort of tent-cloth, which submitted to the test of European skill, might no is remarkably strong, and quite impervious to the wet. doubt be made to produce a very superior fabric. They convert the same material into ropes, which This animal is not generally fierce, but if intruded are much stronger than those composed of hemp, upon by strangers, it sometimes manifests very for- and resist more successfully the influence of climate midable symptoms of impatience. It has generally and of friction. The yak's tail is an indispensable a sullen appearance, though that, I think, is greatly appendage to the costume of an eastern court; it is caused by the projecting forehead, which tends to give used throughout India, and when not to be obtained a stern aspect to the countenance, It, however, in sufficient quantities to answer the demand, is very certainly expresses no signs of gratification when successfully imitated by those cunning artificers, who approached by those with whom it is most familiar, are equalled only by the Chinese in these and similar discovering none of those indications of pleasure so deceptions. The tails are converted into chowries, generally evinced by other animals under similar cir- a sort of whisk employed to keep off the flies and cumstances. When excited it is not easily appeased, musquitoes from the heads of those who can afford and is exceedingly tenacious of injury, always show- such a luxury. The dhe, or cow of the yak, yields ing great fierceness whenever any one approaches a large quantity of milk, and this is so rich as to who has chanced to provoke it. The cow is called produce better butter than that of any other of the dhe, of which the wandering Tartars have large num- bovine species in Asia. bers. These Tartars, like the modern Bedouins, and We were much gratified at having the opportunity those nomadic races of more primitive times which of beholding so fine a creature of its kind, as this nearly overspread the East, dwell chiefly under tents animal is seldom seen below the mountains of Thibet; in the hills or in the deserts, wander from place to no one, I believe, having yet thought it worth while place, and have no means of subsistence but those to introduce the breed into Bengal, and most prosupplied by their flocks and herds.
bably the experiment would fail if attempted. The yak, which they pasture upon the tops of the Serinagur, situated in the snowy regions of Thibet, mountains and in the deep glens of Thibet, affords where this animal was seen, is described as a place them at once warm clothing and wholesome food. looking like a white drapery hanging from the skies They use it also as a beast of burden, and it answers over the blue tops of the distant mountains. It the purpose of the horse in transporting them over seemed perfectly detached from the hills, above which those bleak and rugged mountains among which they it rose to an elevation that appeared to blend it with dwell, as it is very strong and sure-footed. It scarcely the heavens, whilst its surface of unsullied whiteness, ever falls, and when this does happen on steep decli- catching the rays of the sun, reached the eye through vities, where it is so generally employed, the accident the distance, softened into a purity of effect that is almost invariably fatal. Instances of such casual- carried the imagination to a world unknown to man, ties, however, are rare.
of which it seemed to form a part. The herdsmen commonly convert the hides into a The inhabitants appear to be a mixed race, exhibitloose outer garment that covers the whole of their ing in their features, the blended lineaments of highbodies, hanging down to the knees, and it proves a lander, lowlander, Patan, Tartar, Chinese, and Hindoo; sufficient protection against the lowest temperature of and often showing the especial peculiarities of those the cold and desolate region which they inhabit. It several races. They are a mild and inoffensive people,
LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, West STRAND; and sold by all Booksellery
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTİNG CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
THE WILD PALM-TREE.
The engraving represents a wild Palm-tree, near
Mount Sinai, and is copied from Laborde's splendid 'Abd rocks, and sands, and barrenness,
work on Arabia Petræa: speaking of this interesting How beautiful to see
object, he says, “What appeared to me most worthy The wild Palın in its desert dresg-.. The solitary tree!
of notice was a Palm-tree in its natural state, which Alone, amid the silent wild,
we found above Ouadi Seleh. The Palm-tree is It rears its spreading crest;
always represented with its summit pointed, its leaves The boundless desert's favoured child, In constant verdure drest.
bent back and spreading over its head, from whence
gracefully hang dates as bright as coral; and we An emblem of that faith that cheers The pilgrim on his road,
never imagine that all this elegance is produced by Through life's dark vale of care and tears,
art, and that nature, less refined, has only attended Beneath his earthly load.
to its preservation. Before us we saw the Palm-tree For, like that faith alone it stands, A bright Oasis in the sands,
as it had grown for many a year, forming a rampart With hand-like leaves against the sky,
of its perishing leaves, and again coming to life, as it Pointing to Immortality!
were, in the midst of its wreck. Neglected by the On account of its great use to mankind, the family cultivation beneath' his dignity, the Palm-tree, at
the , all of the Palms stands in the first rank among the pro-times, forms impenetrable forests; more frequently, ductions of the vegetable kingdom, and ought, more however, it is found isolated near a fountain, as we than most others, to excite the interest of naturalists; but, unfortunately, it is one of those which traveller like a friendly lightbouse, pointing out to
see in the engraving. It presents itself to the thirsty have been least noticed by travellers. Whether him the spot where water is to be found to quench the difficulty of finding the different species at the his thirst, and a charitable shade in which to repose.” same time in blossom, and bearing fruit, is the cause of this want of information, or whether it arises from the great height of the Palms preventing their easy examination, still the result is, that, in most collec
LION HUNT IN SOUTH AMERICA. tions, the fruit is preserved without a knowledge of At Villavicencio I was highly entertained in hunting the blossom, or the flowers without the fruit.
a Pagi, or Chilian Lion. On our arrival, the people The Palms are peculiar to the warmer regions of were preparing to destroy this enemy to their cattle: the globe, and the name Palma has been given to these several dogs were collected from the neighbouring productions of the vegetable world, from the supposed farms, and some of the young men of the surround resemblance of their broad leaves to the human ing country were in hopes of taking him alive with hand, palma being the Latin word for a hand. On their lassos, and of afterwards baiting him in the the same account, the Date, which is the fruit of a village for the diversion of the ladies; whilst others species of Palm, is called dactylus, a finger, not so were desirous of signalizing the prowess of their much from its form, as from the mode in which it favourite dogs. All of them were determined to kill grows in clusters, spreading out like the fingers of this ravenous brute, which had caused much damage, the hand.
particularly among their horses. These trees are of the utmost importance to the At four o'clock we left the village, more than inhabitants of the tropical regions; the fruit and sap twenty in number, each leading a dog, and having a providing them with food, the fibrous part of their chosen lasso on his arm, ready to throw at a moment's structure with clothing, and the leaves forming warning. About a mile from the village we separated, the greatest part of their slightly-constructed huts. by different by-roads, into five or six parties, the After enumerating some of the uses to which they are men taking the dogs on their horses, to prevent the applied, a French naturalist says, “ besides these prin- possibility of the scent being discovered by the lion. cipal advantages, they bestow many secondary bene- All noise was avoided; even the smoking of cigars fits, which deserve notice; the leaves of some kinds was dispensed with, lest the smell should alarm their are formed into fans, parasols, and hats; others again prey, and they should lose their sport. The party are written on, in the same manner as we write on which I joined consisted of five individuals. After paper, with a metal style; artificial flowers are formed riding about four miles, we arrived at a small rivulet, out of the pith of some ; the light and supple rattan- where a young colt was tied to a tree, having been cane is the slender shoot of another species, and taken there for that purpose. We then retired about solid and useful goblets are made from the shell of three hundred yards, and the colt being alone began the cocoa-nut, which the most refined luxury does to neigh, which had the desired effect; for before not despise."
sunset, one of our party, placed in advance, let go The Palm is a most graceful plant, and, in the figu- his dog and whistled, at which signal three other rative language of Scripture its name is frequently dogs were loosed, and ran towards the place where employed to express beauty and elegance. The growth the colt had been left. We immediately followed, of the Palm is extremely singular; for, although some and soon found the lion with his back against a tree, species attain the height of the largest forest-trees, defending himself against his adversaries. their structure differs materially from that of a tree, 'On our appearance he seemed inclined to make a properly so called. The leaves of the young plant start, and attempt an escape. The lassos were immearise immediately from the surface of the ground, diately in motion, when four more dogs came up, and it is not until after the lapse of several years, and shortly afterwards their masters, who, hearing that there is any appearance of stem, and this stem, the noise, had ridden to the spot as fast as the woods when once formed, never increases in size, the growth would permit them. The poor brute seemed now to of the plant being always upward, so that the stem fear the increase of his enemies. However, he itself is formed by the former growth of the green maintained his post, and killed three or four dogs, portions of the Palm; and as we can judge the age at which the owner of one of them became so enof a tree by the circles visible in a section of its raged, that he threw his lasso round the neck of the trunk, so the number of years a Palm has existed, is lion, when the dogs, supposing the onset more secure, known by the scars left by the falling off of its annual sprang on him, and he was soon overpowered, but so circle of leaves,
dreadfully wounded and torn, that it became neces