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On the opposite side of the Market-place stands Is a large and irregularly built town of the Nether- the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, the appearance of lands, situated on the river Dyle. It was formerly which is much injured by the number of small the capital of the Duchy of Brabant, and the place houses which are built against its walls.

It was where the Dukes of Brabant were crowned. Some erected about the year 1040 by Lambert, Duke of Bra. maintain that it was founded by Julius Cæsar, or bant, but was twice burnt in the fourteenth century. by one Lupus who lived long before him, and It was then completely repaired, and ornamented it is certain that it was known as far back as the with a spire of great beauty, 533 feet in height, year 885, when Godefroy, Duke of the Normans, together with two side-towers, each of which was having devastated a great part of the surrounding | 430 feet high. This splendid portion of the church country, encamped on the Dyle, in the plain of was, however, destroyed by a tempest in 1604. In Louvain, where his troops built huts for the recep- the middle of the choir is the tomb of Henry the tion of their plunder. In the ninth century, the Fourth, Duke of Brabant, who died in 1235; and, Emperor Arnulphus built a castle here, to protect the behind it, in a chapel, is that of Margaret of Loucountry from the insults of the Normans; and, vain, assassinated in 1225. There are also several according to Lipsius, this was the commencement of other churches, the town of Louvain, which was surrounded by walls The University of Louvain, formerly the most emiin 1165, and afterwards enlarged, principally in the nent on the continent, was founded in 1426 by John reign of Wenceslas, Duke of Brabant.

the Fourth, Duke of Brabant, with the approbation The castle was for a long period the usual resi- of Pope Martin the Fifth. The first professors were dence of the Dukes of Brabant. Henry the First was sent from Paris and Cologne; and the University assassinated there in 1038, and Thierry, Count of received many privileges from succeeding popes, and Holland, was confined as a prisoner there in 1200. from the Sovereigns of the country. It possessed The Emperor, Charles the Fifth, together with his altogether thirty-seven colleges, and fourished till sisters, was also brought up here, about the beginning the Netherlands fell into the hands of the French, of the sixteenth century.

who suppressed it, and converted the building into Louvain is situated about fifteen miles from Brus- an hospital for invalids.

an hospital for invalids. By an edict, however, of sels, and the same distance from Mechlin, on the William the First, dated February 19, 1817, it was high road from Brussels to Liege. It is of a circular ordered that the University should be re-established; form, and is nearly seven miles in circumference, but an intention which was carried into effect in October a considerable portion of the space within the enclo- of the same year. There are seventeen professors, sure of the old walls, which are now decayed, is and about four hundred students, who enjoy the occupied by gardens.

advantages of a library, containing 40,000 volumes, The chief trade of the place is in beer, which is so a cabinet of natural history, and a botanic garden. famous, that it is said upwards of 150,000 casks are The building in which the University is now held, is sold annually. There are three kinds; the strongest a large and plain edifice, in the modern style, erected called Peterman, the exportation of which was for- towards the close of the last century. merly forbidden; the Caniak, which is the common Amongst the illustrious professors of the Univertable-beer of the upper classes in the town; and that, sity of Louvain was the celebrated critic Lipsius, the particularly, called the Beer of Louvain, which is ex- counsellor of Charles the Fifth, who was born at ported to every part of the Netherlands. There are Overisk, near Brussels. It is said that, on one occaalso establishments for making vinegar, refining sion, the Archduke Albert and the Infanta Isabella sugar, and dyeing.

attended his lessons. The house in which he resided Louvain was formerly the largest, the richest, and at Louvain is still shown; it is situated in one of the the most mercantile town in the Netherlands. Its principal streets, and consists but of one story. principal trade, consisting in the manufacture of Louvain boasted, for a long time, of having never cloths, was so flourishing, that, at the commencement been captured. In 1542 it was unsuccessfully atof the fourteenth century, under John the Third, tempted by Martin Rossen, a Dutch general; and, in Duke of Brabant, it contained more than 4000 1572, William, Prince of Orange, was obliged to master-clothiers, and more than 150,000 workmen. relinquish the siege of it in consequence of the The weavers were so numerous, that according to vigorous resistance made by the townsmen and tradition, when they left off work, notice was given students. In 1635 the Dutch and French laid siege of it by a large bell, that the children might be kept to the town, but were compelled to raise the siege in a within doors, to prevent their being thrown down by short time, on account of the famine which destroyed the crowd. In 1382 the trades'-people revolted against their army. In 1710 the French, commanded by Du Wenceslas, the Duke of Brabant, and threw the magis- Moulin, entered the town by surprise, but were soon trates out of the windows of the Town-hall; they after- driven back by the townsmen, to whom the Emperor, wards took up arms against their prince, but, being Charles the Sixth, presented a golden key, as a testidefeated, implored pardon. The most guilty were mony to their brave conduct. Louvain was, howpunished, and the weavers, the first authors of the ever, taken by the French under Dumourier in 1792, revolt, were exiled. Most of them retired to England, retaken by the Austrians in 1793, and again captured where they introduced the manufacture of cloth. This by the French in 1794. was a blow which Louvain never recovered, and the population now does not exceed 25,000.

ON WILLS. No. III. Amongst the public buildings which lay claim to

WILLS OF PERSONAL PROPERTY. notice, the most conspicuous is the Town-hall, which occupies one side of the market-place. This may § 3. On the Forms to be observed in making Wills. justly be pronounced one of the finest Gothic build Having in our last paper considered who may make ings in the Netherlands. The first stone was laid in Wills, and pointed out the difference between bc1410, and the building completed in ten years. quests by a man of his own property, and appointDuring the last century many embellishments were ments by Will of property over which he has a added to the interior, and the exterior is now being power, we come now to inquire, what forms arc restored with great care.

necessary to be observed in making Wills,



The answer to this is very short; “None." No themselves also sign the Will in the testator's preforms are necessary to be observed in making Wills sence, in token of their having witnessed his sigof personal property, of which alone we are at nature. Now, if you are not certain, whether the present treating. Any writing which can be shown property you are disposing of is real or personal

erpress the intentions of the deceased, will be allowed property, you will make your Will good at all events to take effect as his Will; however drawn up, whether by signing it in the above manner. on paper or on parchment, whether in his own Although, therefore, there is, as we have before hand-writing, or in that of some other person, although said, no occasion for any form at all, yet, where it it be neither signed, nor sealed, nor attested by any can be conveniently done, we recommend every one to witness. Wills written on scraps of paper, and on sign his Will, and to declare it to be his Will, in the the covers of books, have been held good.

presence of three persons not taking any benefit ! It is not even requisite that a Will should be in under it; and then to make the three in his presence, writing at all. If a dying man merely tells his put their names to a memorandum at the foot of the intentions by word of mouth, to those about his bed, Will, declaring that the Will was signed and pubthe law regards that declaration as his Will. But lished by the testator in their presence, and that they this want of strictness being found to open a door have subscribed their names in his presence, as attestto perjury, a statutc was passed in Queen Anne's ing witnesses thereto. reign, enacting, that no verbal or unwritten Will Where the Will consists of several sheets, it is should be good, where the property bequeathed was usual for the testator to sign his name in the witabove 301. in value, unless it was made during the nesses' presence to each sheet, but for the witnesses last illness of the deceased, in the presence of three to subscribe theirs to the last only. witnesses, and either in his own dwelling-house, or

§ 4. On the Revocation of Wills. on a journey: nor unless the Will so spoken be written down within six days after it was made, or

A Will is never final or irrevocable until death, be proved by the oaths of the witnesses within six however strong the language used may be; it is months after that period. Owing to this statute, always open to the testator, up to the last moment of verbal Wills are now very uncommon; and it can

his life, to make a new Will, and to revoke the former seldom happen, (except in the case of a soldier or sailor in battle, in whose favour the law makes an

The simplest way of revoking a Will, is to burn exception) that a dying man, able to make a verbal

or otherwise destroy it. You are then without any Will, would not, also, be able to dictate a written one.

Will, and would of course die intestale, as the term To return, therefore, to written Wills; it is not is, if you were to die before you made another. because any writing may take effect as a Will, that a

But a Will is also revoked by merely making a new prudent man would be careless about the mode of

one of later date: and if the first was never destroyed, making it. All that the court requires, indeed, is, to

and both should be found among your papers after be satisfied that the paper really expresses the wishes your death, the second Will would be the valid one. of the deceased; but the more loosely and carelessly

A Will is also sometimes revoked by a change of that paper has been drawn up, the more difficult it condition. If, after a man has made his Will, he will be to satisfy the court on that point. A man

marries, and has a child born, that will becomes

For has, frequently, relations who are interested in over

void, without his doing any act to revoke it. turning his Will; and the more regularly the Will is the law supposes it impossible, that it could have made, the less easy will it be for them to effect their been his dying wish to leave his property in the

manner proposed, under such different circumstances. purpose.

Proof, then, that the Will is genuine, being the Marriage alone will not have that effect, because the great thing wanted, the best way of furnishing that wife may be otherwise provided for. proof is, for the testator to sign his Will in the

§ 5. On Codicils. presence of witnesses, who can afterwards come As a Will may be wholly revoked by a new Will, so forward, if necessary, to swear to the fact. And, in it may be revoked in part by a Codicil. A Codicil is order that their testimony may be free from suspicion, a supplement or addition to a Will. If you have it is better to choose indifferent persons for witnesses, left out something in your will which you wish to than those who take any benefit under the Will. In insert; or if you have put something into your Will Wills of real property, indeed, this precaution is which you wish to strike out or alter, you may save rendered positively necessary, by a statute which yourself the trouble of making a new Will by making declares all devises in favour of an attesting witness a Codicil. void: but in Wills of personal property, it is mat- All the remarks made in the third section on the ter of prudence only, as the statute has been deter- forms to be observed in making Wills, will equally mined not to apply to them.

apply to Codicils, and it is needless therefore to Another reason for signing your Will in the repeat them. It is not necessary that a Codicil should presence of witnesses, is, that the powers to appoint be fastened to the Will, or in any way attached by Will, of which we have spoken in our last paper, to it; but it is proper that it should be described usually require the appointment to be made by a as a Codicil to the Will of such a date, lest doubts Will so signed. And though a paper may take might arise whether it was not a new Will, entirely effect as a common Will, without any form whatever, revoking the former one. it will not be good as a Will made under a power, A man may make as many Codicils as he pleascs, unless all the forms required by that power have and they and the Will will all be held good, as far been complied with. By signing a will, therefore, as

as they can be reconciled with each other. But it is a matter of course, in the presence of witnesses, a not a prudent thing to multiply Codicils, as they testator may, sometimes, without thinking of it, make the testator's intentions very dillicult to be render it a good execution of a power, which he had understood, and often cause great confusion. It is totally forgotten.

always safer to make a new Will on every change of This reasoning may be carried further. A Will of intention, than to try to patch up the old one by real property is not valid, unless it is signed by the

W. testator in the presence of three witnesses, who must

means of Codicils.

[To be continued.]


sword, but succeeded so ill, that he left the island in disgust II. EARLY HISTORY-FRENCH COLONIES-ORIGIN OF

and retired to Surat. Soon after his departure, La Case THE Slave Trade-Count BENYOWSKY-KING RA- died, and thus the only remaining tie of the natives to the

French interest was broken ;-watching an opportunity, DAMA-INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY-ANECDOTE

they attacked them unawares, and destroyed all but a few, or THE King.

who escaped to a ship lying in the roads. Thus was Mada The history of Madagascar, previous to its discovery, is in gascar again free from the influence of foreigners. a great measure confined to the period since the Arabs From this period the intercourse with Madagascar was conquered the island, which was about 350 years since. casual. The pirates, however, as has been mentioned, had Before that event letters were unknown, and the tradi. an establishment on the Isle St. Mary, where they carried tionary accounts were obscure and vague; and the historical on a successful system of plunder against the East India records since, are confined, as far as has yet been made merchants. At the same time they conciliated the natives known, to a few leading events uninteresting to the reader. by the valuable trade they brought, and the alliances they The discovery, however, of the island by the Portuguese, formed with them; and however hostile the European at the beginning of the sixteenth century, led to an attempt powers might have been to their proceedings, (which, in at its occupation by that people, who built a fort in the fact, ended in the destruction of their settlement at St. province of Anossi, in a beautiful district; but the esta- Mary,) they, in the end, found means to conciliate even blishment was vieweil with jealousy by the natives, and these, and to render themselves as important to their some acts of aggression increasing their aversion, they countrymen as to the natives. This was effected by the attacked and massacred all the settlers.

introduction of the Slave Trade. About a century after, the French, in their route to It would appear that the French had intimated to the the East, saw the ralue of Madagascar, and in 1642, a pirates, that if they could persuade the natives to sell their parent was granted by Cardinal Richelieu to Captain prisoners of war, it would be considered as an atonement Rivault, to form a company, with the exclusive right for past transgressions. Accordingly, the pirates left no to traile to Madagascar and the neighbouring islands. stone unturned to effect that object, and at length succeeded. Accordingly, Pronis and Fouquemberg were appointed Two of the provinces engaged in a war, and one party gorernors, and sent out with a handful of men to take being in want of anımunition, the pirates offered to barter possession. They were favourably received by the natives, a quantity for the prisoners, and the offer was too tempting and established themselves at the port of St. Lucia, in to be refused. The poor creatures were instantly sent on A nossi, at the southern part of the island; but on account board a vessel lying off the coast, and as reprisals were of its unhealthiness they left it, and removed to a peninsula, instantly made, and the pirates bought of both parties, they to which they gave the name of Fort Dauphin, having built soon had plenty of slaves. From this time, the slave-trade a fort on an eminence, commanding a fine bay and roadstead, has formed almost the only trade of Madagascar. The and elevated 150 feet above the level of the sea. A town pirates themselves found the immediate benefit of the was subsequently built near it, and a considerable quantity dreadful innovation, and rose into consequence with their of land enclosed, which produced all the necessaries of life countrymen, who sought their alliance and protection in abundance.

as agents in the traffic, while the natives were continually Fouquemberg shortly returned to France, and Pronis by excited to make war upon cach other, by the hope of his imprudent and cruel conduct, rendered himself hateful obtaining, by the sale of their prisoners, those articles of to both the French and the natives; and about the year 1647 commerce with which the pirates supplied them. he was suspended, and Flacourt appointed to succeed him. The French, however, had not wholly lost sight of He arrived there in September, 1648, and was well received Madagascar as a colony, for in the year 1745, their East by the native chiefs. It is to him that we are indebted for India Company again determined to form a settlement at the greater part of our information respecting these people; Isle St. Mary. M. Gosse was appointed Governor, and he published his memoirs on his return to France in took possession of it in the name of the Company. The 1655, which, considering the period in which they were fever, however, cut off a large number of the colonists; and written, are highly scientific and descriptive.

a native woman seizing this opportunity, charged Gosse with Flacourt employed force in lieu of conciliation for the having violated the tomb of her deceased husband, Tamreduction of Madagascar. The native chiefs resented it, simalo, (a powerful and beloved chief,) for the sake of the and, upon Flacourt's return to France, conspired against the riches it contained. True or false, this charge incensed the colony, and in 1655 burnt the fort, and cut off the garrison. natives to that degree, that on Christmas eve, 1754, when

Flacourt set out on his return to Madagascar, about 1659, the French were at their devotions, they fell upon and but, being lost at sea, Chamargou was appointed to suc- massacred the whole of them. Ample revenge was taken ceed him. On his arrival, finding the fort destroyed, he upon the natives by the French from the Isle of France, set about rebuilding it; and, as soon as he had established which again reverted upon the latter, by the supplies himself, he began to explore the country. At this period being withheld, on which they depended for a subsistence. a Frenchman, named La Case, had obtained great in- A truce, therefore, and subsequently peace, was established, fluence among the chiefs, and having thereby excited the and trade resumed its former independent footing; jealousy of Chamargou, was exceedingly ill treated by The next attempt we hear of, to establish a colony, was him ; in consequence of which he joined himself to a by M. Maudave, in 1768; but it failed, on account of its chief with some of his associates, and soon after married being founded on too liberal a principle to deserve the Dian Norg, the beautiful daughter of Dian Rassitate, the support of the French Government. After his return to Chief of Amboule. He, however, although persecuted by Europe, the celebrated Count Benyowsky, a Polish nobleChamargou, never opposed the French interests, but man, was invited by the French minister, M. De Boynes, exerted himself to conciliate the chiefs towards them; but to superintend the establishment of a colony at Madagascar. Chamargou acted in so despotic a manner as to raise all the count's memoirs, which were published in two quarto the chiefs against him, and he was continually embroiled volumes, are full of interest, and give an extended detail in wars with the natives. This result was much heightened of his proceedings on the island. The jealousy, however, by the conduct of the Jesuits who were attached to the of the planters at the Mauritius frustrated all his measures, colony, and who attempted to convert the chiefs by their and determined him, at length, to render himself indepenold weapons, the thunders of the church and the sword; and dent of the French government, and establish himself as Father Stephen and six monks, having tried their efficacy king, or suzerain, on the island. upon Dian Monangue, with more than usual rashness and His settlement was at the Bay of Antongel, towards the arrogance, were massacred upon the spot, and the French north-east point of the coast, and a fort and town was were from that day denounced. La Case saved them from built, and various works constructed for a colony on a large destruction during his life, and Chamargou was soon after scale. Benyowsky was a bold and enterprising man, and superseded by the Marquis de Mondevirgue, who, however, possessed the art of gaining the confidence and good-will proceeded to the east, leaving Caron to govern Madagascar of the natives, who worked with cheerfulness for him; and in his absence. That person remained but a short time, a singular circumstance forwarded his views. An old and was succeeded by La Fage, who also yielded up his negress, who was a native, but had been carried a slave to authority to La Haye in 1670, who was appointed by the the Mauritius, and brought thence by Benyowsky, declared French Government, which had then taken the island him to be a descendant of the ancient Ampansacabes; and under its own management.

having himself confirmed the report, the native chiefs La Haye, not a whit wiser or more moderate than his rallied round him in great numbers with their adherents, predecessors, set about reducing the provinces by fire and and he found himself at the head of a large army. Had

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he continued on the island, there is little doubt that he | evidences are not wanting, that they have taken root, and would have fully established himself; but he returned that the prejudices of the chiefs, as well as of many of the 10 Europe, for the purpose of obtaining the alliance and people, are giving way. Much, however, is not expected support of the British Government, and on his return to until the rising generation, educated under the care of Madagascar, was attacked by a party of French from the the missionaries, have engaged in active life to exert that Mauritius, and shot, and the setilement destroyed, on the influence which education naturally imparts. In the 17th of May, 1786.

mean time, European customs are rapidly gaining ground, This was the last attempt at colonizing Madagascar, and and the civil arts of life, for which the natives were nothing of moment transpired until the year 1810; when previously prepared by a partial division of labour, are the occupation of the Mauritius by the English, who had established on the firm basis of national and individual succeeded in taking it from the French, gave a new turn advantage. to affairs.

Satisfied, too, of the beneficial effects of their connexion At this period, Radama was the sovereign of a great with England, the people are attached to her by ties of part of Madagascar, and as soon as the English were interest as well as friendship; and there is every reason to settled at Mauritius, he entered into a strict alliance with hope, that as soon as they become sufficiently enlightened them. The grand object which this swarthy monarch had to understand the principles of trade, and of political in view, was the civilization of his subjects, and with an economy, in its simplest sense, Madagascar will form a extraordinary degree of perseverance in that object, he valuable ally to Great Britain. united as sound a judgment respecting the means.

The British Government were quite as anxious to stop the We have been favoured with a letter from an officer of progress of the slave-trade, which was still carried on by the Royal Engineers, who twice visited Madagascar, from the French at Madagascar; and on the 11th of October, which we extract the following interesting anecdote of 1820, a treaty was signed, by virtue of which Radama King Radama. agreed to abolish the slave-trade throughout his dominions, The English have never had an establishment at Maon condition that twenty of his subjects should be educated dagascar, but, of late years they have had an agent residing at the expense of Great Britain. This was agreed to by on the Island. I will give you Radama's opinion of the Mr. Hastie, the British Envoy, and the slave-trade has since English in his own words, which he expressed to us when ceased at Madagascar.

dining on board His Majesty's ship Andromaché, on the Previous to this event missionaries had been sent from 26th of July, 1824. Commodore !''said Radama, addressEngland, under the auspices of the London Missionary ing us in the French language, in my early days, I Society, and accompanied by artisans, for the purpose of obeyed my parents, it was right for me to do so,—and I instructing the natives in the principles of Christianity, and received the counsel of all whom they recommended to me in the civil arts of life. Countenanced and supported by as instructors. As I advanced in years and arrived at Radama, these men have established schools in various power, I found it necessary to deviate from the path which parts of the country, and have found ample encouragement they had traced out to me, and also to teach my people in the eagerness and talent displayed by their pupils, the what was of use to them. I endeavoured to imitate a civinative children. Many of these, having finished their lized people. I took counsel of England; my efforts were education, have become in their turn teachers of others, so crowned with success, and I look upon her now as assuming that the system of education is rapidly gaining ground in the character of my true parents. From my natural every part of the island. Radama has been dead some parents I enjoy these arms, the gift of nature. From years, but notwithstanding the political convulsion that England I receive the strength that sustains me in my followed his decease, the missionaries have still found present career. I thank you, Commodore Nourse, for protection from the existing government, and the nation is having drank success to me and my country; and, in graprogressively advancing towards civilization. The pro- titude, let me mention, that the little district, or province of gress of Christian principles is slow, it is true, but Ovah, till late but little known, situated nearly in the


centre of the island, distant from ports and harbours, and and the monuments of commercial intercourse in modern not easy of access, was first sought out by Sir Robert times. Farquhar; he first displayed the rays of light (la lumière) It is not till nations have become considerably advanced to us, and which have beamed so gloriously to our advan- in civilization, and have acquired many of the habits tage. Commodore! I give the health and prosperity of which mark an improved state of society, that they begin my friend and benefactor. Sir Robert Farquhar.'

to take any important part in commercial intercourse, or to On the previous day, we had a state meeting on shore cherish any correct views of the benefits to be derived with Radama, when he expressed himself to the same from it. The ideas of commerce and even of property, effect as he did on board the Andromaché, adding, that, by generally entertained by savage nations, are very indistinct the attempts he had made to imitate civilized nations, and and inaccurate. It is evident that these ideas, being by the instruction and aid afforded him by England, he merely relative, are the result of intercourse between man was now master of many provinces; in fact, but few places and man, and would never arise without that intercourse. in the island were without military parties, stationed for Many savage nations appear to be almost wholly destitute the purpose of exacting obedience to his laws, and that he of ideas belonging to this class. Their wishes do not appear should adhere most strictly to every engagement he had to extend beyond the supply of present wants. When Euromaile with England. This Radama, the Great he may be peans first began to visit the continent of America, they styled, or, from his acts, worthy of the name he took upon found many tribes, on whose minds motives referring to himself, Radama Lani MANZAKA, or Radama King of property would exert no influence. Tell an individual Men, died in July, 1828, and the island, it is to be feared, belonging to one of these tribes that if he would work for has again returned into anarchy and confusion.

you, you would pay him largely, and he would reply, “I am not hungry." Offer him one article of convenience,

and he would reply, “I do not want it." Offer him HISTORY OF NAVIGATION, COMMERCE, AND another, and he would say, “I have enough now." One

of the early adventurers to America, sorely vexed at their DISCOVERY.

stupidity, said, “ One knows not what inducements to Part I.-INTRODUCTION. COMMERCE OF ANCIENT Cities. set before them." EFFECTS OF CIVILIZATION ON COMMERCE. MONEY.

In such a state of society as this, commerce can hardly ACTIVE AND PASSIVE COMMERCE.

be said to exist; and even among the most intelligent

of savage nations, it is restricted to the barter of the few To a savage unacquainted with the art of navigation, the trilling articles which their simple mode of life requires. ocean must appear an insurmountable barrier to the inter- But as the knowledge of the savage extends, he awakes course of those nations, between whose shores it rolls. As from that drowsy sluggishness, by which, when not engaged he stands and surveys the mighty mass of waters, now in war or the chase, he was before characterised, and sleeping calmly in the morning sun, and now lashed into begins to observe the means of improving his condition fury by the madness of the tempest, if the wish ever enters that are placed within his reach. By degrees his ideas of his mind to know who lives on the other side of the great property acquire distinctness and definiteness. He now waters, he regards that wish as one, the attainment of has new motives for effort. He no longer aims merely to which would require powers more than human. Little, supply his daily wants, but to add to the amount of his indeed, does he imagine, as he crosses the river, or glides permanent possessions. Whatever his own ingenuity or along the margin of the lake in his light canoe, that industry can produce more than is needed for the supply yonder wild waves are a part of that field where human of his own wants is exchanged for such commodities as he genius has exhibited its noblest energies, and human skill ca not, by his own unassisted labour, produce. Such, we achieved its proudest triumphs. Little, too, does he may reasonably conclude, is the commencement of comimagine that that very ocean, which he regards as an mercial intercourse. At length, as this intercourse becomes awful barrier beyond which human power and prowess are more extensive, the want of some universal circulating destined never to advance, has by the skill and ingenuity medium is felt. Such a medium ingenuity soon supplies. of man, been made the means of facilitating that very This, among some nations, is shells or other perishable intercourse which it seems designed to interrupt, and that substances, but generally the precious metals are used for it is now the scene of commercial operations, more im- this purpose. From scripture and other ancient records portant than any which the world ever before saw, Yet all we learn that money was first dealt out by weight. So this is true. The commercial operations and international | Abraham weighed out to Ephron “four hundred shekels intercourse of ancient times, and of those nations which of silver, current money with the merchant.” It is supposed were strangers to the art of navigation, sink almost into that money was not coined among the Jews till the time of insignificance, compared with the results and operations of Judas Maccabeus, and we have no account of coin among modern commerce. There is, it is true, in the mode of the Greeks till about 330 B.C., nor among the Romans till carrying on commerce by means of caravans, so celebrated the year 266 B.C. in ancient times, much that is splendid and imposing. In the infancy of commerce, the views entertained in The long procession of camels loaded with the riches of regard to the value of money are often far from correct. the East, the magnificent display of varied luxury, the Johnson relates that, in his journey to the Western encampment by night with its accompaniments of song Isles of Scotland, he found that the inhabitants regarded and eastern tale, -all these, viewed through the vista of money as having an absolute and uniform value. Such is departed ages, and adorned with all the splendour, which generally the light in which it is regarded by those whose oriental fancy is wont to throw around the objects and the commercial operations are principally confined to barter. scenes on which it dwells, make upon the mind an im- | Yet a little reflection will make it obvious that the value pression far transcending the reality of the scenes to which of money depends on the quantity of the necessaries they refer.

or conveniences of life which it will purchase, and is, As imagination travels back through the long series of therefore, like that of all other things, relative and variable. departed years, and pensively lingers around the ruins The wanderer in the desert, who, when almost famished, of proud Balbec or beautiful Palmyra, and we reflect found a bag which he supposed to contain dates, was that these magnificent capitals owed their splendour and sadly disappointed, when an inspection of its contents their wealth to the kind of commerce of which we have compelled him to exclaim, “ Alas, they are only pearls !" becn speaking, we are ready to ask if the commerce of To him the pearls were of no value, as he had no use for modern times, with all its boasted extent and improvement, them himself, and could not exchange them for food, for can exhibit more of nobleness in plan, or vastness and the want of which he was perishing. If gold and silver magnificence in execution. But in fact, the commerce could not be exchanged for articles far more necessary than carried on by means of caravans was poor and scanty themselves to the support and comfort of life, those metals, compared with that, of which the ocean is the scene, and now so precious, would possess but very little value at all. navigation the handmaid. One single ship, pursuing its The small bulk, and almost imperishable nature of the noiseless and unostentatious way across the deep, may precious metals, have caused them to be almost universally bear a freight, the value of which a whole caravan with adopted as the medium of exchange; and from the ability, all its display would scarcely equal; and the cities long which in consequence of this adoption they possess, of famed as the marts of this ancient commerce, splendid commanding any other commodity, results the greater as they were in their day, would bear no comparison in part of their value. From the fact that value is merely a extent of foreign intercourse or magnitude of operations at relative term, we may see how commerce is a source of home, with the proud capitals which are, at once the seats | wealth. It takes the various productions of nature and

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