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art from places where their abundance has diminished ASBESTOS AND INCOMBUSTIBLE CLOTH. their value, and carries them to places where their scarcity Asbestos, one of the most singular productions of gives them an increased value.

By writers on political economy commerce is divided the mineral kingdom, was considered by the ancients into active and passive. The difference of these two rather of vegetable than of mineral origin, Its fibrous kinds of commerce is illustrated by the trade from Eng- texture and, in some cases, silken appearance, and at land to China. Our merchants send to China money, the same time its capability of being easily separated or such commodities as the Chinese will purchase, and take into very fine threads, led them to regard it as a in return such articles as are wanted in this country. This is termed active commerce. The commerce of China, so species of fossil flax, dried by the heat of a burning far as regards this country, is passive. The Chinese sun. It is, however, in every respect, a perfect minedo not come here with their commodities, but keep them at ral; upwards of one-half its substance is composed home till our ships come and take them. Active commerce of silex (pure flint), and one-fourth of magnesia. is far more profitable than passive, inasmuch as it creates There are several species of this mineral, which a greater demand for labour, and also gives to those en

are distinguished by different names, according to gaged in it a greater choice of markets. Hence nearly all the appearance of each, as, for instance, fibrous enlightened nations are engaged more or less extensively asbestos, reticulated asbestos, hard asbestos, and in active commerce.

The extensive interchange of the commodities of dif- woody asbestos; it is the fibrous variety which is ferent nations, and the consequent almost universal dif- most noted for its uses in the arts. The most sinfusion of whatever valuable productions any portion of gular of these purposes is the formation of a kind of the earth supplies, are among the most important advan-Cloth, which can be heated to a red heat without tages resulting from the extension and improvement of being destroyed. This manufacture seems to have navigation. But they are not the only ones. This art has done much to extend knowledge and to awaken a

been highly esteemed by the ancients. Pliny, the spirit of enterprise. Navigation has been the handmaid

Roman naturalist, says he has seen napkins of of discovery no less than of commerce. To this art we Asbestos, taken soiled from the table after a feast, owe it that scarce any portion of the globe remains un- which were thrown into the fire, and by that means explored. Scarce a spot can be found amid the Atlantic better scoured than if they had been washed with or the Pacific seas, which the eye of the navigator has

water. But it appears to have been principally used not seen; scarce a shore on either continent that he has not surveyed.

for the making of shrouds for royal funerals, to wrap up the corpse, so that when it was burnt, the

ashes might be preserved separate from those of the We live in the midst of blessings, till we are utterly insensible of their greatness, and of the source from which they

wood. It it is said at present to be used by some of flow. We speak of our civilization, our arts, our freedom, the Tartar chiefs for the same purpose. The supeour laws, and forget entirely how large a share of all is riority of all other cloths to this in every other redue to Christianity. Blot Christianity out of the page of spect, except the resistance of the action of fire, min'e history, and what would his laws have been, what together with the scarcity of the material, has caused his ilization ? Christianity is mixed up with our very incombustible cloth to be regarded, in modern times, being and our daily life, there is not a familiar object round us which does not wear its mark, not a being or a thing

merely in the light of a curiosity, but it is still apwhich does not wear a different aspect, because the light of plied to some purposes in chemical preparations. One Christian hope is on it, not a law which does not owe its of the most familiar applications of it is in the comtruth and gentleness to Christianity, not a custom which mon instantaneous-light boxes, where it is employed cannot be traced in all its holy and healthful parts to the as a sort of sponge, for the purpose of absorbing the Gospel. Rose.

vitriolic acid, and preventing the consequences that

might arise from so dangerous an agent as the acid COLONEL GARDINER was habitually. so immersed in

being spilt. intrigues, that if not the whole business, at least, the whole happiness of his life consisted in them; and he had

The method of preparing the cloth was thus too much leisure for one who was so prone to abuse it. described by Ciampini, an Italian, who wrote on the His fine constitution, than which, perhaps, there was subject in the year 1691. “ The stone is laid to soak hardly ever a better, gave him great opportunities of in- in warm water, then opened and divided by the dulging himself in these excesses; and his good spirits hands, that the earthy matter may be washed out. enabled him to pursue his pleasures of every kind, in so alert and sprightly a manner, that multitudes envied him, like filaments are collected and dried ; these are most

This washing is several times repeated, and the fax. and called him, by a dreadful kind of compliment,

“ The happy rake." Yet still the checks of conscience, and some

conveniently spun with the addition of flax. Two remaining principles of so good an education, would break or three filaments of the Asbestos are easily twisted in upon his most licentious hours; and I particularly with the flaxen thread, if the operator's fingers are remember he told me, that when some of his dissolute kept oiled. The cloth also, when woven, is best precompanions were once congratulating him on his distin- served by oil from breaking or wasting ; on exposure guished felicity, a dog happening at that time to come into

to the fire the flax and the oil burn out, and the the room, he could not forbear groaning inwardly, and saying to himself, Oh that I were that dog! Such was

cloth remains of a pure white. The shorter filathen his happiness, and such, perhaps, is that of hundreds ments, which separate on washing the stone, may be more, who bear themselves highest in the contempt of formed into paper in the usual manner. religion, and glory in that infamous servitude which they A specimen of this incombustible cloth is preserved affect to call liberty. -DODDRIDGE.

among the minerals in the national collection at the

British Museum, but it is a very clumsy specimen of To give your children those pure principles of religion and

the manufacture. morality, which will gain them the esteem of men, and the approbation of God, and will guide them to happiness

This mineral is found in the greatest quantity in here and hereafter, is the first duty of a parent. You must the silver-mines of Johann Georgenstadt, in Saxony; convince your children that a compliance with the laws at Bleyberg, in Carinthia ; in Sweden, Corsica, and of God is the surest way to happiness, and that to neglect sometimes, though not so frequently, in France and the gracious promises offered us in the Gospel, is the England. blindest folly and ingratitude. Teach them to look up with gratitude and love, to the Divine author of all their When Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, was besieging felicity. Mingle the encouragements of Christianity with Stetin, (1630,) he replied to a soldier who complained of its precepts; make them love those virtues which you wish the hard weather, while working at the fortifications, “My them to practise; let the religion you teach not be founded friend, the earth is always frozen to those who want on fear, but on gratitude and love.


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RECULVER CHURCH, FROM THE BEA. RECULVER, situated on the north-east coast of Kent, | account of its importance as a seamark, interfered to about eight miles from Canterbury, was a place of stop the work of destruction, and erected upon the considerable note in the time of the Romans. From towers at the west end, a frame-work of wood, in the coins found on the spot, in great numbers, it is the form of the ancient spires. By driving piles, proved that the Romans not only had an early and laying a stone pavement for a considerable settlement here, but that they long continued it. distance in front of the church, the further fall of The walls of a fort built by them are still remaining. the cliff has been prevented. It is much to be The ancient town probably stood without those walls, regretted that these measures were not adopted declining towards the sea, on that part of the cliff earlier, as the whole of the sacred building might now washed away; and from the present shore, as then have been preserved. far as a place called the Black Rock, seen at low There is something very striking in the ruin of water, there have been found great quantities of Reculver church as it now stands. The situation, tiles, bricks, and other marks of a ruined town. close to the very brink of the cliff, the dreary chaThe soil of the cliff being a loose sand, the sea has racter of the surrounding scenery, the deserted yearly gained upon it; large pieces from time to time appearance of the place itself, which, from being a falling on the shore below, discover a number of royal residence and the seat of a populous town, is cisterns and cellars, with a great many coins, and now reduced to an insignificant village, the churchother remains of antiquity.

yard partly washed away, and the bones of the dead Ethelbert, King of Kent, having embraced the distinctly visible in the side of the cliff, -all these Christian faith, gave up his palace at Canterbury to circumstances combine to make an impression on the St. Augustine, and retired with his court to Reculver, mind. This interest is heightened by the tradition, where he built himself a palace on the site of the that St. Ethelbert, first Christian King of Kent, is ancient Roman fort. It continued a royal residence, buried there. In James the First's reign, there was till King Egbert, as an atonement for the murder of remaining a monument of antique form, at the his two nephews, gave it, in the year 669, to a priest upper end of the south aisle, under which, as it named Bassa, to build a monastery there, the church was said, the monarch lay. At the time the church of which subsequently became the parish church. I was destroyed, no remains of this monument were This church, at the time of its erection, stood a left, but an inscription on the wall pointed out the considerable distance inland; but the inroads of the place where it once stood. sea on this part of the coast gradually washed away the hill on which it stood, till only a very few feet He that refuseth to buy good counsel chear, will generally remained between the edge of the cliff and the buy repentance dear. building. At length, about twenty years ago, it was considered no longer safe to assemble there for the A Fault once excused is twice committed, and the last

commission is worse than the first. purposes of Divine worship; and the parishioners, having determined to erect a new church further

LONDON: inland, proceeded to dismantle the ancient structure.


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signed to portray eyıl spirits embodied, and frighteneu THE CITY of Chichester is of great antiquity, beyond measure at the sound of the bells ;-Christian its origin being considered previous to the invasion bells having, in former days, had wondrous powers of Britain by the Romans. There is no doubt of attributed to them. their having made it one of their settlements: and The Spire, with the tower which supports it, rises by them it is supposed to have been called REGNUM. 271 feet from the floor; from the base of the spire After its destruction by Ælla, a kind of northern the height is 138 feet. A general likeness between pirate, the town was restored by his son Cissa, the the spires of Salisbury and Chichester has given rise second king of the South Saxons, (whence comes to a story of their being the work of the same archiSuthsex, or Sussex,) and on this prince making it his tect. “ The master workman,” says the quaint residence and the capital of his kingdom, it obtained Fuller,“ built Salisbury, and his man Chichester." the name of Cissan-ceaster, or Cissa's city; from which But though this spire resembles that of Salisbury in the word Chichester is derived. Cissa died in 577. its just proportions, and in the pinnacles and light

About six miles south of Chichester is the penin-canopied windows at its base, it cannot, on examinasulą of Selsey, a flat tract of land, running far into tion, be assigned to the same hand. Great danger to

This place, which gives the title of baron the whole building was apprehended from the effects to a British peer, is remarkable for having been ori- of a thunder-storm in 1721, by which several large ginally a bishop's see, before Chichester became a stones were forced out of the spire; but these were bishopric. The episcopal seat was fixed at Selsey soon afterwards restored, and the place of the rent in 711, and continued there till the reign of William cannot now be discovered. the First, who gave orders that all cathedral churches Nearly on a line with the west end, at a few yards should be removed from villages to cities. Accord - distance towards the north, stands a campanile, or ingly, Stigand, a Norman, bishop of Selsey, was Bell-tower, 120 feet high, and chiefly remarkable for appointed the first bishop of Chichester. In 1091, the solidity and massive masonry of its walls. It is Radulphus, or Ralph, became bishop. He proceeded called “ Ryman's Tower," from a tradition that with the building of the Cathedral; and in addition Bishop Langton bought of one William Ryman a to laying the foundations, roofed in the fabric with quantity of hewn stone, which the latter had co!. timber, having dedicated it to St. Peter, according to lected to build a grand mansion near Chichester, but that at Selsey : but after standing six years, it shared for which he could not get the royal license. The the too-frequent fate of churches built at such an same Langton, who was high-chancellor of England early period, and in 1114, was burned to the ground. during the greater part of Edward the Second's Ralph, however, notwithstanding this disappointment, reign, greatly assisted, at his own expense, in carryset to work again, and lived to see a second building ing on the improvements in the building. erected. This too was most probably of wood; for But it is time that we proceed to the interior of it was burned in 1186, together with the houses of the Cathedral. On entering by the west, a full view the clergy, and almost all the city.

of the nave is obtained. It is formed by eight The present Cathedral may be dated from the time arcades, upon piers flanked by half-columns, under of Bishop Seffrid the Second, who at once began to an upper and lower open gallery. The small coengraft a new work on the walls which the fire had lumns are of Petworth marble, with tops resembling left; adapting to this ancient English edifice the the palm-tree. The vaulted roof is of stone and general style and peculiar ornaments of the age. chalk, and is of early but uncertain date. After fourteen years' labour, and the expenditure of The North Transept is appropriated as the parish vast sums of money, the amassing of which can Church of St. Peter the Great. In the South Țransept, only be attributed to the religious zeal of the times, are two curious paintings by Bernardi, an Italian, the Cathedral was sufficiently finished to be conse-employed by Bishop Shurborne, who presided over crated; and in 1199, this rite was performed with great the diocese in the reign of Henry the Eighth. The splendour by Seffrid, assisted by six other prelates. first exhibits the interview between Ceadwalla, king It then consisted of the nave with its single aisles ; of Sussex, and Bishop Wilfrid, the prelate to whom the centre arcade, with its low tower and transept; that monarch confirmed the grant of Selsey. The and of the choir. To these, great additions were bishop, attended by his clergy, and with a scroll in made in the course of the three following centuries. his hand, is seen approaching the king, who stands

At the West Front was originally a porch, between at the door of his palace, with his courtiers round two square towers. These towers seem to bear marks him; on the scroll is a petition in Latin, to the folof having been part of the ancient church. In that lowing effect : Give to the servants of God a house of facing the south are some fine specimens of early prayer, for God's sake! To this the monarch answers, Norman mouldings. The opposite tower was so much by pointing to an open book, which is held by an battered by the rebellious fanatics in 1642, that it attendant, and is thus inscribed : Be it according to fell a few years afterwards, and remained a ruin till your petition. In the back-ground is Selsey with its 1791, when it received the very irregular form under parish-church, and the sea bounded by the blue hills which it now appears.

of the Isle of Wight. The subject of the other The Nave is supported by plain flying buttresses. picture, which in its grouping and style is very simiThe water-spouts at the parapets of the north aisles, lar, is the interview between Henry the Eighth and are of a most strange and grotesque appearance. It Bishop Shurborne. The latter says, Most religious is curious to trace the origin of these hideous pro- king ; for God's sake adorn your church of Chichester, ductions of the ancient English architects,

now a Cathedral, as Ceadwalla, King of Sussex, formerly Gorgons, and hydras, and chimeras dire !

adorned Selsey Cathedral. Henry's answer, also written The Romans used lions' heads of stone, or of baked on an open book, is, For the love of Christ, I grant earth, to convey water from the roofs of their houses. what you ask. These remnants of ancient art are This idea was seized upon by the builders of our valuable, among other reasons, as furnishing instances early churches : but the faces and shapes suggested of the clerical and lay costume of the age. Underby their fertile fancies are often monstrous and hor- neath Bernardi's pictures, are likenesses of all the rible; and, according to good antiquaries, the grim- kings of England, from William the Norman to cooking objects attached to church-towers, were de George the First: and on the opposite side, are portraits of all the bishops of Selsey and Chichester, till the destructive and spoiling part to be finished by th Reformation ; many, of course, ideal.

common soldiers; who break down the organ, and On the vaultings of the church, among other dashing the pipes with their pole-axes, scoffingly say, painted ornaments, appear the arms of William of 'Hark how the organs go!' break down the rails of Wykeham often repeated, with his well-known motto, the altar, and the tables of the commandments; and "Manners makyth Man." To the east of the south no wonder that they should break the commandments transept is the Chapter-house, with its arched roof and in representation, who had before broken them all windows of a very early age. In the Sacristy, (now over in their substance. Sir W. Waller, wary man the vicars' vestry,) is a curious old oak chest, evidently as he is, and well known not to be too apt to expose Saxon, originally brought from Selsey.

himself to danger, stood all the while with his sword The Chantry of St. Richard, formerly Bishop of drawn, a spectator and approver of these barbarous Chichester, is a beautiful shrine of highly-finished impieties. And being asked by one of his troopers work, standing in this transept, at the back of the what he meant, to stand in that posture, answered, stalls. He died in 1253, after being fondly alleged 'To defend himself !'” to have wrought miracles. In the same transept is a But it seems, the work of robbery and desecration noble window, famed for the elegance of its tracery, was then not complete. In 1647, Sir Arthur Haslerigg and its fine proportions. It was put up for 3101., (a was ordered to harass the few loyalists who remained large cost for those times,) by Bishop Langton, early in Chichester, particularly those connected with the in the fourteenth century, and remained until the church. Accordingly, says Mercurius, “having entered great rebellion, when its rich painted glass was wan- the chapter-house, and received intelligence where the tonly broken ; and it is now in a state requiring repair. remainder of the church-plate was, he commanded the

But we must accompany our readers into the soldiers to take down the wainscot round about the Choir. This is richly fitted up, and has lately under- room, they having brought crows for that purpose. gone considerable improvement. The stalls erected Which while they were doing, Sir Arthur's tongue by Bishop Shurborne, are of brown oak, finely was not enough to express his joy; it was operative carved, with the titles of the dignities and prebends at his very heels by dancing and skipping. Mark ! painted over them in old characters. Above a beau- what music it is lawful for a puritan to dance to!" tiful altar-screen was formerly a gallery, in which, Chiefly owing to this cruel devastation, it is now before the Reformation, the singers were placed at difficult to ascertain to whom many of the mutilated the celebration of high mass. The other parts of the tombs may be assigned: but there are some of very choir are executed in a pleasing style, the whole put- ancient date. The Latin inscription on Bishop Shurting the visiter in mind of foreign Cathedrals; a borne's is striking, “ Enter not into judgment with circumstance owing, perhaps, to Bishop Slurborne's thy servant, O Lord. Robert Shurborne.Among the having passed many years abroad, as ambassador to various interesting monuments are many of a modern foreign courts, in the reign of Henry the Seventh. period, admirably executed; particularly that crected

The Lady Chapel, at the east end of the Cathedral, to William Collins*: also a monumental low is an ancient and elegant building, but sadly altered relief of a beautiful female figure, rising from the since the havoc made by the puritans, and by the grave, angels beckoning and inviting her with the subsequent filling-up of the east window. This words, “ Come, thou blessed.” Both these, as well as portion of the fabric is now used as a library, and several other fine specimens of sculpture in the contains many scarce and excellent books. Beneath cathedral, are by the late gifted and classical Joun it, is a spacious vault, belonging to the noble family Flaxman, who frequently visited his friend, the of Richmond, whose banners are hung over the poet Hayley, then resident near Chichester. A entrance. Above it is a Latin inscription, stating statue from the chisel of Mr. Carew, has lately been that it was made in 1750, and ending with the words, erected here, to the memory of the late WILLIAM This is the last house; '-—words which always appeared HuskISSON, Esq., the sad circumstances of whose to us, to convey a cheerless and unsatisfactory idea. death by an accident, many of our readers recollect. For when surveying the dormitories of the dead, the It only remains to add, that, within the last few common dwelling-places of the peer and the peasant, years, much has been done to this building, not only oúr minds strongly cling to the truth, that they are to repair former injuries, the effects of violence, but but temporary homes. And beyond the dark confines to remedy what we have to deplore in many a venerof the grave, a glorious prospect is opened: we then able structure,—the deformities occasioned by bad contemplate the inspired declaration of the Apostle; taste, in an age when the beauties of early English For we know, that if our earthly house of this tabernacle architecture were but little understood. M. were dissolved, we have a building of God, AN HOUSE

* See the Saturday Magazine, Vol. I., p. 196. NOT MADE WITH HANDS, eternal in the heavens.

The following are stated to be the dimensions of the Cathedral.

Total length from east to west, including Lady Chapel 407
Length of transepts from north to south

When spring returns, the little children play,
Height of the spire from the floor

In the church-yard of the Cathedral gray, Height of the vaulting of the nave

Busy as morning bees, and gather flowers, Height of the vaulting of the choir

Daisies, and gild-cups, of the hurrying hours We may presume that the Cathedral remained un- Thoughtless, as unsolicitous, though Time injured till 1642, when it was ransacked and defaced

Speeds, like a spectre, and their playful prime by the Oliverian soldiers, under Sir W. Waller, who

Bears on to sorrow. Angel, cry aloud !

Speak of the knell, the grave-worm, and the shroud! had got possession of the city. An account much

No! let them play; for solitude, and care, longer than we can here quote, is to be found in a Too soon, will teach them, what poor mortals are. scarce old work, called “ Mercurius Rusticus, or the Yes! let them play, but as their thoughts expand, countrie's complaint of the barbarous outrages committed May smiling pity lead them by the hand, by the sectaries of this late flourishing kingdom." After

When they look up, and in the clouds admire, describing the seizure of the communion-plate, &c.,

The lessening shaft of that aërial spire,

So be their thoughts uplifted from the sod, by the officers, it is added, “They having in person Where Time's brief flowers they gather to their

God. executed the covetous part of the sacrifice, leave the March 12th, 1834.

W. L. BOWLER 132





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