« 이전계속 »
VARIOUS races of natives inhabit this grand and wild eastern side of the Andes, and extends from their foot to scenery, separated by a decided difference of language. the Atlantic. Captain Sir F. B. Head, who journeyed over Some lead a wandering life, ignorant of agriculture, and this immense exparse in 1825, has given the latest, and living on ants, gums, and even earth, like the Otomaks by far the most interesting account of it; and from his and Jarúren, the outcasts as it were of mankind.
work we shall principally take our notice. While the Orinoco and the Meta flow between their The Pampas are about nine hundred miles in breadth: banks, these tribes live on fish and turtle ; they kill the and in the same latitude, that of Buenos Aires, are divided former by arrows when they rise to the surface, and are into three very distinct regions. On leaving Buenos Aires, very expert in the use of their weapon for this chase. As the earth for about one hundred and eighty miles is clothed soon as the river begins to rise, the fishery ceases, and with large thistles and clover; for the next four hundred during the floods, which last two or three months, these and fifty, the plain presents nothing but long grass, and Otomaks consume enormous quantities of earth as food; the remainder, to the base of the Cordillera, is covered with large stores are kept in their huts, ready prepared by evergreen trees and shrubs; the two latter divisions are baking, in pyramidal heaps of balls*; and the Missionaries little changed during the year, the grass only becoming state, that one man will eat from three quarters to a pound more brown from the summer-heats, but the district of and a quarter of it in a day. According to their own thistles varies in a singular manner. In winter, the avowal, this clay is their principal food during the rainy country looks like a vast turnip-field, the clover is luxuseason, occasionally adding a lizard or a small fish if they riant, and the herds of wild cattle grazing in unrestrained can obtain either, or a fern-root; but they are so fond of liberty, present a beautiful scene. The clover disappears this strange diet, that, even during the dry season, when as spring advances, the thistles gain the ascendancy, and they have an ample supply of fish, they daily swallow some attain an altitude of ten or eleven feet; forming a of the clay after a repast, by way of a treat. They are of forest impenetrable to man or beast by their strong and a dark copper complexion, with disagreeable Tártarian prickly stems and leaves; the road through them is features, robust, but not with prominent bellies, as most hemmed in on each side, cutting off all view, and so rapid savages, and they appear to undergo little diminution in is the growth, and so effectual the barrier, that Captaki flesh during the season of their earth-diet, nor does their Head says, it is not impossible that an army miglit be health appear at all injured by it*.
completely surrounded by them and imprisoned, before it Other tribes, like the Maquiritars and the Makos, are could escape. Dried and withered by the increasing heal, more cultivated, consume fruits raised by themselves, and this forest yields at last to the periodical hurricanes that have fixed abodes in consequence. But large portions of sweep over the plains; it lies strewed along, fertilizing the territory between the Cassiquiare and the Atabapo, are soil anew by its decay, and the succession is renewed by tenanted only by the tapir and the gregarious species of the re-appearance of the clover-crop: apes; yet in these deserted plains, images carved in the The grass and woody regions, though less varied, are rocks, show that at some former period they were the not less beautiful; the former seems to be without a weed, abodes of more cultivated races than any now bordering on
and in the latter such order exists in the growth of the them, which, generally speaking, are in the lowest scale of trees, that a rider may gallop between them in every human existence, and quite incapable of executing any direction. such sculptures.
The climate of the Pampas, like that of all continents, is Among the present degraded races, the most violent pas-varied by intense heat during the summer, while the rinter sions, as might be expected, reign without control. Whole is about as cold as November in our latitude; but the effects races drink the blood of their enemies, and others more occasioned by the difference in the moisture of the atmoskilled than all civilized mankind ever are in the knowledge sphere, is the more striking feature in the regions of wood of vegetable poisons, have their thumb-nail dipped in a and grass. Owing to the level nature of the country, its most violent one I, always ready to inflict the mortal wound distance from the ocean, and other causes, the air is so dry, on any enemy whom they can surprise. The weaker tribes, that dead animals dry up in their skins on the plains, ás when migrating, are compelled, for self-preservation, to they do in the great deserts of Africa. There is no dew at obliterate with care their footmarks, in order to fuil their night in the hottest weather: on the contrary, in the first, relentless and ingenious pursuers.
or eastern region, the air is excessively damp, animal decomposition after death is rapid, the walls of the houses
in Buenos Aires are so damp, as to make them disagreeable, THE PAMPAS.
and sugar, salt, &c., can hardly be kept from dissolving; South AMERICA contains another plain three times as
but it does not appear that even this part is unhealthy in extensive as the Llanos, if not so interesting from its
consequence, so that on the whole, the climate of the productions. This plain, called the Pampas, lies on the country is beautiful and salubrious.
Like the Llanos, there are few fixed residents on these
fertile plains; the native Indians wander in tribes from “On the 6th of June, 1800, on our return from the Rio Negro, place to place over the southern part, and a few straggling when we descended the Orinoco, we passed a day in a mission inhabited by the earth-eating Otomaks; the village was called La
towns and huts, the residence of the keepers of enormous Conception di Uranua, and was picturesquely situated against a
herds, are widely scattered over the rest. The im policy of granite rock. The earth which this people devour is an unctuous the Spanish government having prevented the natural mild clay, true potters'-earth, coloured yellowish-gray by a little advantages of the country from being available, the want oxide of iron ; it is carefully selected for use, and is found on some banks on the shores of the Orinoco and Meta. They distinguish one
of good navigation and of a harbour on the coast, are kind of earth from another by the taste, for all clay is not equally impediments to the progress of cultivation. agreeable to them: they knead the earth into balls of from four to
The inhabitants of these isolated residences, descendants six inches in diameter, and toast these before slow fire till the of Spanish settlers, are termed Gauchos, and live a monooutside becomes reddish ; when wanted they are again softened in tonous life in the hut inhabited by their predecessors. It water. These Indians are very wild, and averse from all agriculture : consists of one room, in which the whole family reside it is a proverbial expression among the farthest nations of the promiscuously; a shed serves for a kitchen, and about fifty Orinoco, in designating any thing very filthy, to say, dirty the Otomaks eat it.'"--HUMBOLDT.
or a hundred yards off, is a circle of thirty yards, enclosed + To the physiological question, whether, or in what way, this slaughter, and which, consequently, is strewed with bones,
with strong posts, in which the cattle are penned for decided satisfactory answer, but it is a well-known fact, that every
carcasses, horns, and skins of bullocks and horses, while on where within the Tropics, men have a singular and unconquerable the fence are perched vultures attracted by the stench, and craving for swallowing earth at times. The Indian women engaged in the potteries on the Magdalena, often eat a portion of the clay on
overcome with gorging on the carrion. which ihey are at work, but all except the Otomaks suffer in their
The food of these people consists solely of beef and health severely, by the indulgence of this propensity. The negroes
water, and inured from their infancy to fatigue in riding, brought to the West Indies during the prevalence of the slave-trade, for they never walk, they are hardy and hoalthy. Their always endeavoured to obtain a kind of clay, similar to what, as principal occupation is to catch and kill cattle, and their they said, they had been accustomed to eat with impunity in their principal accomplishinent, the use of the lasso, to which own country; but the practice was forbidden, irom finding that they they are trained from an early age, children being always were injured by it, and the earth was consequently only sold secretly in the markets. According to the accounts of different travellers, a
seen lassoing the dogs or wild birds; the use and nature similar taste is found in many parts of tropical countries.
of this lasso will be presently explained. # This poison is called curare, and is obtained from an unknown
It appears that the indifference to the conveniences or plant, but belongior to a genus which is very poisonous; the single
even the necessaries of civilized lite, which characterizes seed of one species is sufficient to kill twenty persons.
the Gaucho, however philosophical it may appear at first
as the result of contentment, leads to the usual conse- , immediately turns his horse round, and causes it to lean quences of moral degradation*
on the opposite side from the course of the ox, so that when There are no regular roads, of course, through these this is stopped by the lasso being run out, the horse may be plains, and the mode of travelling is extraordinary. A rude able to resist the sudden jerk; this often, however, draws carriage is prepared for the journey, by having strips of him sliding on all four feet for some yards; but more comsoaked hide bound wet over every part of its wheels and monly the ox, as being unprepared for the check, is thrown frame; this, on drying, contracts and becomes as hard as down, and affords time to the hunter to secure him by wood, and will endure a course of seven hundred miles either dragging him along the ground before he can rise, without being cut or worn through; horses are harnessed or by houghing him. by a single rope from the saddle, and each mounted by a peon, or postilion: the vehicle is dragged at a full gallop
THE GREAT DESERT OF AFRICA. across ditches, lakes, and over all obstacles. At the end of a stage the riders unhook their animals, and set The immense sterile desert of Africa, which equals oneoff to catch other fresh horses from the enclosures near half of Europe in extent, or is nearly three times as large the buildings which serve as post-houses, and the immense as the Mediterranean sea, is called Šahuray, and may be troops of horses produced in the country, prevent any delays considered as an ocean of sand, having bays or gulls of from want of fresh relays; but the mode of riding is cruel lesser deserts branching off from it, and various islands, of in the extreme, the sides of the horse are streaming, different magnitudes, of fertile spots in it, called Oases; and the heels and legs of the riders are literally bathed the largest of these, Fezzan, is 300 miles long and 200 in blood.
broad; this is surrounded by an irregular ridge of rocks, Those who, like the Gauchos from youth, are inured to it, except on the west, where it is open to the desert. The or who can stand it, prefer, however, to ride, instead of fertility of this and other Oases arises from their having using these vehicles. Captain Head gives an animated a comparatively abundant supply of water from wells, account of the effects of his journey on horseback across supplied from the neighbouring mountains ; for very this country and though at first, suffering from the fatigue little rain falls here any more than in the open desert. of riding one hundred and fifty miles a day, at a ful gallop Date-palms are the principal vegetable productions, though for weeks together, yet he states that when broke in to it, the soil and climate are rot unfavourable for raising wheat. and strengthened by the temperate yet invigorating diet of These Oases are far more abundant on the eastern than on beef and water, to which a prudent traveller prefers trusting, the western side of the Sahara. The Sahara forms only in preference to encumbering himself with luggage and the major part of a still larger tract, extending to the provisions, it causes no permanent injury to the health, and further side of Arabia, and divided by the valley of the is a very exhilarating and pleasant mode of life.
Nile and the Red Sea into three unequal portions, for One constant source of danger in riding over the Pampas, all this part of the globe is of a similar physical character arises from the holes like rabbit-holes, made by an animal in most respects. called the biscachof, or viscacho. When full grown, they The Sahara, or African part, is estimated at about 2500 are nearly as large as badgers, their head is like a rabbit, miles in length by 720 in average breadth. Its sandy but they have large bushy whiskers. In the day-time they surface is a general character, but this is of different keep in their burrows, and are only seen to come forth at levels. In many places it is quite naked, but generaliy it sunset; but what appears extraordinary regarding these produces an odoriferous plant, called by the Arabs Shé, animals and their dwellings, is, that in the day time, two somewhat resembling our wild thyme; with this are found small owls sit at the mouth of the holes, into which they other plants, one of which, very thorny, and serving as food retire on the approach of any danger: the same thing is for the camel, is the most common. said to occur in the prairies of North America, with respect In some places large flocks of sheep, goats, or even to the animal called the prairie dog. The fact is, the cattle, find a scanty pasture, but more commonly nothing bird is a variety of the burrowing owl (strix cunicularia,) is to be seen but desolate hills of shifting sands; these are which to save the trouble of making a retreat for itself
, termed “ deserts without water," a name conveying to ar takes possession of the deserted holes of the viscacho, and Arab's ear the fearful idea of an intense and suffocating like the snake mentioned in the note, has no other connexion heat, of a total absence of vegetation, and of the hazard of with the quadruped. This bird belongs to a division of the a dreadful death from want of water. The western divifamily (owl,) which can see as well by day as by night, sion is of this nature, and is no less than 1600 miles in and this species not being savage, likes to sit at the door length by half that number in breadth, and is, without of its house and see what is going on in the world. doubt, the largest desert in the world.
The puma, or American lion, a species of ostrich, the One peculiarity of these plains is the abundance of salt gama, the Patagonian cavy, are among the principal indi- | found every where on the surface. Natron (a carbonate of genous animals of the Pampas.
soda,) is also abundant. In one part of the country, Captain Head found locusts Besides the animals already mentioned, the ostrich is so numerous as to cover the ground. At one of the posts a found in the Sahara, though more abundant in the southern woman was sweeping them away with a broom, and they parts of the continent. Some species of deer, or gazeiles, swarmed in crowds up his horse's legs; he placed his straw also frequent the fertile spots; but, from the dearth of hat on the ground while he was drinking some water, and vegetation, and want of water, the natural history of this on going to resume it, it was covered with these insects desert is very limited. biting the straw.
The persevering energy of man has conquered the The method of taking the wild cattle and horses by the obstacles which the Sahara apparenily presents to any lasso is singular; this is a long line made of thongs of intercourse between the nations separated by it. From the leather, and having a running noose at one end. The earliest ages traders have traversed it, by uniting in large gaucho, or peon, being mounted on a well-trained horse, boilies, called caravans, and the camel, by its wonderful holds the lasso coiled up loosely in his right hand, but with structure, its strength, docility, and absteniousness, is the out any risk of its entangling; the other end is fastened mcans which have enabled man to effect these journeys, by a hook to the saddle. When he has approached suffi- for without it they would be impossible; but even with this ciently near the animal he has selected, he throws the auxiliary, and with all the precautions that experience can lasso, and with such unerring aim, acquired by long prac- take, the caravans have frequently to endure the most tice, that the noose falls on the neck or round the horns. On terrible distress from want of water, for the shifting sands feeling the strange incumbrance, the ox gallops off, the man frequently obliterate the land-marks of the route, and
delayed by the search for the path, the stock is exhausted Captain Head asked a young woman nursing a very pretty distant wells. The dried and bleached corpses and skeletons
before the multitude can reach one of the few and farchild, who was its father." * Who knows?" was the reply. + This is a species of Marmot. (Arctomys ludoviciani.
Order of the camels and horses who constantly perish on the Rodentia.) It digs holes and burrows; a small speekled snake journey, are the principal guides on many of these dangertakes shelter in these holes, and is believed by the Indians to be the
ous roads. dogs' guard.
We have already mentioned the phenomenon of columns This animal is not very well known, and it is believed that the of sand raised by whirlwinds, as common to all extensive name is given to more than one species, they make vers extensive plains in tropical regions; but those which visit the desert clean and neat in their habits, they run and do not leap like rabbits, of Africa have been more particularly described from their hence it is inferred, that they belong rather to the agoutis of cayis than to the hare tribe; it weighs about twenty pounds.
This word in Arabic means Desert,
being better known. The caravans which have traversed | The most western, the plateau of Iran or Persia, is not so
limited plain of Europe, Jutland, and Denmark, which, THE TABLE LAND OF CENTRAL ASIA.
though now peopled, yet reserves some of its natural
characters, and is marked out by extensive heaths, which BETWEEN the thirtieth and fiftieth parallels of latitude still present an obstacle to all cultivation. Why these un from the Caspian Sea to Lake Baikal, and from the sources inviting districts should have been so apparently over of the Indus to the wall of China, is an immense Table- peopled that emigration was rendered necessary, when the Land, parts of which are the highest spots, not being mere rest of the known world was comparatively under-populated, peaks of mountains, on the globe. Generally it consists of an is a inystery in history which there is no means of fully assemblage of naked mountains, enormous rocks, and vast explaining: it may be partly accounted for by the plains, the principal of which latter is the Desert of Kobi, peculiar nature of the physical geography of this central or Shamo.
These table-lands form two distinct tracts, region, which presents facilities of communication, and differing in extent and elevation: the most eastern, com- varieties of soil and climate, favourable to the spread of prising the plateau of Thibet, and the great desert of Kobi population. Its present comparative solitude is due to or Gobi, rises from 4 to upwards of 10,000 feet above the moral causes, to which we have not space to do more than level of the sea, and contains about 7,000,000 square miles. I allude.
LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, Wut STRAND ; and sold by all Booksellers.
PRICE 2 ONE PENNY.
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
useless, unless the holders could obtain ready cash No. VII. STATUE OF THOMAS GUY, IN
for them, in which case, discount, and therefore, loss, CHAPEL OF Guy's HOSPITAL, Southwark. was unavoidable. With regard to the South Sea
stock, Mr. Guy had no hand in framing or conTrach me to soothe the helpless orphan's grief,
ducting that scandalous fraud; he obtained the stock With timely aid the widow's woes assuage,
when low, and had the good sense to sell it at the To misery's moving cries afford relief, And be the sure resource of drooping age.
time it was at its height. Never, indeed, can we
approve of that speculative spirit, which leads men to With great pleasure we place on our list of Na- step out of the line of a particular calling, and to tional Statues that of Guy, the amiable friend of “ make haste to be rich;” nor, while we admire the the poor and unfortunate, and founder of the noble mode in which a fortune has been spent, and contemHospital which bears his name. The monumental plate some splendid endowment that has derived its group represented in our engraving, is of white origin from the “bad success” of gambling or avarice, marble, and stands against the wall, facing the can we be so far misled as to allow that the end . visiter as he enters the hospital-chapel. It was justifies the means.
Gay, who, under the form of a executed by the late Mr. Bacon, in 1779, and is said fable, often couched just and biting satire, alluding to to have cost 10001. Mr. Guy is represented in his the large fortunes suddenly made, by means of the livery gown, holding out one hand to raise a poor “South Sea bubble,” remarks; invalid lying on the earth, and pointing with the
How many saucy airs we meet, other to a distressed object, carried on a litter into
From Temple-bar, to Aldgate-street!
Proud rogues who shared the South Sea prey, one of the wards, the hospital being in the back
And sprung, like mushrooms, in a day. ground. On the pedestal is this inscription;
While we are compelled, in this sketch of Mr. Underneath are deposited the remains of
Guy's life, to associate his name with one of the most Thomas Guy, Citizen of London, Member of Parliament, and the sole founder infamous transactions in the commercial history of of this hospital in his life-time.
our country, it is due to his memory, as well as to It is peculiar to this beneficent man to have persevered, during a long course of prosperity and industry, in pouring forth to
he cause of Christian charity, to add, that no disthe wants of others, all that he had earned by labour, honourable imputation ever attached to him or withheld from self-indulgence.
this score*. Warm with philanthropy, and exalted by charity, his mind expanded
Be it remembered, that much of his to those noble affections which grow but too rarely
money was acquired by labour and perseverance, from the most elevated pursuits.
as well as by that practice of self-denial, which proAfter administering with extensive bounty to the claims of consan- bably was necessary at the outset of life, and afterguinity, he established this asylum for that stage of languor and disease, to which the charity of others had not
wards became a habit. To his relations he was reached: he provided a retreat for hopeless
attentive while he lived; and his actions prove that insanity, and rivalled the endowments of kings.
he did not hoard up his means until they could no He died the 27th of December, 1724, in the 80th year of his age. longer be of use to himself. He kindly lent money
Thomas Guy, the son of a lighterman and coal- to some of his connexions, and granted annuities to dealer, was born in Horsleydown, Southwark, in others. His liberal benefactions to St. Thomas's 1615. He was apprenticed to a bookseller in Cheap- Hospital, made during his life, have been long known side, and having been admitted a freeman of the and appreciated in that excellent establishment. He Stationers' Company in 1668, was received into their had, also, founded an alms-house (afterwards endowed livery in 1673. He began business with a stock by his will) for fourteen poor people, at Tamworth, his of about 2001., in the house which, till lately, formed mother's native town, which he represented in several the angle between Cornhill and Lombard Street, parliaments. He left annuities to his older relatives, but which has been pulled down for the improve amounting to 8701. a year; and to the younger, ments now making in that neighbourhood. His extending to grandchildren of his uncles and aunts, first success
was owing to the great demand for he left stock in the funds, mostly in sums of 10001. English Bibles, printed in Holland, in which he each, to the extent of more than 74,0001., besides dealt largely: but on the importation of these being bequeathing land. To Christ's Hospital he gave a stopped by law, he contracted with the University of perpetual annuity of 4001., to receive on the nomiOxford for the privilege of printing Bibles; and nation of his trustees, four children yearly, who must having furnished himself with types from Holland, be his connexions: and there are always applicants. carried on this branch of business for many years,
He left 10001, to discharge poor prisoners in London, with great profit.
Middlesex, and Surrey, at 5l. each, and another 10001. But whatever foundation he might have laid for to be distributed among poor housekeepers at the his future wealth, in the usual course of trade, no
discretion of his executors. The erection of the small portion of his property arose from his pür. hospital, the earliest part of which was built by Mr. chase of seamen's tickets. These he bought at a
Dance, is said to have cost nearly 19,0001., the large discount, and afterwards subscribed in the amount of the residue of Mr. Guy's personal proSouth Sea Company, which was established in 1710, perty being stated at upwards of 219,0001. for the purpose of discharging those tickets, and The following anecdote has been supplied to us by giving a large interest. Here Mr. Guy was so
a correspondent, to whom, for this and other agreeextensively, as well as cautiously concerned, that in able contributions to our pages, we offer, once for al, 1720, he was possessed of 45,5001. stock, by dis- our best acknowledgements. posing of which when it bore an extremely advanced
“ The munificent founder of Guy's Hospital price, he realized a considerable sum.
a man of very humble appearance, and of imelanIf it should seem to detract from the character of choly cast of countenance t. One day, whilepensively this benevolent man, that he trafficked in sailors' leaning over one of the bridges, he arracted the tickets, and South Sea stock, it must be observed, attention and commiseration of a byzander, who, that as to the former, the blame of the tickets being apprehensive that he meditated destruction, brought to market, lay with the government of that could not refrain from addressin time, who instead of paying the sailors in money, as
* Notwithstanding the fippant and unfavemarks of Pennant, they ought, gave them bills or tickets, payable at a
+ See also his statue in bronze, by eemakers, in the first court of the hospital.
in his History of London. future day: and to such as wanted money,
him with an