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DIRECTIONS FOR FINDING THE NORTH STAR, AT ANY TIME.

Every pupil should be instructed in the manner of pointing out the North Star at any time of the night. If they are enabled to do this at any time, it will assist them in making other important observations, as well as being of use on many occasions which occur in the life of every man. Many persons have been lost in a prairie or other unfrequented places, when if they had been able to have told the points of the compass they could have extricated themselves from their lost situation. This may be done in a very easy manner. There is hardly a child of ten years of age who cannot at any time of night point out the stars in the Great Bear which form what is called the Great Dipper. Now if an imaginary line be drawn through the two stars which form the front edge of the Dipper, from the bottom towards the top, and continued about 20 degrees, it will pass very near the North Star-so near that it cannot be mistaken, there being no other stars of that magnitude near it. It should be borne in mind that this rule holds good in whatever position the Dipper may be at the time.Smith's Nlustrated Astronomy.

ECLIPSES.

Eclipses are among the most interesting phenomena presented to us by the heavenly bodies. In all ages, when an eclipse has taken place, it has excited the profound attention of the learned, and the fears and superstitions of the ignorant. The causes of eclipses before the seventeenth century were known only to a few, and they generally took advantage of this knowledge to impose upon the credulity of the ignorant by pretending that they were inspired by the Gods. Among the ancient nations, the Chaldeans were the foremost in their observations of the phenomena of the heavens; perhaps this was owing in some measure to their occupation; they being shepherds were obliged to watch their flocks by night to pro. tect them from the wild beasts which were at that time numerous. Men under such circumstances would naturally be led to watch closely the movements of the heavenly bodies, and more especially so, for in the earlier periods of the world they had no correct mode of reckoning time in order to determine the seasons or the proper seed time and harvest.

Eclipses attracted the particular attention of the Chaldeans, and by a series of observations extended through several centuries, they discovered a very important fact relating to eclipses, although they did not understand the cause.

By comparing the records which had been made for a great length of time, they found that a certain period of time elapsed between eclipses of the same kind and magoitude; that is, if 18 years, 11 days, 7 hours and 43 minutes, were added to the time of the happening of any eclipse, it would show the time of the return of the same eclipse; the only differences would be that it would not happen at the same time in the day and it would be a little greater or less than the previous eclipsethus they were able to predict eclipses with sufficient accaracy to answer their designs upon the ignorant without understanding the laws by which these periodical returns were produced

To explain this briefly, it must be remembered that the moon's orbit makes an angle with the plane of the earth's or. bit of 5f deg.; these two points where the moon's orbit cuts the plane of the earth's orbit, are called nodes. Now we will suppose that on any day at doon it is new moon, and the moon is just 16 deg. from her descending node, the shadow of the moon would just touch the earth at the north pole; in 223 lunations, or 18 years, 11 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes thereafter, the moon would come nearly to the same position as it was at the beginning, consequently there would be another small eclipse of the sun, and at the expiration af every 223 lunations it would return, and at each return the moon's shadow would pass across the earth a little more to the south until the eclipse had appeared about 77 times, when it would pass off at the south pole, occupying a period of 1,388 years: The same period would not commence again until the expiration of 12,492 years. Each eclipse which takes place during any year,

be. longs to a separate and similar period. Those periods of eclipses which come in at the moon's ascending node, first come on to the earth at the south pole, and at each return the moon's shadow passes across the earth more to the north, and after appearing about 77 times, they finally leave the earth at the north pole.-Smith': Astronomy.

IMMENSITY OF SPACE.

Great is the immensity of space. Light travels at the rate of one hundred and ninety-two thousand miles per second, and yet at this great speed it would take it over thirty million years to come from some of the far off nebulas to the earth. Some ideas of the immensity of space may be gathered by the calculation of the distance that light would travel in thirty millions of years, and then supposing that the distance ascertained by the calculation, was to the remaining distance as one drop of water is to the ocean. In all probability the most powerful telescope has only brought to view a small portion of creation.

The nearest fixed stars, according to the best astronomical calculation, 20,000,000,000,000 of miles from the earth. То assist the mind of the reader to get some idea of the immensity of this distance, I have taken the pains to make the following calculation: Suppose that when the Lord past sentence upon Cain for killing his brother, that he had banished him to the nearest fixed star, and had caused a whirlwind or some other power to have taken him at the rate of one thousand miles an hour day and night from that time till now, counting the time past six thousand years, at 360 days travel to the year, he would have traveled at the end of the six thousand years only one 3.80th part of the distance, and at ihe same rate of speed at the end of two million years from this time he would not reach his destination, but would yet be one trillion three hun. dred and eighty-two billion four hundred million miles from bis future home, or place of banishment. So you see that after two million and six thousand years travel at the enormous speed of one thousand miles an hour, leaves a distance yet untraveled equal to about fifty-five miilion times the distance of Cook's voyage around the earth.

PAY OF GOVERNMENT OFFICERS.

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per month

President of the United States.......
Vice-President...........

per annum, $50,000 00 Cabinet Officers each....

8,000 00

8,000 00 Speaker of the House of Representatives... Members of Congress......

8,000 00

5,000 00 Chief Justice of the United States.... Associate Justices.......

6,500 00

6,000 00 MINISTERS TO FOREIGN COUNTIES. In Great Britain or France...... In Russia, Spain, Prussia, Austria, Italy, China,

per annum 17,500.00 Mexico or Brazil..... In Chili or Peru........

12,000 00 In Nicaragua...

10,000 00 In Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark,

7,000 00 Sweden, Switzerland, Hawaiian Islands, Ecuador, Argentino Confederation, Venezuela and all other foreign countries........

7,500 00 WAR DEPARTMENT. Lieutenant-General..

720 00 Major-General .....

445 00 BrigadierGeneral.

299 50 Adjutant General.

annum 3,950 00 Surgeon-General....

3,594 00 Paymaster General

2,740 00 Commissary-General..

2,552 00 Surgeon-General.......

1 month

299 50 OFFICERS OF INFANTRY AND ARTILLERY. Colonel............

194 00 Lieutenant-Colonel.

170 00 Major ......

151 00 Captain....

118 50 First Lieutenant.

108 50 Second Lieutenant... Brevet Second Lieutenant......................................

103 50

103 50 ORDNANCE AND TOPOGRAPHICAL DEPARTMENT. Chief of Ordnance......

per month

407 50 Colonel..........

221 00 Lieutenant-Colonel

211 00 Major .....

187 00 Captain............

129 00 First Lieutenant.........

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40

112 83 Second Lieut ......

112 83 Brevet Second Lieutenant..

112 83

60

RELIGIOUS.

The number of Protestants of the world, according to the statistics of all nations, is about as follows: Onited States ...........

..........33,000,000 Great Britain and Ireland.........

..25,000,000 Asia and Armenia......

5,000,000 British America and West Indies.......

4,000,000 France, Belgium and Holland..........

5,000,000 South America..........

1,500,000 Sweden, Norway and Denmark....

7,600,000 The German Empire..............

.25,000,000 Throughout the rest of the world...

13,000,000 Total...............

....121.000,000

Or about one in every fourteen of the inhabitants of the world are Protestants. Of this number there is about one in every four identified with or members of the different Protestant churches of the world. It then follows that the entire membership of all the Protestant churches of the world amounts to one in fifty-six of the inhabitants.

The number of Roman Catholics (approximately correct) is as follows: United States.............

3,500,000 Great Britain and Ireland...........

6,000,000 Russia .........

7,200,000 South America......

.21,000,000 France.........

...36,000,000 Austria and Venetia....

28,000,000 Spain ....

...17,000,000 Other parts of the world.....

...60,000,000 Total..........

......200,900,000 Pagans, or those who worshipped idols, or created things or beings, they number near three-fourths of the entire inhabitants of the earth. They number at present about 1,000,000,000. This includes the Moham. medans, the Buddhists and the Mormons, or Latter Day Saints. Of this number there is to be found in the United States, of Mormons, 75,000. And strange as it may seem, we have about 60,000 Heathen idol worship

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