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external local inflammation; it also shows the presence of some severs of a general character. A yellowness about the mouth, eyes and nose, shows jaundice or inflammation of the liver. Redness of the skin of the heels is a forerunner of grease or scratches. Dryness and huskiness of the skin and hair indicate constitutional derangement, either of a chronic character, or, it may be, some acute disease already present, or just coming on, as pleurisy or inflammation of the lungs, in which the skin of the legs is cool or cold throughout.
The Dung.-The appearance of the horse's dung shows the condition of his digestion. The dung very offensive, like that of the hog or human, indicates a want of action in the absorbent vessels of the bowels, which is a form of indigestion. The dung-balls are slimy in glanders, farcy, and worms.
The Water.—The urine of the horse undergoes very great changes of quantity, color and thickness, when the animal is in perfect health. Stopping of urine, or, when it passes only a little at a time, and that attended with great straining, indicates stricture, inflammation of the kidneys or bladder, or stone in the bladder. Diabetes is told by the composition of the urine and the quantity; bloody water by its being mixed with blood.
The Flanks heave in inflammation of lungs, pleura and bowels. They are tucked up in glanders, farcy, indigestion, jaundice, and other diseases in which indigestion is impaired. A kernel will be felt in the inside of the loose skin of the flank, in the groin, in mange.
The flanks throb in thumps. Drooping of the Head is a sign present in a great variety of diseases and of opposite characters. When it is observed, other symptoms should be looked for. It is most marked and perfect in diseases of the brain.
Lying Down.-In flatulent colic the horse lies down carefully, rolls and tries to keep on his back. He then gets up quick. In spasmodic colic he lies down quick, rolls over quickly several times, and gets up, or he may only rise on his hips and sit for awhile, and then roll again, or get up.
In inflammation of the bowels he lies down carefully, and lies stretched out, and paws or strikes with his fore-feet.
Standing Still.-In locked-jaw the horse stands wide, and fixed as a statue. In inflammation of the lungs he stands with the head inclining and his fore-feet forward; and does not want to move; and if he lies down, he gets up instantly. In pleurisy the same way, but may lie down for a little time.
Pointing with the Nose. —The horse points with his nose to the flanks, in inflammation of the bowels and colic; and turns his neck carefully and looks at his side, but does not put his nose to the body, in pleurisy. In inflammation of the foot or acute founder he points his nose to the feet.
Pointing the Fore-foot indicates atrophy of the muscles of the shoulder, called sweeny. Pointing first one and then the other, is a symptom of chest-founder, or rheumatism. Dragging the fore-foot shows dislocation of the shoulder-joint.
Staggering, in most diseases, as colic for example, indicates approaching death. It is a symptom of hysterics, palsy, and poisoning with narcotics.
Straddling is a symptom of inflammation of the kidneys, bladder, and strain of the back.
Stiffness in Walking uccurs in big-head, farcy, founder, lung fever, pleurisy, hysterics, and rheumatism.
Twitching of the skin on the side occurs in pleurisy.
Delirium occurs in inflammation of the brain, vertigo, apoplexd and stomach staggers.
Drying up of the Perspiration, or sweat, very suddenly, when the horse is being driven or worked, is an indication that he is about taking pleurisy or inflammation of the lungs, or some other severe form of inslamniation.
This operation consists in dividing or cutting the muscles whose office it is to draw down or depress the tail. The object of the operation is to cause the horse to carry his tail in a raised position. An angle of elevation of about forty-five degrees is generally aimed at.
We are not sure that good taste, Christianity, and humanity, are not all violated in thus mutilating the horse. We are sure his comfort is much diminished.
The instruments necessary to perform the operation of nicking are, a nicking-knife, or a narrow-bladed knife, rounded on the edge from the heel to within half an inch from the point ; the pulleys, which are to be arranged in the horse's stall; a twitch for the nose and a collar around the neck, to which two ropes are tied, and one of these extended back to the pastern of each hind-leg. The horse being thus manacled, an assistant holds the head and another the tail. The operator then passes the knife through the skin at the side of the tail, as near the root of the tail as possible, so that the back of the knife rests against the lower side of the tail-bone. The knife having been introduced far enough to pass the muscles of that side, by a sawing motion of the knife the muscles are cut, which may be known by the edge of the knife reaching the skin.
The muscles of the other side of the tail are then to be cut in the same
The same operation is then performed about an inch and a half or two inches back on the tail, and then again about the same distance from that place, so that the under muscles of the tail are cut three times. Only two cuts are sometimes made. The horse is then ready for the pulleys. The tail will have to be kept raised by the pulleys three weeks or a month. He should be taken out a little time every four or five days. Light feed should be given. The best pulley is to be put on a collar. Make a tail-set of light wood, and place it on the rump, with a groove for the tail and a pulley to the collar.
Docking, or amputation of the tail, should be performed in the following manner: The horse is cast; the place it is desired to take the tail off is selected, a joint is found, and about half an inch below it, by one sweep of the knife, the skin of the tail is cut; the skin is then forcibly drawn back until the joint is in view; the knife is then passed squarely through the joint, and the tail is off. There are two arteries which may have to be tied. The forceps and silk should be on hand for this purpose, or they may be smeared with a hot iron, to stop the bleeding. The skin is then drawn down over the end of the bone, and two or three stitches passed through it to close the wound. Cold-water dressing, or a little tincture of aloes and myrrh, is all that will be needed.
As a general rule, the mare requires no assistance from man in this condition. But it may happen that the foal fails to come in the proper way, which is with the head forward, and becomes so entangled that the life of the foal or the dam may be endangered. When his is the case, a stout man with some skill and good nerve may, by persevering effort, gently and firmly, so change the position of the foal as to enable the efforts of the mare to expel it. If it is impossible to so change the foal as to bring the head down properly, the operator may pass the hand up so as to get 'hold of both hind-feet, and bring them down so that the foal may come rump foremost. It may require considerable force to turn the foal, but there is no danger in it if it is patiently applied; but the parts already born should never be caught hold of for the purpose of pulling the foal away.
The dam may be ruined by such meddling.
Taking the Foal Away. Sometimes the foal is so large that it can not be born. In such case, if it is evident the life of the dam will be lost by longer waiting, the hand may be passed up until it rests under the fore-leg of the foal, an open knife having been carefully held in the hand, and then the leg of the foal carefully separated from its body by the knife. In this operation great care must be taken not to injure or cut the parts of the dam which closely infold the colt. If necessary, other parts of the foal may be similarly removed.
Taking away the Placenta.-Occasionally the mare does not clean in a proper time. This may cause inflammation. If inflammation is threatened, the placenta should be taken away. This may be done by passing the hand, well greased, far up and beyond the parts to be taken away, and then grasping them and bringing them out with the hand.
Rupture in Foaling.–Sometimes the parts which lie between