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and abated as a common nuisance by the order of the court before which such conviction may be had as a further punishment, and such order shall be a part of the judgment of conviction.

Sec. 15. For the payment of all fines, costs and damages assessed or adjudged against any person or persons in consequence of the sale of intoxicating liquors as provided for in this act, the real estate and personal property of such person or persons, of every kind, shall be liable, and such fines, costs and damages shall be a lien upon such real estate until paid.

Sec. 16. The penalties and provisions made in the fourteenth section of this act may be enforced by indictment in any court of record having criminal jurisdiction; and all pecuniary fines or penalties provided for in any of the sections of this act, except the eighth and twelfth, may be enforced and prosecuted for before any justice of the peace of the proper county, in an action of debt, in the name of the State of Indiana as plaintiff; and in case of conviction, the offender sball stand committed to the jail of the county until judg. ment and costs are fully paid, and the magistrate or court in which the conviction is had, shall issue a writ of capias ad satisfaciendum therefor. Justices of the peace shall have jurisdiction of all actions arising under the eighth and twelfth sections of this act, when the amount in controversy does not exceed two hundred dollars, such actions to be prosecuted in the name of the party injured or entitled to the debt or damages provided for in said eighth and twelfth sections.

Sec. 17. It shall be unlawful for any person to buy for or furnish to any person who is at the time intoxicated, or in the habit of getting intoxicated, or to buy for or furnish to any minor, to be drunk by such minor, any intoxicating liquor. Any person or persons violating this section shall be fined not less than five dollars nor more than fifty dollars.

Sec. 18. In all prosecutions ander this act, by indictment or otherwise, it shall not be necessary to state the kind of liquor sold, or to describe the place where sold, and it shall not be necessary to state the name of the person to whom sold. In all cases, the person or persons to whom intoxicating liquors shall be sold in violation of this act, shall be com

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petent witnesses to prove such facts or any others tending thereto.

Sec. 19. The following form of complaint shall be sufficient in criminal proceedings before justices of the peace or mayors, under this act when applicable, but may be varied to suit the nature of the case, namely: STATE OF INDIANA,

COUNTY, ss. Before me, A. B., a justice of the peace of said county, (or mayor of, &c., as the case may be), personally came 0. D., who, being duly sworn according to law, deposeth and saith that on or about the day of , in the year

at the county aforesaid, E. F. did sell intoxicating liquors to one G. H. to be drunk in the place where sold, (or to G. H., a minor, &c.,) or to a person intoxicated, or in the habit of getting intoxicated, as the case may be, where intoxicating liquors are sold in violation of law, and further saith not. (Signed)

C. D. Sworn to and subscribed before me this day of

A. D.,

Sec. 20. All laws and parts of laws conflicting with this act, or with any of the provisions of this act, be and the same are hereby repealed; but nothing in this act shall be so construed as to prohibit the common councils of cities and the boards of trustees of incorporated towns, from demanding and enforcing a fee for permit, from all keepers of coffee houses, saloons, or other places where intoxicating liquor is sold and drunk within the limits of their respective corporations.

Sec. 21. It is hereby declared that an emergeny exists for the immediate taking effect of this act, it shall, therefore, be in force from and after its passage, except in so far as relates to those who hold a license under the existing laws of the State. This act shall apply to such as now have license immediately after the expiration thereof.

GEOLOGICAL ITEMS.

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“ It is not easy to give an accurate and comprehensive defiDition of the science of geology. It is, indeed, not so much one science, as the application of all the physical sciences to the examination of the structure of the earth, the investigation of the processes concerned in the production of that structure, and the history of their action. That this large view of geology is not only a true but a necessary one, is shown by the fact that it was not until considerable advances had been made in all the physical sciences which relate directly to the earth, that geology could begin to exist in any worthy form. It was not until the chemist was able to explain the nature of the mineral substances of which rocks are composed; not till the geographer and meteorologist had explored the surface of the earth, and taught us the extent of land and water, and the powers of winds, currents, rains, glaciers, earthquakes and volcanoes ; not until the naturalist had classified, named, and described the greater part of existing animals and plants, and explained their anatomical structure, and the laws of their distribution in space;-that the geologist could, with any chance of arriving at sure and definite results, commence his researches into the structure and composition of rocks and the causes which produced them, or utilize his discoveries of the remains of animals and plants that are inclosed in them. He could not until then discriminate with certainty batween igneous and aqueous rocks, between living and extinct animals, and was, therefore, unable to lay down any one of the foundations on which his own science was to rest."--Encyclopedia Britannica, 8th edition, vol. zv.

If there is any one fact which the study of geology teaches more unmistakably than another, it is, that the matter composing the crust of the earth, from the time when it was first called into existence by the fiat of the Creator to the present, has been subjected to an endless cycle of mutations. There may have been periods of comparative rest and quiescene, but none of perfect stagnation and stability; so that the present condition and configuration of the earth's surface may be considered as the last result of a series of cosmical changes, which commenced with the dawn of creation, and are continuing on into the future.

“Had the exterior crust of the earth been subjected to no modifying causes, the world would have presented the same appearance now as at the time of its creation. The distribution of land and sea would have remained the same; there would have been the same surface arrangement of hill, valley and plain, and the same unvarying aspects of animal and veg. etable existence. Under such circumstances, geology, instead of striving to present a consecutive history of change and progress, would have been limited to a mere description of permanently enduring appearances. The case. however, is widely different." There is no part of the present land-surface of the globe which has not at some time been covered by the ocean, while much of the present sea bottom has been in turn dry land. Many of the loftiest and most extensive ranges of mountains upon the globe-the Alps, the Andes, and the Himalayas-are of comparatively recent elevation (recent as compared with the White Mountains of New England, or the Appallachian chain of the Atlantic States); while the commencement of the existence of every animal and vegetable species at present found upon the earth was long subsequent to the existence of the myriad organisms, whose remains are now found fossil beneath its surface.

The agencies which have produced, and are still tending to produce, changes in the constitution and structure of our planet, may be classified as follows: 1. Igneous agencies, or such as manifest themselves in connection with some deepseated source of heat in the interior of the globe. 2. Aqueous, or those arising from the action of the water. 3. Atmospheric, or those operating through the medium of the atmosphere. 4. Organic, or those depending on animal and vegetable growth. 5. Chemical, or those resulting from the chemical action of substances on each other.- Wells' Illustrated Geology.

THE TEMPERATURE OF THE EARTH.

The following are some of the observations made most recently on this subject: In England, observations have been made in the vertical shafts of two very deep coal mines, viz., at Monkwearmouth, which is 1800 feet deep, and Dunkinfield, which is upwards of 2000 feet deep, and in both cases the observations were made while the workmen were sinking the shafts, and with every precaution against the influence of any extraneous causes. The former gave an increase of 1 deg. of Fahrenheit for every sixty feet of depth, and the latter 1 deg. for about every seventy feet. The artesian well of Grenelle (Paris), is 1800 feet deep; observations made by Arago, during the boring, showed that the average increase of temperature in this was 1 deg. for sixty feet. At Mordorff, Luxemburg, the depth of the artesian well is 2400 feet, and the increase in temperature 1 deg. for every fifty-seven feet. At the artesian well of New Seltzwork, in Westphalia, the depth is 2100 feet, and the increase 1 deg. for every fifty-five feet. At Louisville, Ky., the depth of an artesian well, finished in 1859, is 2086 feet deep, and the average increase is I deg. for every sixty-seven feet below the first ninety feet from the surface. In the silver mine of Guanaxato, Mexico, 1713 feet deep, the increase is 1 deg. for every forty-five feet. In the coal mines of Eastern Virginia, the increase is about 1 deg. for every sixty feet.

VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS.

One or two remarkable instances of volcanic eruptions may be briefly noticed. First, for duration and force we may refer to that which took place in the island of Sumbawa (one of the Bunda Islands lying east of Java), in the year 1915. It commenced on the 5th of April, and did not entirely cease until July. Its influence (i. e. shocks, and the noise of the explosions) was perceptible over an area 1,800 miles in diameter, while within the range of its more immediate vicinity, embracing a space of 400 miles, its effects were most terrific. In Java, 300 miles distant, it seemed to be awfully present. The sky was overcast at noon day with clouds of ashes, which the light of the sun was unable to penetrate, and fields, streets, and houses were covered with ashes to the depth of several inches. At Sumbawa itself, immense columns of flame appeared to barst forth from the top of the volcano, Tombora, and in a

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