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acquired action adult alike allied species ancestor ancestral form Aphilotrix arthropods asexual asexual reproduction become birds body breed buds cause characteristics color common conclusion crossed crustacea Daphnia Darwin Darwin says descendants distinct domesticated pigeons embryo embryology epigenesis evolution hypothesis existence experience explanation fact female fowls functions furnishes galls gemmules genera genus germ germinative vesicle give rise gradually hereditary homology horns hybrid hypoth impregnation individual influence inherited insects latent male cell male element medusae ment modification natural selection observed offspring ordinary origin origin of species ovum pangenesis parent parthenogenesis peculiarities perfect phenomena plants plastidules polar cells present produced race reasons for believing reproductive elements reproductive organs resemblance result rotifera secondary sexual characters sexes sexual elements sexual reproduction sexual selection similar simply Spathogaster structure tendency to vary theory of heredity tion transmission transmit true unspecialized variable variation wild young
278 페이지 - Let this process go on for millions of years; and during each year on millions of individuals of many kinds; and may we not believe that a living optical instrument might thus be formed as superior to one of glass, as the works of the Creator are to those of man?
262 페이지 - The principal and most characteristic aberration of speculative minds as such, consists precisely in the deficiency of this lively perception and ever-present sense of objective fact. For want of this, they often not only overlook the contradiction which outward facts oppose to their theories, but lose sight of the legitimate purpose of speculation altogether, and let...
233 페이지 - Just as man can improve the breed of his gamecocks by the selection of those birds which are victorious in the cockpit, so it appears that the strongest and most vigorous males, or those provided with the best weapons, have prevailed under nature, and have led to the improvement of the natural breed or species.
278 페이지 - ... the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed by natural selection, though insuperable by our imagination, can hardly be considered real.
280 페이지 - ... guidance of methodical selection. The comparison would be in every way fairer with the effects which follow from unconscious selection, that is the preservation of the most useful or beautiful animals, with no intention of modifying the breed ; but by this process of unconscious selection, various breeds have been sensibly changed in the course of two or three centuries.
266 페이지 - Their imaginations individualise more ; their affections are, in consequence, concentrated rather on leaders than on causes ; and if they care for a great cause, it is generally because it is represented by a great man, or connected with some one whom they love. In politics, their enthusiasm is more naturally loyalty than patriotism. In history, they are even more inclined than men to dwell exclusively upon biographical incidents or characteristics as distinguished from the march of general causes....
274 페이지 - ... be the case. The advantage, whatever it may be, is utterly outbalanced by numerical inferiority. A million creatures are born; ten thousand survive to produce offspring. One of the million has twice as good a chance as any other of surviving, but the chances are fifty to one against the gifted individuals being one of the hundred survivors. No doubt the chances are twice as great against any other individual, but this does not prevent their being enormously in favour of some average individual.
249 페이지 - ... members of the same group. The cause of this seems to lie in the males of almost all animals having stronger passions than the females.
140 페이지 - These several conditions alone render it probable that variability of every kind is directly or indirectly caused by changed conditions of life. Or, to put the case under another point of view, if it were possible to expose all the individuals of a species during many generations to absolutely uniform conditions of life, there would be no...