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the saide Lord Peircie unto his presence, and before us his servauntes, then attending upon him, saide unto him thus.

“ I marvaile not a little," quoth he, “ of thy folly, that thou wouldest thus entangle and ensure thyselfe with a foolish girle yonder in the courte, Anne Bulleine. Doest thou not consider the estate that God hath called thee unto in this worlde? For after thy father's death, thou art most like to inherit and enjoye one of the noblest earledomes. of this region. Therefore it had bene most meete, and convenient for thee, to have sued for the consent of thy father in that case, and to have also made the King's Highness privy thereof, requiring therein his princely favor, submitting thy proceedings in all such matters unto his Highness, who would not only thankfully have accepted thy submission, but would, I am assured, have provided so for thy purpose therein, that he would have advaunced thee much more nobly, and have matched thee according to thine estate, and honor, whereby thou mightest have growne so by thy wise behaviour in the King's high estimation, that it should have been much thine advauncement. But now see what ye have done, through your wilfulness. You have not only offended your Father, but also your loving Soveraigne Lorde, and matched your selfe with one, such as neither the King, nor your Father will be agreeable to the match. And hereof I put thee out of doubt, that I will send for thy Father, and at his coming he shall either breake this unadvised bargaine, or else disinherit thee for ever. The King's Majesty himselfe will complaine to thy Father on thee, and require no lesse than I have saide; whose Highnesse intending to have preferred Anne Bulleine unto another person, wherein the Kinge hath already travelled, and being almost at a pointe with the same person for her, although she knoweth not it, yet hathe the Kinge, most like a politique and prudent prince, conveied the matter in such sorte, that she, upon his Grace's motion, will be, I doubt not, righte glade, and agreeable to the same.” “ Sir," quoth the Lorde Peircie all weping, “ I know nothing of the King's pleasure herein, for the which I am very sorry. I considered I am of good yeares, and thought myselfe sufficient to provide me a convenient wife, whereas my fancy served me best, not doubting but that my Lorde my Father, would have bene right well contented. And although she be but a simple maide, having but a knight to her father, yet she is descended of right noble bloud and parentage. As for her mother, she is nigh of the Norfolke's bloud; and as for her father, he is descended of the Earle of Ormond, being one of the Earle's heirs generall. Why should I then, Sir, be any thing scrupulous to matche with her, whose estate and descent is equall with mine, even when I shall be in most dignity? Therefore, I most humbly require your Grace of your favor herein; and also to intreat the King's Majesty most humbly on my behalfe, for his princely favor in this matter, the which I cannot forsake.” “ Loe Sirs," quoth the Cardinall unto us, “ye may see what wisdome is in this willfull boyes heade. I thought when thou heardest me declare the King's pleasure and intendment herein, that thou wouldest have relented, and put thyselfe, and thy voluptuous acte wholly to the king's will and pleasure, and by him to have been ordered, as his grace should have

thought good.” “Sir,” quoth the Lord Peircie,“ so I would, but in this matter I have gone so far, before many worthy witnesses, that I know not how to discharge my selfe and my conscience.” “ Whie, thinkest thou,” said the Cardinall, “ that the King and I know not what we have to doe, in as weighty a matter as this? Yes (quoth he), I warrant thee. But I can see in thee no submission to the purpose." “ Forsoothe, my lord,” quoth the Lord Peircy, “ if it please your Grace, I will submit myself wholly unto the King's Majestie, and to your Grace in this matter, my conscience being discharged of the weighty burthen thereof." “ Well then," quoth the Cardinal, “ I will send for your Father out of the North partes, and he and we shall take such order in this matter as shall be thought by the king most convenient. And in the meane season, I charge that thou resort no more into her company, as thou wilt abide the king's indignation.” And therewith he rose up, and went his way into his chamber.

: “ Then was the Earle of Northumberland sent for in the King's name, who upon the receit of the King's letters, made all the spede that he could unto the King, out of the North. At his comyng, first he made his resorte unto my Lord Cardinall, as most commonly did all other noble personages that were sent for in such sorte, at whose hands they were advertised of the cause of their sending for. But when the Earle was come to my Lord, he was brought incontinent unto him in his Gallery. After whose meeting my Lord Cardinall and he were in secret communication a long space. And after their long talke, and drinking of a cup of wine, the Earle departed. And in going his way, he sat down at the galleries end in the halfe pace upon a forme that was standing there for the wayters ease. And being there set called : his sonne unto him, we standing before him, and said thus in effecte. unto him. “ Sonne," quoth he,“ even as thou art, and allwaies hast bin a proude licentious disdainfull and a very unthrifty waster, so hast thou now declared thyself. Wherefore what joy, what comforte, what pleasure or solace shall I conceive of thee, that thus without discretion hast misused thyselfe, having neither regard unto me thy naturall father, nor unto thy naturall soveraigne Lorde, to whom all loyall subjectes bear faithfull obedience; ne yet to the wealth of thine own estate, but hast so unadvisedly assured thy selfe unto her, for whome thou hast purchased the King's high displeasure, intolerable for any subject to sustaine? And but that his Grace doeth consider the lightness of thy head, and wilful qualities of thy person, his displeasure and indignation were sufficient to cast me and all my posterity into utter ruine and destruction. But he being my singular good and favourable Prince, and my Lord Cardinall my good Lord, hath and doeth clearely excuse me in thy lewd fact, and doeth rather lament thy lightness, than maligne me for the same; and hath devised an order to be taken for thee, to whom both thou and I be more bound than we be able well to consider. I pray to God that this may be unto thee a sufficient admonition to use thy selfe more wisely hereafter: for that I assure thee, if thou doest not amend thy prodegallity, thou wilt be the last Earle of our house. For of thy naturall inclination thou art disposed to be wastefull and prodigall, and to consume all that thy pro

genitors have with great travaile gathered and kept together with honor. But having the King's majesty my singular good and gracious Lord, I trust, I assure thee, so to order my succession, that ye shall consume thereof but a little. For I doe not entend, I tell the truth, to make thee mine heire ; for, thanks be to God, I have more boyes, that I trust will prove much better, and use themselves more like unto wise and honest men: of whom I will chuse the most likely to succede me. Nowe good masters and gentlemen, (quoth he unto us), • it may be your chaunces hereafter, when I am deade, to see these things that I have spoken to my sonne prove as true as I spake them. Yet in the meane season, I desire you all to be his friends, and to tell him his fault, when he doeth amisse, wherein you shall shew yourselves friendly unto him. And here,” (quoth he), “ I take my leave of you. And Sonne, go your waies in to my Lord your Master, and attend upon him, according to thy duty." And so he departed, and went his waye downe the hall into his barge.

“ Then after long consultation and debating in this the Lord Percies late assurance, it was devised that the same should be infringed and dissolved, and that the Lord Piercy should marry one of the Earle of Shrewsburies daughters. And so he did indeede after all this; by meanes whereof the former contract was dissolved; wherewith Mistress Anne Bulleine was greatly offended, promising if it ever lay in her power, she would work much displeasure to the Cardinall; as after she did in deede. And yet was he not in blame altogether; for he did nothing but by the Kings devised commaundment. And even as my Lord Piercy was commanded to avoide her company, so she was discharged of the Courte, and sent home to her father for a season; whereat she smoked: for all this while she knew nothing of the Kings entended purpose.”

Cavendish is of course no friend to the lady whom he considered the cause of his master's ruin; and in the conclusion of this part of his subject mentions Queen Katherine and Anne Boleyn in a contrast by no means favorable to the latter.

“ After these my Lord Percies troublesome matters brought into a good stay, and all things done that before were devised, Mistress Anne Bulleine was revoked unto the Court, whereas she florished after in great estimation and favour; having allwaies a privy grudge against my Lord Cardinall, for breaking of the contract made betweene my Lord Peircy and her, supposing that it had bin his devised will and none other, nor yet knowing the Kings secret mind thoroughly, who had a great affection unto her, more than she knewe. But after she knewe the kings pleasure, and the bottom of his secret stomacke, then she began to look very haughty and stoute, lacking no manner of jewells, or rich apparel, that might be gotten for money. It was therefore judged, by and bye through the Court, of every man, that she being in such favour, might work masteries with the King, and obteine any suite of him for her friend.

“ All this while, she being in this estimation in all places, it is no

doubt but good Queene Katherine, having this gentlewoman dayly attending upon her, both heard by reporte, and sawe with her eyes, how it framed against her good Ladyshippe: although she shewed neither unto Mistress Anne Bulleine, ne unto the King, any kinde or sparke of grudge or displeasure; but accepted all things in goode parte, and with wisdome and great pacience dissimuled the same, having Mistress Anne in more estimation for the Kings sake, than she was with her before, declaring her selfe to be a perfect Grisell, as her patient actes shall hereafter more evidently to all men be declared.”

In 1527 Wolsey was sent on an embassy with great pomp to France, to negociate a peace with Francis, of which, with all its ceremonies and parade, we have a full description. The Cardinal was everywhere received with honours usually paid to royalty alone, and treated with the French king as his equal. Some of Cavendish's own adventures are also related in a very pleasing lively manner, with the characteristic plainness and simplicity of an Englishman of the time. These, however, we must pass over, and only quote a few lines which illustrate an ancient custom in England, now exploded. Cavendish, in passing through a village, had been invited into a castle by the lord of it, who introduced him to his wife.

“And I being there tarrying a while, my Lady Madam Crokey (Crequis?] issued out of her chamber into her dining chamber, where I attended her comuning, who received me very gently like her noble estate, having a train of twelve gentlewomen. And when she and her traine was come all out, she saide unto me,' For as much,' quoth she, • as ye be an Englishman, whose custom is to kisse all ladies and gentlemen in your country without offense, although it is not soe here with us in this realme, yet I will be so bould as kisse you, and so ye shall doe all my maids.' . By meanes whereof I kissed her and all her maides. Then went she to her dinner, being as nobly served as I have seene here any in England, having all the dinner time pleasant communication of the usage of our ladies and noblemen of England, and commended the behaviour of them right excellently; for she was with the king at Arde, when the great encounter was between the French king and the king our soveraigne lorde : At which time she was, bothe for her person and goodly behaviour, appointed to keep company with the ladies of this realme. To be short, after dinner pausing a little, I took my leave, and so departed on my journey.”

Before the Cardinal enters the French territory, he assembles his attendants, and makes a speech, full of excellent instructions for their conduct in a foreign land. We will quote a part which is curious for the character of the French which it contains, as well as for an example of the speaker's eloquence, and likewise his affability to his dependants. .

“ Nowe to the second pointe : The nature of Frenchmen is suche,

that at the first meeting they will be as familiar with you, as they had bine acquainted with you long before, and common with you in their French tongue, as though you understoode every word; therefore use them in like manner, and be as familiar with them as they be with you. If they speake in their naturall tongue, speake you againe to them in the Englishe tongue, for if you understande not them no more shall they understande you." And speaking merrily to one of the gentlemen there, being a Welshman, he saide; “ Riche," quoth he, “ speake thou Welche to him, and I doubt not but thy speache shall be more diffuse to him than his Frenche shall be to thee: and thus,” (quoth he again to us all), “ let all your enterteinement and behaviour be according to the order of all the gentleness and humanity, that ye may be reported, after our departure from hence, that ye be gentlemen of right good behaviour, and of much gentleness, and that ye are men who knowe the duties to your soveraigne lorde, and to your master, esteeming much your great reverence. Thus shall ye not only obtaine to yourselves great commendation and praise for the same, but also advaunce the honor of your prince and country.”

In the course of the negotiation we find a lively specimen of the ambassador’s diplomatic talents.

“ Nowe in this castle there was lodged Madame Regent, the king's mother, and all her ladies and gentlewomen. Then came there to my Lorde, the chauncellor of France, a very witty man, with all the king's grave counsellors, where they toke great paines dayly in consultation. In so much that I heard and sawe my Lord fall out with the Chauncellor of France, laying to his charge, that he went about to hinder the league, which was, before his comming, concluded between the king our soveraigne lord and the French king his master; insomuch that my lord stomached him stoutly, and tould him, " That it should not lie in his power to infringe the amiable friendship. And if the king his master, being there present, would followe his counsell, he shall not faile shortly after his returne, but feele the smarte, what it is to mainetaine warre against the king of England, and thereof ye shall well be assured." Soe that his stout countenance, and bould wordes made them all in doubt how to quiet him, and revoke him againe to the counsell, who was then departed in great fury. There was sending, there was coming, there was intreating, and there was great submission, and intercession made unto him, to reduce him to his former communication and conclusion; who would in no wise relent, untill Madame Regent came to him herselfe, who handled the matter in such wise, that she brought him againe to his former estate of communication. And by that meanes he brought other things to passe, that before he could not obtaine, which was more for feare, than for any affection to the matter, he had the heades of the counsell so under his girdle.

“ The next morning after this conflict, he rose earely about the foure of the clocke, and sat him downe to write letters into Englande unto the kinge, commanding one of his chaplains to prepare him ready to masse, insomuche that the chaplaine stode ready in his vestures,


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