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And so I toke my leave of him, and he rode on his journey. Sir Rafe Sadler, now Knight, was then his Clerk, and rode with him.”

Cromwell quickly contrives to get into parliament, where he performed the most essential services to his late master-he was ever ready in his place to answer the charges alledged against him ; and when a Bill of Articles was brought into the house to condemn Wolsey of treason, Cromwell “inveighed so discreetly, with such witty persuasions and depe reasons, that the same could take no effect.” This was only one good office, among numerous instances, of “ honest estimation and earnest behaviour in his master's cause, wherein he was greatly of all men commended.”

One of the most remarkable things in the fall of Wolsey, is the constant kindness which the king, who was by no means given to duplicity, shewed to him by messages and tokens, and private declarations, which always, except in one instance, appear to have been sent by stealth. In the case of the exception alluded to, Henry requests Anne Boleyn to send a token likewise, which she did. In the following instance, Sir John Russel, afterwards Earl of Bedford, arrives in the dead of night with a private message of consolation.

“I went incontinent to my Lord's chamber dore, and knocked there, so that my Lord spake to me, and asked me what I would have. With that I tould him of the comming of Sir John Russell; and then he called up to him one of his gromes to let me in; and when I was come to him, I tould him againe of the journey that Sir John Russell had taken that troublesome night. 'I pray God all be for the beste,' quoth he. “Yes, sir, quoth I, ‘he shewed me, and so bade me tell you, that he had brought suche newes, as you would greatly rejoice thereat.' "Well, then,' quoth he, • God be praised, and wellcome be his grace! Go ye and fetch him to me, and by that time I will be ready to talke with him.'

“ Then I returned into the lodge, and brought Mr. Russell from thence unto my Lord, who had cast about him his night gowne. And when Mr. Russell was come before him, he most humbly reverenced him, upon his knees, whome my Lord stooped unto, and toke him up, and bade him wellcome. “Sir,' quoth he, the King commendeth him unto you;' and delivered him a great ring of gold with a Turkeis for a token; and willed me, to bid you be of good cheere; for he loveth you as well as ever he did, and is sorry for your trouble, whose minde runneth muche upon you. Insomuch that before his Grace sat downe to supper, he called me unto him, and desired me to take the paines secretly to visite you, and to comforte you the best of my powre. And sir, I have had the sorest journey for so little a way, that ever I had to my remembraunce.'

“My Lord thanked him for his paines and good newes, and demaunded of him if he had supped; and he saide Nay, "Well

VOL. V. PART I.

then,' quoth my Lord, 'cause the cookes to provide some meate for him; and cause a chamber to be provided for him, that he may take his rest awhile upon a bed. All which commaundement I fulfilled, and in the meane time my Lord and Master Russell were in secret communication; and in the ende, Master Russell went to his chamber, taking his leave of my Lord, and saide he would tarry but a while, for he would be at the courte at Greenwiche againe before day, and would not for any thing that it were knowne, that he had bin with my Lorde that night. And so being in his chamber, having a small repaste, he rested him a while upon a bed, whiles his servauntes supped and dried them; and that done, incontinent he rode away againe with speede to the courte. And after this within a while, my Lord was restored to plate vessells, and householde stuffe, of every thing necessary some parte, so that he was better furnished than before.”

The insults and disappointments which he received at the hands of the courtiers, at length brought on a severe illness, during which the King sent his physicians to him, and expressed an anxious solicitude for his safety.

“ At Christmas he fell very sore sicke, most likely to die. Whereof the king being advertised, was very sorry, and sent Doctor Buttes, his phisition, unto him, to see in what estate he was. Doctor Buttes came unto him, finding him lying very sicke in his bed; and perceiving the daunger retourned to the king. Of whom the king demaunded, saying, "Have you seen yonder man ? · Yea, sir,' quoth he. “How do you like him? quoth the king. “Sir,'. quoth he, “ if you will have him dead, I warrant him he will be deade within these foure days, if he receive no comforte from you shortly, and Mrs. Anne. • Marye,' quoth the king, God forbid that he should die. I pray you, Master Buttes goe againe unto him, and doe your care unto him; for I would not lose him for twenty thousande poundes.' • Then must your grace,' quoth Master Buttes, ‘send him first some comfortable message, as shortly as ye can.' 'Even so I will,' quoth the king, by you. And therefore make speede to him againe, and ye shall deliver him this ring from me, for a token' in the which ring was the king's image, engraved within a ruby, as like the king as could be devised). "This ring he knoweth right well; for he gave me the same; and tell him, that I am not offended with him in my harte nothing at all, and that shall he knowe shortly. Therefore bid him pluck up his harte, and be of good comforte. And I charge you come not from him, untill ye have brought him out of the daunger of death.' Then spake the king to Mistress Anne Bullen, saying, “Good sweete harte, I pray you, as ye love me, send the cardinall a token at my desire, with comfortable wordes; and in so doing ye shall deserve our thankes.' She not being disposed to offend the king, would not disobey his loving request, whatsoever in her harte she intended towards the cardinall; but toke incontinent her tablet of gold, that hung at her girdle, and delivered it 10 Master Buttes, with very gentle and

comfortable wordes. And so Master Buttes departed with speede to Asshur; after whom the king sent doctor Cromer the Scot, doctor Clement, and doctor Wotton, to consulte with Master Buttes for my lorde's recovery."

However unaccountable the conduct of the King, Wolsey has fully explained his own, in a conversation which, it appears, he held with his faithful attendant, in the course of his journey to his Archbishopric of York, to which the courtiers had procured his dismissal. These notes of Cavendish have an high historical importance.

“I cannot chose but to declare unto you a notable communication had at Mr. Fitzwilliams house, between my lorde and me, which was this: My lord walking in the garden at Mr. Fitzwilliams his house saying his evensong with his chapleine, and I being there attending upon him, after he had finished his praiers, he commaunded his chapleine that bare up his gowne traine to deliver the same to me, and to goe aside ; and after the chapleine was gone, he spake to me in this wise, calling me by my name. Ye have bine lately at London,' quoth he; Forsoothe my lord,' quoth I, 'not since I was there to buy your liveries for your servants. And what newes was there then,' quoth he; "heard you no communication of me? I pray you tell me.' Then perceiving that I had a good occasion to speake my mind unto him, I said, “Sir, if it please your grace, it was my chaunce to be at dinner in a certaine place, where I also supped, and many honest worshipful gentlemen, who were for the most parte of mine old acquaintance, and therefore durst the bolder participate with me in conversation of your grace, knowing that I was still your servant; and they asking of me howe ye did, and how you accepted your adversity and trouble, I answered that you did well, and accepted all things in good parte; and as it seemed to me, they were your indifferent friends, of whome they said none evill, but lamented your decay and fall very sore, doubting much the sequell not to be good for the common wealth. Also they mervailed much that you, being of such excellent witt, and of such high discretion, would so simply confesse yourselfe guilty unto the king, as you did. For, as they understode by reporte of some of the kings counsell, your case being well considered, you have great wronge: to the which I could make no direct answer.' • Is this,' quoth he, 'the opinion of wise men ?' 'Yea forsothe, my lord,' quoth I, and commonly of all men else.' « Well then,' quoth he, for all their wisdome, they perceived not so much as I. For I considered, that mine enemies had brought the matter so to passe against me, that they conveied and made it the kings matter and case, and caused the king to take the matter into his owne hands; and after he had once the possession of all my goods, being the kings only case, rather than he would have delivered me my goods againe, and taken a foile or overthrow therein at my hands, without doubte he would not have missed (by the setting forthe and procurement of my evil-willers) to have imagined my undoing and destruction therein ; whereof the best had bine perpetual imprisonment, or the daunger of my life. I had rather confesse the matter, as I did, and to live at large, like a poor vicar, than to live in prison with all the goods and honors I then had. And therefore it was for me the better way to veild unto the kings mercy and clemency, than to stand stiffe against him in triall of the wronge which I sustained; wherein the king would have bine bothe to have bine noted, and in my submission, the king, I doubt not, had a conscience, wherein he would rather pitty me than maligne me. And also, there was the night-crowe, that cried ever in his ears against me; and if she might have perceived any obstinacy in me, she would not have failed to have set it forthe with such vehemence, that I should rather bave obtained the kings indignation, than his lawful favor : and his favor once lost (which I then knewe that I then had done) would never have bin by me recovered. Therefore I thought it better to kepe still his favor, with losse of goods and dignity, than to win his indignation with all my wit, truthe, and policy. And this was the cause (which all men know not) that I yealded myselfe so soone guilty to the premunire ; wherein the king hath since conceived a conscience; for he knoweth, and allwaies did, more the effect thereof than any other person living, and whether I offended him therein or no, to whose conscience I commit the truthe of my cause.' And thus we lefte the substance of our communication in this matter; although we had much more talke : yet this is sufficient to make you understande, as well bothe the cause of his confession in the premunire, as also the occasion of the losse of his goods."

As he proceeded to the north, he spent a considerable time at Southwell, near Newark, where was a bishop's palace, belonging to the See of York, and acquired, by his affability and hospitality, great popularity in the neighbourhood. From thence he removed to Scroby, and then to the palace at Cawood, in Yorkshire.

After Wolsey had been some time in residence, he prepared for his installation in the Cathedral Church, according to what he was informed was the invariable practice of his predecessors. Such, however, was the alteration which the change in his fortunes had produced in his mind, that he chose to forego the pomp and splendour with which the ceremony had always been celebrated. When told that it was usual for the Archbishop to walk from a chapel without the city to the minster, upon cloth spread over his path, he said, “ although that our predecessors did goe upon cloth, soe we intend to go on foote from thence without any such glory, in the vaumpes of our hosen.” During his progress to the north, he had also plainly marked the humiliation of his mind-he had begun to wear sackcloth next his skin-was upon the watch for omens-had confirmed immense numbers of children on the road, with the

earnestness and devotedness of an apostle; and when at Cawood, set himself to appease quarrels and extinguish feuds, with great skill, industry, and success. The installation, however, never took place. Every preparation was made, and though the Cardinal himself took no part in it, yet such was his popularity in the county, that provisions and game of all kinds were sent in as for a splendid festival. On the Friday before the Monday which was fixed for the taking place of the ceremony, the Earl of Northumberland, the very Lord Percy, whose match with Anne Boleyn, Wolsey had been the means of breaking off, arrived with Mr. Walche, of the King's Privy Chamber. The Earl took possession of the gates, and the Cardinal, hearing of his arrival, and deeming it a visit of courtesy, met him on the stairs and regretted that his dinner was nearly over, but offering, at the same time, such cheer as he could make him on so short a notice, and chiding him for not sending word of his intention. This, and many more kind and courteous words being said, he took the Earl by the hand and led him into a chamber.

“ And they beinge there all alone, save only I, who kept the dore, according to my duty, being Gentleman-Usher; these two lordes standing at a windowe by the chimney, the Earle, trembling, saide unto my Lorde, with a soft voice (laying his hand upon his arme), · My Lorde, I arrest you of highe treason. With which wordes my Lorde was marvailously astonied, standing bothe still without any more wordes a good space. But at the last, quoth my Lord, 'What authority have you to arrest me? " Forsothe my Lorde,' quoth the Earle, I have a commission so to doe. “Where is your commission,' quoth my Lord, that I may see it?' • Nay, sir, that you may not,' saide the Earle. "Well, then,' quoth my Lord, hold you contented; then will I not obey your arrest: for there hath bine between your auncestors and my predicessors great contentions and debate of an auncient grudge, which may succede in you, and growe unto the like inconvenience, as it hath done betwene your auncestors and my predicessors. Therefore, without I see your authority from above, I will not obey you.' Even as they were debating this matter betwene them in the chamber, so busy was Mr. Walche in arresting of Doctor Augustine, at the dore in the pallace, saying unto him, Go in traitor, or I shall make thee. And with that, I opened the portall dore, perceiving them both there. Mr. Walche thrust Doctor Augustine in before him with violence. These matters on bothe sides astonied me very much, musing what all this should meane; untill at the last, Mr. Walche, being entered my Lorde his chamber, began to plucke off his hoode, which he had made him of the same clothe, whereof his coate was, which was of Shrewesbury cotton, to the intent he would not be knowne. And after he had plucked off his hoode, he kneled downe to my Lorde, to whome my Lord sayd, Come hether gentleman, and let me speake with you,' commanding him to stand up, saying thus, “Sir, here my

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