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Entered denuding to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight nundreu and fifty-two. by

Chauhcev A. Goodrich,
in the Offico of the Clerk cf the District Court of the District of Connecticut

PREFACE.

Mb. Hume has somewhere remarked, that " he who would teach eloquence must do it chiefly hy examples." The author of this volume was foroibly struck with this remark in early life; and in entering on the office of Professor of Rhetoric in Yale College, more than thirty years ago, besides the ordinary instructions in that department, he took Demosthenes' Oration for the Crown as a text-book in the Senior Class, making it the basis of a course of informal lectures on the principles of oratory. Modern eloquence came next, and he endeavored, in a distinct course, to show the leading characteristics of the great orators of our own language, and the best mode of studying them to advantage. His object in both courses was, net only to awaken in the minds of the class that love of genuine eloquence which is the surest pledge of success, but to aid them in catching the spirit of the authors read, and, by analyzing passages selected for the purpose, to initiate the pupil in those higher principles which (whether they were conscious of it or not) have always guided the great masters of the art, till he should learn the unwritten rules of oratory, which operate by a kind of instinct upon the mind, and are far more important than any that are found in the books.

Such is the origin of this volume, which contains the matter of the second course of lectures mentioned above, cast into another form, in connection with the speeches of the great British orators of the first and second class. A. distinct volume would be necessary for American eloquence, if the lecture.* on that subject should ever be published.

The speeches selected are those which, by the general suffrage of the English public, are regarded as the master-pieces of their respective author.*. They are in almost every instance given entire, because the object is to have each of them studied as a complete system of thought. Detached passages of extraordinary force and beauty may be useful as exercises in elocution; but, if dwelt upon exclusively as models of style, they are sure to vitiate the taste. It is liko taking all one's nutriment from highly-seasoned food and stimulating drinks.

As to the orators chosen, Chatham, Burke, Fox, and Pitt stand, by universal consent, at the head of our eloquence, and to these Erskine may be added as the greatest of our forensic orators. Every tolerably reported speech from Lord Chatham is of interest to the student in oratory, and all that I thought such are here inserted, including eight never before published in this country. All of Burke's speeches which he prepared for the press have also found a place, except that on Economical Reform, which, relating to mere matters of English finance, has less interest for an American In room of this, the reader will find the most striking passages in his work? on the French Revolution, so that this volume contains nearly every thing which most persons can have any desire to study in the pages of Mr. Burke. Six of Fox's great speeches are next given, and three of Pitt's, with copious extracts from the early efforts of the latter; together with nine of Erskine's ablest arguments, being those on which his reputation mainly rests. Among the orators of the second class, the reader will find in this volume foui speeches of Lord Mansfield; two of Mr. Grattan's, with his invectivej i^ainst Flood and Corry; Mr. Sheridan's celebrated speech against Hast ings; three of Mr. Curran's; Sir James Mackintosh's famous speech foi Peltier; four of Mr. Canning's; and five of Lord Brougham's, including hia instructive discourse on the study of eloquence in the Greek orators. Some of the most finished letters of Junius are given in their proper place, with remarks on his style as an admirable model of condensation, elegance, and force. In the first fifty pages will be found nearly all the celebrated speeches before the days of Lord Chatham, from Sir Robert Walpole, Lord Chester, Field, Mr. Pulteney, Lord Belhaven, Sir John Digby, the Earl of Straf. Ford, and Sir JonN Eliot. The selections in this volume extend through a period of two hundred years, and embrace a very large proportion of the most powerful eloquence of Great Britain.

The following are the aids afforded for the study of these speeches:

(1.) A memoir of each orator, designed to show his early training in eloquence, the leading events of his public life, the peculiar cast of his genius, and the distinctive characteristics of his oratory. It ought to be said, in justice to the author, that these sketches were completed in every essential particular, long before the publication of Lord Brougham's work upon British Statesmen.

(2.) A historical introduction to each of the speeches, explaining minutely the circumstances of the case, the state of parties, and the exact point at issue, being intended to place the reader in the midst of the scene as an actual spectator of the contest. These introductions, with the memoirs just mentioned, form a slight but continuous thread of political history, embracing the most important topics discussed in the British Parliament for more than a century.

(3.) An analysis of the longer speeches in side-notes, giving the divisions and subdivisions of thought, and thus enabling the reader to perceive at onoe the connection and bearing of the several parts.

(4.) A large body of explanatory notes, bringing out minuter facts. A few of these, on Chatham's early speeches, are from the Modern Orator, and also some definitions of law terms in two of Erskine's, p. 637-83.

(5.) Critical notes, as specimens of the kind of analysis which the anther has been accustomed to apply to the several parts of an oration, and which every student in oratory should be continually making out for himself.

(6.) Translations of the passages quoted from the ancient and foreign languages, with the poetry rendered into English verse. The passages are usually traced to their sources, and the train of thought given as it appears in the original, without a knowledge of which most quotations have but little force or beauty. For the same reason, the classical and other allusions are traced out and explained.

(7.) A concluding statement of the way in which the question was decided, with occasional remarks upon its merits, or the results produced by the decision.

Great compression has been used in preparing this volume, that all who are interested in the study of eloquence may be able to possess it. Each page contains the matter of three ordinary octavo pages in Pica type; and the whole work has in it one sixth more than Chapman's Select Speeches, or "Willison's American Eloquence, in five octavo volumes each.

In conclusion, the author may be permitted to say, that while he has aimed to produce a volume worthy of lying at all times on the table of every jne engaged in speaking or writing for the public, he has hoped it might prove peculiarly useful to men of his own profession; since nothing is more desirable, at the present day, than a larger infusion into our sacred eloquenoo »f the freedom, boldness, and strength which distinguish our secular oratory

Sal lit. IS52.

CONTENTS.

Pill JOHN ELIOT Pagel

IB* early ufe, 1; elected to the House at the opening of
the contest with Charles I., ib.; imprisoned by the
King. ib.; again elected while in jail, ib.; Petition of
Right, 2; Charles tries to evade it, ib.; Eliot's speech,
ib.; characteristics of his eloquence, ib.; imprisoned,
dies the first martyr to liberty, 6.
Speech on the Petition of Right 3

EARL OF STRAFFORD 7

Ilia birth and education, 7; early traits, ib.; ill-treated by
Buckingham, ib.; assumes the character of a patriot,
ib.; defends the Petition of Right, 8; bought off by the
court, ib.; becomes favorite of Charles I., ib.; hU ex-
actions and cruelties, ft.; impeached by the Commons,
9; description of the trial, ib.

Speech when Impeached of High Treason 11

LORD DIGBY 15

His early life, 15; enters the House as an opponent of the
government, ib. employed against Buckingham, ib.;
appointed one of the managers for the impeachment of
Strafford, ib.; changes sides and comes out against the
bill of attainder, ib.; his eloquence characterized, ib.

Speech against the Attainder of Strafford 16

LORD BELHAVEN 19

'lis extraction and character, 19; evils resulting from a

union of the crowns of Scotland and England, and their

separation in all other respects, ib.; jealousy of tho En-

glish as to the trade of Scotland, ib.; retaliatory meas-

ure* of the Scotch, ib.; plan of a Legislative Union, 20;

violent hostility against it in Scotland, ib.; circumstan-

ces of Lord Belhaven's speech against it, ib.

Speech againat the Legislative Union of England and

Scotland 21

SIR ROBERT WALPOLE 27

His birth and early education, 27; enters Parliament as a

Whig, ift.; early traits of character, ib.; made Prime

Minister, ib. ; his extreme jealousy of all who might be-

come hi* competitors, 28; character of the Opposition

and of Bolingbroke as its leader, ib.; Walpole's system

of corruption, ib.; falsely accused as to most of his

leading measures, ib.; errors of bis ministry, 29; char-

acter of his eloquence and that of his contemporaries,

29,30.

Speech on the Septennial Act 31

Speech on Addressing the King for his Removal 35

MR.PULTENEY 43

His early life and study of oratory, 43; gradual develop-

ment of his powers, ib.; becomes one of the ablest of

En dish debaters, ib.; breaks down the power of Wal-

pole, ib.; fails to succeed him, ib.; created Earl of Bath,

ib.; bis general unpopularity, ib.; his death, ib.

Srxxcu on Reducing the Army 43

LORD CHESTF.RFIELD 45

His birth, 45; early love of polite literature, ib.; elegance

of his manners, ib.; his acutcness and wit as a public

speaker, ib.; his various public employments, ib.; re-

tires from office and devotes himself to literature, ib.;

his unhappineas in old age, ib.; his death, ib.

Speech against Licensing Gin-Shops 46

LORD CHATHAM 52

Uii birth and early sufferings from the gout, 52; his ed-
ucation at Eaton, ib.; his conversational powers, ib.;
remove* to Oxford, ib.; his studies in rhetoric, ib.;
goes twice through the English dictionary to gain a
command of language, ib.,- obtains a commission in the
army, 53; joins the Opposition, ib.; enters Parliament,
ib ; his raa'den speech., 54; its effect on the King Rod

Walpole, ib. j deprived of his commission, ib., becomes
leader of the Opposition, 54-5; comparison between
him and Lord Mansfield, 55; gains n complete ascend-
ancy in the House, 56; unites with Mr. Pelbam, and is
made Paymaster of the Forces, ib,; exhibition of dis-
interestedness, 56-7; on the death of Pelhnra comes out
against Newcastle, his successor, 58; attack on Mans-
field, ** Felix trembles," ib.; attack on Fox, " conflux of
the Rhone and Sonne,'* 59; drives Mansfield out of the
House, ib.; is made Prime Minister on Newcastle's res-
ignation, 60; dismissed soon after, and all England in
commotion, ib.; restored, his influence over all con-
nected with him In government, ib.; power of his elo-
quence, u Is there an Austrian among you?" "Ut vider*
virum," 61; Opposition extinguished, 62; triumphs of
his policy and arms in all quarters of the globe, ib..
France sues for peace, 63; Spain joins her, ib.; he pro-
poses war against her, but overruled by Lord Bute, ib..
resigns, ib.; makes his "Sitting Speech" against LorJ
Bute's peace, 64; attack on Mr. Grcnville, " Gentle Shep
herd," 65; opposes the King respecting John WilkeB and
American taxation, ib.; contemptuous retort on Justice
Moreton, 66; withholds his support from the Rocking-
ham administration, ib.; forma nia third ministry, imd
is raised into the House of Lords, 67; his loss of health
and inability to administer the government, 68; resigns
and retires, ib. cornea out at the end of three years
against the Grafton ministry, 69; it falls before him, ib.;

support of America, 70; declines in health, ib.; his

death, 71; characteristics of his eloquence, 71-5.

Speech on a Motion for an Address on the Marriage of

the Prince of Wale* ,„• Page 76

Speech on tho Spanish Convention 77

Speech on the Impressment of Seamen 79

Speech in reply to Horatio Walpole 81

Speech in favor of Inquiring into the conduct of Sir

Robert Walpole 63

Second Speech in favor of Inquiring into the conduct

of Sir Robert Walpole &9

Speech on taking the Hanoverian Troops into the pay of

Great Britain 9;t

Speech on a Motion for an Address of Thanks after the

Battle of Dettlngcn 95

Speech on the Right of Taxing America 103

Speech In Reply to Lord Mansfield in Relation to the

Case of John Wilkes 108

Speech on a Motion to Inquire into the State of the Na-

tion 114

Speech in Relation to tho Seizure of the Falkland Islands

by Spain 118

Speech against the Quartering of British Soldiers on the

Inhabitants of Boston 126

Speech in favor of an immediate Removal of the British
Troops from Boston 138

Speech on a Motion for an Address to put a stop to Hos-

tilities in America 132

Speech on a Motion for an Address to the Throne at the

Opening of Parliament, November 18th, 1777 134

Speech against a Motion for adjourning Parliament, De

cember 11th, 1777 139

Last Speech upon America, with the circumstances of

his Death 14)

LORD MANSFIELD 143

His birth, 143; descended from the Stormont family, which

adhered to the Stuarts, ib.; sent early to the Westmin-

ster school, ib.; his great proficiency, ib.; removed to
Oxford, ib.; his studies in rhetoric, ib.; commences the

study of the law, ib.; laborious training in extempora-
neous speaking, ib.; historical studies, 144; practice in
elocution, ib.; a favorite of Pope, ib.; extent of his
business as a lawyer, ib.; made Solicitor General, ib.,
comparison between him and the elder Pitt, ib.; rands
Attorney Genera], 145; appointed Chief Justice with
title of Lord Mansfield, ib.; speech at taking leave of
his associates at Lincoln's Inn. 145-6; his qualifications
as Chief Justice, 146; testimony of Justice Story, ib.
his political course In the H'.-st* of Lords, 147; migssf
as Chief Justice at the age of eighty-three, ib.; his death,
ib.; personal appearance and characteristics of bis elo-
quence, ib.

Speech on the right of Taxing America Page 14ft

(iehabks on the foregoing speech with the American ar-
gument (by the Editor) 152

Speech when surrounded by a Mob in the Court of

King's Bench 154

Speech in the case of Allan Evan?, Esq 156

Speech on a Bill depriving Peers of certain Privi-

leges 160

JUNIUS 163

His Letters have taken a permanent place in our elo-

quence, 163; the rhetorical skill which they manifest,

tb.; the result of severe and protracted effort, ib.; labor

bestowed on the selection and arrangement of bis ideas,

ib.; logical cast of his mind, 163-4; peculiar benefits to

the young orator from the study ot his style, 164; his

extraordinary powers of condensation, ib.; of insinu-

ating ideas without expressing them in form, 164-5;

reasons why indirect attack by insinuation is so pecul-

iarly painful to cultivated minds, 165; Junius' meuns of

secret information, ib.; characteristics of his style, 106-

7; the perfection of his imagery, 167; who was Juni-

us? 168-9; his political relations, 170; had previously

written under other signatures, ib.; reasons for his

now coming out with increased strength and boldness,

ib.; impression made by bis first letter. 171; attacked

by Sir William Draper, and thus made an object of pub-

lic attention, ib.; his triumph over Sir William, 171-2;

the power he gained as a writer, ib.; his efforts second-

ed by Lord Chatham, ib.; the King predicts that Junius

will cease writing, ib.; he discontinues his Letters at

the end of three years, and Sir Philip Francis is sent to

India, ib.

Letter to tho Printer of the Public Advertiser 173

I.rttsr to Sir William Draper 178

Letter to Sir William Draper 180

Letter to the Duke of Grafton 181

Letter to the Duke of Grafton 185

Letter to the Duke of Bedford 188

UeMaiiks on the Character of the Duke of Bedford (by

the Editor) 192

Letter to the King 193

Letter to the Duke of Grafton 200

Krmarks on the character of the Duke of Grafton (by the

Editor) 204

I .rt.MAiK Of Junius by Mr. Burke and Dr. Johnson. 204

EDMUND BURKE 206

His birth and delicate constitution, 206; educated at a

Quaker school in Ballitore, ib.; early training, ib.; re-

moved to Trinity College, Dublin, ib.; account of his

studies, 207; early philosophical spirit, ib.; leaves col-

lege and studies lnw in London, ib.; his severe mental

labor, 208; applies unsuccessfully for a professorship in

Glasgow, ib.; publishes his Vindication of Natural So-

ciety, ib.; publishes his Essay on the Sublime and Beau-

tiful, 200; his society courted by tho most distinguished

literary men, ib.; his conversational powers, 210; com-

mences tho Annual Register, ib.; goes to Ireland aa sec-

retary to Single Speech Hamilton, 211; comes into Par-

liament as a supporter of Lord Rockingham. 212; his

maiden speech, highly praised by Lord Chatham, ib.;

goes out with Lord Rockingham, and becomes leader

of the Whigs in the House, 213; Speech on American

Taxation, its powerful impression, 214; elected mem-

ber for Bristol, 215; circumstances leading to hiB speech

on conciliation with America, ib.; comparison between

this and his speech on American Taxation, 215-1G;

speech on Economical Reform, "King's turnspit a

member of Parliament," 216; speech at Bristol previ-

ous to the election, 216-17; declines the polls, and re-

turned for Mnlton, 217; speech against the continuance

of the American war, "shearing the wolf," 217-218;

after the fnll of Lord North, cornea in with Lord Rock-

ingham as Paymaster of the Forces, 218; enrries his

measures for economical reform, 219; originates tho

East India Bill of Mr. Fox, ib.; his intimate acquaint-

ance with India and its concerns, 200: his Bprech on

Fox's East India Bill, 221; speech on the Nabob of Ar-

rofs debts, ib. ; procures the impeachment of Warren

Hastings, 221—22; draws up the articles of impeach-

ment, 223; delivers the opening speech against Hast-

ings, ib.; delivers his closing speech at the end of nearly

•even yearn, 224; ren«ont tor the acquittal of Hastings,

225; King becomes deranged, 226; his ground respect-

tog a Regency, ib.; his' unpopularity and abusive treat-

ment in the house, ib. ; his enrly jealousy of the French

Revolution, 227: reasons. 227-28; his first collision

with Mr. Fox on tho subject, 229; bis breach with Mr.

Sheridan, 230; writes his Rejections on the Revolt.
tion in France, 231 ; characteristics of the work, ib.,
its errors, ib.; its excellences, 231-32; his separation
from Mr. Fox, 232-33; loss of his son, 234-35; pension
granted him, 235; his Letter to a Noble Lord on the
subject of his pension, ib.; his Letters on a Rcgicid*
Peace, ib.; errors of Mr. Burke respecting the war with
France, 235-36; decline of his health, 237; his death,

ib.; characteristics of his genius and eloquence, 2-'17-40

Speech on American Taxation Page 241

Speech on Conciliation with America 265

Speech previous to the Bristol Election 293

Speech on declining the Election at Bristol 310

Speech on the East India Bill of Mr. Fox 311

Speech on the Nabob of Arcot's Debts 32&

Peroration of Speech against Warren Hastings ... 362
Extracts from works on the French Revolution... 362

Miscellaneous 376

Ma. Burke on the Death of his eon 378

Character of Sir Joshua Reynolds 378

Detached Sentiments And Maxims 379

HENRY GRATTAN 38*

His birth and education in Dublin, 382; study of the law

in London, ib.; study of Lord Chatham as an orator,

ib.; settlement in Dublin as an advocate, ib.; election

to the Irish Parliament, ib.; moves a Declaration of

Irish right, 383; unsuccessful, ib.; moves it again at tho

end of two years, 384; prevails, ib.; opposed by Mr.

Flood, ib.; invective against him, ib.; opposed to the

Union, ib. ; chosen to the Imperial Parliament, ib.; de-

voted to the cause of Emancipation, ib.; his death* ib.;

personal qualities and character as an orator, 335.

Speech on moving a Declaration of Irish Right 386

Speech on making a second motion for a Declaration of

Irish Right 391

Invective against Mr. Flood 394

Invective against Mr. Corry 396

Character of Lord Chatham 398

RICHARD BRIN3LEY SHERIDAN 399

His parentage and connection with ths ttagc, 399; early
dramatic productions, ib.; purchase of Drury Lane
Theater, ib.; election to Parliament, ib.; made Under
Secretary of State, 400; keen retort on Pitt, ib.; speech
against Hastings in the House, ib.; speech before the
House of Lords under the impeachment, 401; Lord
Byron's lines thereon, ib.; indolence and effrontery as
a speaker, 402; his wit and humor, ib.; habits of intem-
perance, 403; unhappy death, ib.; personal appearance

and character as an orator, 404.

Speech against Warren Hastings when impeached be-

fore the House of Lords 405

\

CHARLES JAMES FOX 437

His birth and'early genius. 437; Indulgence of his father

ib.; produces habits of dissipation, 438; eminence in
classical literature, ib.; distinction at Eaton and Oxford,

ib.; early extravagance, 439; enters Parliament,^.,

first a Tory and in office under Lord North, 440; turv

ed out abruptly, ib.; joins the Whigs as a pupil of
Burke, 441; his labors to form himself as a debater.

443; becomes head of the Whig party, ib.; is made Sec-

retary of State under Lord Rockingham, 444; disap-
pointed in not becoming Prime Minister on the death

of Rockingham, ib.; forms his Coalition with Lor*

North, 445; drives out the ministry and becomes Sec-
retary of State, ib.; his East India Bill, 446; speech in

support of it, 447; carried in the House, ib.; defeated

in tuo Lords, ib.; his speech against secret influence,
448; displaced arid Mr. Pitt made Prime Minister, ib.;

unsuccessful efforts to drive Pitt from power, ib.; West-

minster election, 449; Mr. Fox's speech on the subject,
450; derision of the House in his favor, ib.; derange-

ment of tho King, ib.; Mr. Fox nsserts the right of tho

Prince of Wales to tho Regency, 451; King recovers,

452; Mr. Fox's speech against Mr. Tittfor arming against
Russia, 453; his Libel bill, ib.; his views of the French

Revolution, 454; his speech on Mr. Pitt's rejection of

Bonaparte's overtures lor peace, 458; comes in under
Lord Grenville as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. 459; hi*

death, personal appearance, 400; characteristics of hie

oratory, ib.

Speech on the East India Bill 462

Speech on Secret Influence 474

Speech on the Westminster Scrutiny 481

Speech on the Russian Armament S0C

Speech on Parliamentary Reform 51"

Speech on the Rejection of Bonaparte's Overturos foi

Peace ^

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