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bary powers. They were truly dismal and discouraging in the beginning. We had all the appearance of playing the part, on that coast, of one of the lesser European powers. But at a
"ART. 23. War not to take place until a demand and refusal of justice. In case of war, one year allowed to citizens, &c.
"The agreements and terms above concluded by the two contracting parties, shall be punctually observed, with the will of the Most High and for the maintenance and exact observance of the said agreements, we have caused their contents to be here transcribed, in the present month of Rebia Elul, of the Hegira, one thousand two hundred and twelve, corresponding with the month of August, of the christian year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven. "The Aga Soliman's signature and "Ibrahim Dey's signature and "The Bey's signature and
[L. S.] [L. S.] [L. S.]
"In testimony whereof, we annex our names and the consular seal of the United States. Done in Tunis, the twenty-sixth day of March, in the year of the christian era one thousand seven hundred and ninety-nine, and of American independence the twenty-third.
"JAMES LEANDER CATHCART." "Whereas certain alterations in the treaty of peace and friendship, of August 1797, between the United States and the Bashaw and Bey of Tunis, were agreed upon and concluded, between his highness Sidi Mahmoud, the Bey, and S. D. Heap, Chargé d'Affaires of the United States at Tunis, on the twenty-fourth day of February one thousand eight hundred and twenty-four, by the articles in the words following, to which are annexed the altered articles, as they were in the treaty before the alterations :
"ART. 6-as it now is. If a Tunisian corsair shall meet with an American vessel, and shall visit it with her boat, two men only shall be allowed to go on board, peaceably, to satisfy themselves of its being American, who, as well as any passengers of other nations they may have on board, shall go free, both them and their goods; and the said two men shall not exact any thing, on pain of being severely punished, In case a slave escapes, and takes refuge on board an American vessel of war, he shall be free, and no demand shall be made either for his restoration or for payment.
"ART. 11-as it now is. When a vessel of war of the United States shall enter the port of the Gouletta, she shall be saluted with twentyone guns, which salute the vessel of war shall return, gun for gun
time when it was hardly known in this country, that we possessed a navy, our commerce was conducted in the Mediterranean without molestation, or even the apprehension of it.
only, and no powder will be given, as mentioned in the ancient eleventh article of this treaty, which is hereby annulled.
"ART. 12-as it now is. When citizens of the United States shall come within the dependencies of Tunis to carry on commerce there, the same respect shall be paid to them which the merchants of other nations enjoy; and if they wish to establish themselves within our ports, no opposition shall be made thereto; and they shall be free to avail themselves of such interpreters as they may judge necessary, without any obstruction, in conformity with the usages of other nations; and if a Tunisian subject shall go to establish himself within the dependencies of the United States he shall be treated in like manner. If any Tunisian subject shall freight an American vessel, and load her with merchandise, and shall afterwards want to unload, or ship them on board of another vessel, we shall not permit him, until the matter is determined by a reference of merchants, who shall decide upon the case, and after the decision, the determination shall be conformed to.
"No captain shall be detained in port against his consent, except when our ports are shut for the vessels of all other nations, which may take place with respect to merchant vessels, but not to those of
"The subjects and citizens of the two nations, respectively, Tunisians and Americans, shall be protected in the places where they may be, by the officers of the government there existing; but, on failure of such protection, and for redress of every injury, the party may resort to the chief authority in each country, by whom adequate protection and complete justice shall be rendered. In case the government of Tunis shall have need of an American vessel for its service, such vessel being within the regency, and not previously engaged, the government shall have the preference, on its paying the same freight as other merchants usually pay for the same service, or at the like rate, if the service be without a customary precedent.
“ART. 14—as it now is. All vessels belonging to the citizens and inhabitants of the United States shall be permitted to enter the ports of the kingdom of Tunis, and freely trade with the subjects and inhabitants thereof, on paying the usual duties which are paid by other most favoured nations at peace with the regency. In like manner, all vessels belonging to the subjects and inhabitants of the kingdom of Tunis
The system, adopted with regard to the Corsair States, has done the greatest honour to the government, as well as to those brave and skilful men, who were entrusted with the execution of it.
shall be permitted to enter the different ports of the United States, and freely trade with the citizens and inhabitants thereof, on paying the usual duties which are paid by other most favoured nations at peace with the United States.
"Concluded, signed and sealed at the palace of Bardo, near Tunis, the 24th day of the moon jumed-teni, in the year of the Hegira 1239, corresponding with the 24th of February 1824, of the christian year and the 48th year of the independence of the United States, reserving the same, nevertheless, for the final ratification of the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Serrate. "S. D. HEAP, Chargé d'Affaires. "SIDI MAHMOUD'S signature and
RELATIONS WITH SOUTH AMERICAN STATES.
All Spanish America on Continent emancipated-Spain, Assyrian monarchy of modern times-Dismemberment awakens melancholy reflections-Writers too sanguine in regard to free governments— North American Revolution excited extravagant hopes-Difference between liberty and independence-England early had a project to emancipate South America--Miranda--Jesuits--Cooperation of United States sought-Letters of Miranda to Hamilton-Plan for emancipation-France, a similar scheme-1808, beginning of revolution-Oppressions of the colonies-Lord Wellington ordered to Spain instead of South America-Napoleon's designs on that continent-Instructions to his agent-Ignorance and apathy of the natives -Buenos Ayres made most rapid progress-Agents sent secretly by United States-Alarmed by movements of France and England— Transactions of this government with that continent-Agents from South America in this country-Not received-Tupac Amaru-Account of revolution in different provinces-Great vicissitudes as well as cruelties-Manifests of independence-Negotiations of colonies with mother country-Different motives in commencing revolution-Report of House of Representatives on negotiation-Ministers appointed-Obstacles to progress of revolution-Old Spaniards held all offices-All the capital-Nobility-Different races of men-Present state of republics-General boundaries-Spain protests feebly against recognition Appeals to Holy Alliance-Declaration of England— Treaties with Colombia and Guatimala-Congress of Panama-Account and discussion of that important business-Never held—General remarks on intercourse with South America-Present state of diplomatic relations-Brazil-Diplomatic relations.
Or the kingdom of the Indies in this quarter of the globe there still exists entire but a small remnant, composed of the islands of Cuba, Porto Rico and a portion of St. Domingo.
On the main land, the vast possessions of Spain are now wholly emancipated;-the Vice Royalties of Mexico, La Plata, Peru, and New Granada and the Captain Generalships of Chili, Caraccas and Guatimala have been merged or mouldered into the Republics of Peru, Chili, Mexico, Colombia, the United Provinces, and the federation of the centre of America.
This fatal dismemberment of the Assyrian monarchy of modern times cannot be viewed but, in some sort, with melancholy feelings. Whether the imagination is fascinated and bewildered by the splendid phraseology of the court of Castille and Arragon,-by the former extent of her possessions, spreading over the largest as well as the best portion of the globe, kingdoms constituting her colonies;-by the romantic enterprizes and achievements of Cortes in Mexico, of Pizarro in Peru, the first European adventurers, that penetrated, with success, into the Cordilleras of the new world, by the relation of the countless treasures, found in those countries ;-by the expeditions, undertaken in search of the "golden region," a mysterious territory, placed in the midst of the Andes, and holding the same rank in the fabulous history of modern times as that of the golden fleece of antiquity;-or by a sort of uncertain, undefined impression, that has always existed concerning the wealth of the mines of South America ;-at any rate, these considerations. have imparted a charm and interest to this continent, all must have deeply felt.
Many writers, looking at the single relation of colony and metropole, have expressed surprise, that the independence of the South American states should have been so long delayed, and have been betrayed into hasty and unreasonable complaints, that colonies, all over the world, did not immediately aspire to the distinction and privilege, long ago asserted and obtained by the northern portion of this hemisphere. There are, undoubtedly, certain accidents, or events that exercise a general, indirect influence, either in hastening, or retarding the developement of a great political change; but, after all, the revolution is substantially effected by the