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The Committee on Resolutions through its chairman, presented the following:

Resolved, That we, the members of the Ohio State Teachers' Association at this the fifty-first Annual Session held at the “Victory" Hotel, Put-inBay Island, take great pleasure in extending a hearty vote of thanks to all the railways of the State for having granted very liberal and satisfactory rates and excellent service to all our members, and likewise to the boat lines touching at this Island, for similar favors.

That our heartfelt thanks are especially due to the proprietors of the Victory Messrs. F. T. Peterson, the Landlord, and T. W. McCreary, General Agent, for surely "we have fared sumptuously every day” and cannot soon forget the many kind courtesies which have been so freely extended to us during our brief sojourn in this delightful resort, unsurpassed in its roomy accommodations.

Our thanks and congratulations to the Executive Committee for an excellent program, wisely conceived and successfully executed.

And we are more than thankful to Messrs. Gantvoort and Glover for haying wn us what surely we did not

know before, that “Goslings" can sing

and that too, delightfully: that by their efforts, sensible, and stirring song has been made for the first time a prominent feature of at our annual meeting. And moreover we do recommend to all managers of County Institutes in the State, that they adopt and put upon their programs this grand Rallying Sang “The Schools of Ohio" which has so often thrilled and inspired us, and the echoes of which will, it may be, linger in these walls until we come again.

Signed by

W. McK. Vance,

C. L. DICKEY. After the transaction of general business Dr. J. W. Bashford, president of the Ohio Wesleyan University, deliverad an address on The Orient and the Occident.

A motion prevailed that E. A. Jones of Massillon be sent as a delegate to the State Library Association which will convene at Dayton the coming winter.

After the singing of the doxology the president declared the Association adjourned to meet at the call of the executive committee.

E. D. LYON, Secretary.
O. T. CORSON, President.


Inaugural Address of J. W. ZELLER, President of the Department of Superintendence,

On the pages of the closing chapter of the history of the 19th century, will be written with double emphasis the declaration so often made by our fathers, that general intelligence and virtue are essential to the full develop

ment, maintenance, and perpetuity of our Republican institutions; and that "a well-instructed people alone can be a free people.”

On the pages of the opening chapter of the history of the 20th century will


be recorded the statement that we have, in a degree, failed in the development of a wise and intelligent citizenship, and that the State must do more in the future than she has in the past looking toward a more vital and 1 more general diffusion of knowledge.

That the State in her relation to education has not kept pace with our marvelous material development needs no argument. The need of the hour is not to search for new principles or new theories, but to hold to the old, to iterate and reiterate them, and to give them a broader and more effective interpretation and development by wise legislation.

We must ever hold to the old, but wise and sacred doctrine that ours is a government based upon the intelligence of the many, and not the few, that the basis of our institutions is the intelligence, integrity, and loyalty of our whole citizenship, that without intelligent and upright citizenship we cannot have intelligent and just laws, - laws that will be commensurate with the needs of a great and progressive people, that wise and intelligent citizenship leads to the enactment and enforcement of wise laws and that these in their turn contribute much to real and permanent social, industrial, and moral progress.

I am proud of the fact that in our whole Union there is not a state whose teachers are characterized by a greater educational zeal and professional spirit than ours, none superior to Ohio in the quality and devotion of its teachers; but I am humiliated to confess that there is no state in the Union inferior to ours in its educational system of rural schools. The astounding fact is that the cause and source of this weakness is known and has been known for years. It is the old, old story so often repeated. Our country schools in which are enrolled half of all

youth are, as a rule, without either organization, system, or supervision, and hcir teachers without professional training; and without

the opportunity of professional training. The great State of Ohio, great in her natural resources, great in the quality of her people, great in her military achievements, great in her statesmanship, great in everything except the efficiency of her rural schools, is the only state west of the Hudson without a system of professional training schools, and without supervision of her country schools.

That the highest educational interests of fifty per cent of our youths are suffering, and will continue to suffer in an increased measure because of this state of affairs is so evident to the thoughtful man that it needs no discussion. Dr. White saw it when Commissioner of Common Schools in 1866, and formulated and recommended a bill for the establishment of State Normal Schools. His successor, Com. Norris, saw it; and his successor, Com. W. D. Henkle saw it, and Com. T. W. Harvey, one of the greatest friends of our rural schools, saw even then, in 1874, that the schools in the township districts had not kept pace with those of the towns and cities. We all have seen their inefficiency since that time. The Committee on Condition of Education in Ohio, in its able and extended report made at Toledo last year saw the chaos and inefficiency of these schools, and pointed them out. The chairman of one department said: “There is a serious lack of professional training." And after noting other serious imperfections said: “Some things ought to be settled definitely, and not be kept floating about in the sea of theory and aimless discussion." The chairman of the other department said: - "The most pressing need of our rural schools is supervision.” The members of this



association were not surprised by the results reported and conclusions reached. Some of them were prised somewhat that it made no recommendations and offered no remedy. We have discussed and cussed, bewailed and bemoaned this mongrel system, or more correctly speaking, this want of system of our country schools for more than a quarter of a century, and yet we have done nothing, or but little in all these years to correct this great weakness, a weakness which is affecting half of all the youth of Ohio. The Workman Law was a step in the right direction, but a weak and small step.

As already stated Dr. White in 1866 as Commissioner prepared and recommended a bill for the establishment of State Normal Schools. Then the “General Assembly had opened the way for the adoption of an adequate system of normal schools for the teachers of the state, but owing to divided counsels in the profession the long-coveted opportunity was permitted to pass unimproved and has never returned."

The friends of this policy have also been told that the State was too poor to establish and maintain State Normal Schools and we have been foolish enough to believe it. I believed it for years. The great State of Ohio, with all her varied natural resources and varied industries and ingenious and thrifty people too poor to establish and maintain


professional training schools!! It is a libel on our great State and I shall make the man who urges that objection again in my presence thoroughly ashamed of himself if in my power so to do.

In view of the fact that a large majority of our teachers are without even the opportunity of professional training, and the fact that skilled workmen are essential to improvement in every department of human endeavor, especially in ours, it is evident that one remedy for our rural school problem is the establishment of State training schools whose purpose shall be the training and fitting of teachers, and located with the view of carrying the opportunity and the spirit of such training as near as possible to the doors of our army of 15,000 rural teachers. The establishment of pedagogical chairs in our State colleges is but a drop in the bucket. Even if made a success, they would never touch the heart of the great problem the professional training of our 15,000 rural teachers; and right here I shall take the liberty to say what many public school

have only thought, perhaps for want of opportunity to say it, that in my judgment, the $180,000 appropriated annually by the General Assembly to the Ohio State University, would return much greater and much wiser results to the State if appropriated toward the establishment and maintenance of State Normal Schools. We have, at least, half a dozen able and well equipped private colleges and universities in the



The State Normal School idea as one remedy for our weakness has been discussed and ably advocated during all the years since that time. The President of the General Association ably and forcibly advocated their establishment from this platform two years ago. The friends of the policy of these State training schools have been put off from time to time by the statement that our private normal schools could and would provide this much-needed professional training. But we now know that they have not and will not furnish anything like an adequate professional training; from the very nature of the case these schools will continue to devote the greater part of their time and enery to academic instruction.


state which have furnished and will continue to furnish adequate means for academic instruction, and preparation for the various professions. I seriously question the propriety and wisdom of the State to enter into competition with these private institutions of higher learning. These institutions have pioneered, blazed the way, and popularized higher education and have kept pace with the demands of a great and progressive people. Every true and thoughtíul American deplores the fact that in this democratic republic there is being developed an aristocracy of caste and an aristocracy of capital, and the tendency now is toward an aristocracy of culture. The centralization of all the educational forces in one great towering institution tends towards the development of an aristocracy of culture, and is not in harmony with the genius of our civil and poiitical institutions.

I, therefore, would have five State Normal schools located within easy reach and the vitalizing touch of all our people. I stand in a twofold sense where the President of the General Association stood two years ago when he said: - "I give utterance to the hope that the pedagogical chair now being established in our Ohio Sta e University may receive such development as will ultimately bring it into a pedagogical school, equal in resources and equipment and rank to any of the schools of law or medicine." I would have this department constitute the fifth and central pedagogical school of the State and have it of a higher grade than the other training schools. But professional training schools is not the first and most important remedy for our country school problem. Training and skill without system and supervision will avail but little.

That our country schools should have supervision no thoughtful school man will deny. Earnest and repeated efforts were made to secure county supervision during the two decades from 1865 to 1885, but without success. We compromised in 1890 and asked for the Workman Law. Six years of trial has shown its weakness, the greatest of which is its permissive character, its “Boards of Education may.” A second weakness is the size of its educational unit. Even we could have held it intact, the report of the Committee on Condition of Education indicated that its supervision feature in four years was very slow and that the fifth year "the ratio of increase in supervision was actually diminishing." Without multiplying words, this law in its relations to supervision, judged by the results of the whole state is a failure. This same report proves however that wherever supervision has been fairly tried the results have been very beneficial, greatly increasing the efficiency of the rural schools.

The greatest objertion urged against county supervision is the size of its educational unit; but in the light of the results of the Workman

and the growing effective

of county supervision in our sister states this objection is losing ground, and I believe that a fair and impartial investigation of the results of county supervision would unify the school men of Ohio in its favor.




I again stand where the President of the General Association stood two years ago when he advocated the establishment of a permanent Educational Commission, as a means to “bring to

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bear right influences upon the solution of these questions." I surmise that he drew his inspiration from and based his convictions on the Massachusetts State Board of Education. I base mine on the State Board of Education of Indiana, its history and influence as an educational agent. I find that the first Board was created in 1852, and consisted of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, Auditor, and AttorneyGeneral; that this board remained merely a board of State officers "but little interested in and conversant with educational affairs and exerting no appreciable influence, till 1865, when the membership was constituted as at present” consisting of the Governor of the State, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, two University Presidents, the President of the State Normal Schools, and three Superintendents of the three largest city schools. This Board, a board made up of professional educators since 1865, a board independent of politics, “has been a valuable agent” in the educational progress of Indiara, and a valuable agent at the weakest point of its educational system

its country schools.

County supervision was established in 1873, eight years after the creation of this board, and from the information obtained this State Board of Education was the potent agent that brought about State Normal Schools, County Supervision, State Boards of Education, these are the three organized agencies that have been successfully employed in other states to improve the rural schools, and why should they not work out the same and even greater results in Ohio? The logical ord of establishment should be, State Board of Education, County Supervision, State Normal Schools.

This is the question that should command our time and attention. “The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars but in ourselves, that we are underlings.” For a quarter of a century we have bowed to our Cæsar, called individualism and diffusive policy of our people. I quote from the President's address of this department of two years ago.

“Individualism has indeed been the key of our schools. Our policy has been quite diffusive. Our schools have been exceedingly democratic. We have unswervingly adhered to the principle of local control. Each community has been a law unto itself. . . And the educational reformer in Ohio who seeks to change the character and thought and purposes of our people must early learn to reckon with his host or fail most dismally."

These declarations fairly illustrate the sentiments expressed by Ohio educators for a quarter of a century, and should be iterated and re-iterated, and held in mind when we come to "reckon with our host;" but here we have stopped, bowed submissively to the idol of diffusive individualism, and bewailed our fate.

I do not mean to say that nothing has been accomplished to improve our schools;

many improvements have been made; but if the indomitable energy, unflagging interest, and wise policy that characterized our Commissioner of Common Schools the last six years, had been re-enforced by the organized agencies named above, tenfold more would have been accomplished for our rural schools. en if his energetic and vigorous policy were continued, it would require three generations to secure supervision of all

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