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ican Boundary Reports and the many elements of its best scientific Pacific Railroad Reports and other development. sources; and in this ninth Pacific Later, along with a high literary Railroad Report there

set art, other similar and excellent forth in the year 1859 the first great works have followed, establishing systematic arrangement of our the American ornithologist union birds. In 1874, in connection with era. Mr. Robert Ridgway, uponi Dr. Brewer (since dead) and Mr. whom the mantle of Prof. Baird Robert Ridgway (now curator of has largely fallen has published his birds in the Smithsonian Institu- "Manual”, raking the field of North tion), he published a large work of American Birds extending well inthree volumes on “The Birds of to Mexico, and in a more popular North America"; and popular or- way Mr. Frank Chapman has pronithology – except for the ex- duced a pocket manual of our eastpense had come unto its own. ern birds so that he who wishes

In the meantime there may read the birds as he runs. growing up another young or- Over the broad land a host of nithologist, who, in the humble es- other writers, led by Burroughs, timation of the writer, has founded Torrey, Mrs. Miller, etc., are eduthe last ornithological epoch of the cating the people to the delights of century by the publication of his bird study and bird preservation till "Key to North American Birds." the interest is such now that it was At first (1872) this was a crude but stated on the floor of the congress worthy attempt to enable any one that 50.000 volumes of these poputo identify a specimen in hand, but lar works were sold, within the last in successive editions it has devel- year, in the cities of Boston, New oped into a brilliant success. York and Philadelphia. This little

From 1875 popular bird study sketch is for the benefit of those has had placed in its hands -- real- who may like to know something ly a key to the mysteries of the sci- of the evolution of the impending ence, and the American world interest in birds which must culopened its eyes and looked out of minate in their better protection in its windows with a new interest in- every way—but chiefly by groundto a new realm of delight.

ing a love for them in the hearts From 1872 to 1884 I should call of the people -- especially the puthe Couesian Epoch because the pils of the schools. The next perfection of this key by Dr. El- epoch in ornithology, beginning liott Coues placed American or- with the new century, will be the nithology upon a new footing science taught in our curriculum grounded in the interests of the and made a factor of our economics masses, and brought to it, besides, and our ethics.

HELPS, HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS.

PROGRAM FOR LA FAYETTE CELE- school exercises to have as many BRATION.

pupils as possible take part. Prepared by Margaret W. Sutherland.

The song “Hurrah for the In regard to the following pro- Schools of Ohio" may also be found gram there are a few explanations in the September number of the to be made. At the date of the

MONTHLY; but if any number of preparation of the program, the copies are desired, send order to the proclamations of the President and John Church Co., Cincinnati, O. Governor have been promised but The remainder of the program not issued. Teachers will be able needs no explanation. It is arto secure them from the newspa- ranged for ungraded schools or for

, pers after their publication. The

grammar grades of town and city article on La Fayette might not schools, altho parts of it may be have been arranged and printed used in primary grades. However, as it is, had the MONTHLY not on such occasions there is so little known that many of its most faith- that is valuable that is very thorful subscribers have not access to oughly adapted to little children an Encyclopedia, and consequently that it is much better to assemble need more than a suggestion as to all pupils of the building together where to find material. It would be where possible and have general well to share the reading of the exercises. article between two pupils.

PROGRAM FOR OCTOBER 19, 1898. For the essay on “The Battle of Yorktown" the pupil may consult

Song — The Star Spangled Ban

ner. School. any histories to which he has access.

Reading of Proclamation of the It was thought well considering President of United States. that our Nation had just passed Reading of Proclamation of the through a great crisis and had again Governor of the State. before it the blessings of peace to

Reading — La Fayette.

Concert Recitation The Fagive a little notice to that fact. It

therland. School. is advised, therefore, that the

Essay — The Battle of Yorkteacher select from "Important

town. Dates and Epigrams of the Recent

Important Dates and Epigrams War" in the September number of

of the Recent War. (Recited by

different boys.) the OHIO EDUCATIONAL MONTHLY

Recitation—The Peace Autumn. some items to be given by different Song - Hurrah for the Schools pupils. It is always good in any of Ohio. School.

Declamation - La Fayette. including the evacuation of New Noted Sayings.

York. La Fayette's friends again

. Declamation – Liberty Enlight

Liberty Enlight- advised him to abandon his purpose. ening the World. Recitation - Vive La France.

So far from being discouraged by Collection of Contributions to

these difficulties La Fayette proward Monument.

ceeded to purchase a ship on his Hymn — America.

own account, and to invite such of

his friends as were willing to share LA FAYETTE.

his fortunes. Although an attempt [Adapted from the Encyclopedia Britannica. To be read by one of the older pupils.)

was made by the British to seize his Marie Jean Paul Roch Yves Gil

ship and he himself was arrested, bert Motier, Marquis de La Fayette La Fayette escaped and set sail for was born at Auvergne, France, Sep- America. He effected a safe landtember 6, 1757.

ing near Georgetown in South CarLa Fayette was nineteen years of olina and hastened to Philadelphia. age and a captain of dragoons when When this lad of nineteen, with the English colonies in America

the command of only what little proclaimed their independence. “At English he had been able to pick the first news of this quarrel,” he

up on his voyage, presented himself afterwards wrote in his memoirs, to the Congress of the Revolution, "my heart was enrolled in it." The

then sitting in Philadelphia, with Count de Broglie, whom he con- Deane's authority to demand a comsulted, discouraged his zeal for the mission of the highest rank after cause of liberty. “I have seen your the commander-in-chief, it is not uncle die in the wars of Italy; I surprising that his reception seemed witnessed your father's death at the to him a little chilly. La Fayette battle of Minden; and I will not be appreciated the situation as soon as accessory to the ruin of the only it was explained to him, and immeremain branch of the family." diately addressed a note to the presFinding his purpose unchangeable, ident of Congress, in which he exhowever, the count presented the pressed his desire to be permitted to young enthusiast to the Baron de serve in the American army upon Kalb, who was also seeking service two conditions, that he sliould in America, and through Deane, an receive no pay, and that he should American agent in Paris, an ar- act as a volunteer. These terms rangement was concluded, Decem

were so different from those made ber 7, 1776, by which La Fayette by other foreigners, they had been was to enter the American service attended with such substantial sacas major-general. At this critical rifices, and they promised such submoment the news arrived of a series stantial indirect advantages, that of disasters to the American arms, Congress had no hesitation in pass

ing a resolution, on the thirty-first much to be said. Though the comof July, 1777, "that his services be mander of a division, he never had accepted, and that, in consideration the command of many troops, and of his zeal, illustrious family, and whatever military talents he posconnections, he have the rank and sessed were not of the kind which commission of major-general of the appeared to conspicuous advantage United States." Next day La Fa- on the theatre to which his wealth yette met Washington, who invited and family influence rather than his him to make the quarters of the soldierly gifts had called him. He commander-in-chief his own, and fought at the battle of Monmouth to consider himself at all times as in 1778, and received from Conone of his family. This invitation, gress a formal recognition of his as useful as it was flattering to the services in the field, and of his probyoung officer, was joyfully accepted, ably more valuable exertions in and thus commenced a friendship healing dissensions between the which only death terminated. French and the native officers. His

The fall of Philadelphia was one retreat from Barren Hill was also of the immediate results of the bat- commended as masterly. tle of Brandywine on the eleventh The treaty of commerce and of of September. This was the first defensive alliance, signed by the inbattle in which La Fayette was en- surgents and France on the sixth gaged, and in an attempt to rally of February, 1778, was promptly his troops in their retreat he had followed by a declaration of war by the good fortune to receive a mus- England against the latter, and La ket ball in his leg. We say good Fayette felt it to be his duty to ask fortune, for it doubtless secured him leave to revisit France and consult what of all things in the world he his king as to the farther direction most desired, the command of a of his services. This leave was readdivision. Barely twenty years of ily granted; it was not difficult for age, he found himself invested with Washington to replace the majora most honorable rank, purchased general, but it was impossible to by his blood in fighting at once to

find another equally competent, insecure the independence of a strange fluential, and devoted champion people and to punish the enemies of

of the American cause

near the his own. He had justified the boy- court of Louis XVI. In fact, ish rashness which his friends de- he went

a mission rather plored and his sovereign resented, than a visit. He embarked in Janand had already acquired a place in uary 1779, and on the fourth of history.

March following Franklin wrote to Of La Fayette's military career the president of Congress: “The in the United States there is not Marquis de La Fayette, who dur

on

nor

ing his stay in France has been ex- Our purpose is not to consider tremely zealous on all occasions, La Fayette's life except in its relareturns again to fight for it. He tion to the United States, so we pass is infinitely esteemed and beloved over the period from 1784 to 1824, here, and I am persuaded will do at which date he again returned to everything in his power to merit a America to be overwhelmed with continuance of the same affection popular applause and to be voted from America."

the sum of $200,000 and a township La Favette was absent from of land. He died at Paris, May 20. America about six months, and his

1834. return was the occasion of a coni

No citizen of a foreign country plimentary resolution of Congress. has ever had so many and such From this time until October, 1781, warm admirers in America, he was charged with the defence of does any statesman in France apVirginia, in which Washington pear to have ever possessed unintergave him the credit of doing all that ruptedly for so many years so large was possible with the forces at his a measure of popular influence and disposal; and he showed his zeal respect. He was brave even to by borrowing money from the rashness; his life was one of conbankers in Baltimore on his own stant personal peril, and yet he account to provide his soldiers withi never shrank from any danger or necessaries. The battle of York- responsibility if he saw the way town, in which La Fayette bore an open to spare life or suffering, to honorable if not distinguished part, protect the defenceless, to sustain was the last serious trouble of the the law and preserve order. war, and terminated his military career in the United States. He

THE FATHERLAND. immediately sought and obtained leave to return to France, where it

Where is the true man's fatherland? was supposed he might be useful in

Is it where he by chance is born? the negotiations looking to a gen- Doth not the yearning spirit scorn eral peace, of which prospects had In such scant borders to be begun to dawn.

spanned? He visited the United States in

() yes! his fatherland must be

As the blue heaven wide and free! 1784, to gratify his curiosity as well as his affections, and while he re- Is it alone where freedom is, mained -- some five months -- was

Where God is God and man is man? the guest of the nation, and received

Doth he not claim a broader span

For the soul's love of home than every mark of public and private

this? consideration which his hosts sup

( yes! his fatherland must be posed would be acceptable.

As the blue heaven wide and free!

BY JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL.

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