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Years.

1822

* 1823

SHIPS THAT ENTERED THE HARBOURS OF
1. LONDON.

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BRITISH.

Ships.

3230

3031

1824 3132

1825 3989

1826 3495

1827

4012

1828

4084

1829 4108

1830

3910

1831

4140

Years.

Ships.

1822

696

• 1823

779

1824

776

1825

1175

1826

724

1827 984

1828

866

1829

889

1830

906

1831

989

Tons.

603,167

611,411

607,106

BRITISH.

789,565

675,026

769,102

767,212

784,070

744,229

780,988

Years. Ships.
1822

* 1823
1824

1825

1826

1827

1828

1829

1830

1831

Tonnage.

139,728

154,058

142,615

228,204

131,924

191,734

1554

1531

1387

1442

1652

1487

1655

1862

Thus, while the British vessels annually entering the port of London have only increased, since 1822, from 3230 to 4140, that is, a third, and their tonnage from 611,00 to 780,000, or a sixth; the foreign vessels annually entering have increased from 597 to 1557, or nearly tripled, while their tounage has increased from 106,000 to 269,000, or twice and a half.

157,686

166,209

166,263

189,388

BRITISH.

2. HULL.

Tonnage.

1263 261,137

1459 296,710

327,198

315,115

299,037

306,369

340,644

326,311

368,268

413,928

Ships.

597

865

1643

1743

1586

1534

1303

1300

1268

1567

3. LIVERPOOL.

Ships.

106

205

510

1000

854

801

676

603

550

725

Foreign.

Tons.

106,099

161,705

264,098

302,122

Ships.

699

798

702

863

680

810

660

811

1055

978

215,254

221,008

195,929

215,605

Thus, while the British shipping entering the port of Hull has increased, since 1822, from 696 to 989, or a third nearly, and the tonnage from 139,000 to 189,000, or about the same; the foreign ships have increased from 106 to 725, or multiplied nearly SEVENFOLD, and their tonnage swelled from 14,000 to 73,000, or nearly sixFOLD.

207,500

269,159

FOREIGN.

Tonnage.
14,165

26,355

58,603

100,773

70,137

72,386

60,283

58,854

51,015

73,547

FOREIGN.

Tonnage.

174,607

199,688

174,503

222,187

181,907

231,863

179,514

210,713

272,463

265,037

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to foretell what, in a given time, must be the result of such a progress.

But this is not all. From the table quoted below, it appears that the vessels belonging to the United Kingdom have actually declined in the ten years since the reciprocity system began; that the decline in shipping belonging to the European trade has been very considerable; and that it is the great increase of vessels for the Colonial trade, where the reciprocity system is not yet applied, which alone has prevented the decay over the whole empire from being still more alarming; and this lamentable result has taken place, at the very time when our exports and imports have increased so immensely, that if they had been carried on as heretofore mainly in British bottoms, our shipping should have increased a half during the same time!

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Ships.

1821 21,969
1822 21,238

1823 21,042
1824 21,280
1825 20,701 2,328,807

2,302,867
2,348,314

2,411,611
2,181,138

1826 20,968
1827 19,524
1828 19,646
1829 19,110

2,193,300
2,199,959

1830 19,174

1831 19,450

2,201,592
2,224,356
2,260,980 4,771

1832

19,681

1826

1827

British islands have increased fully a half, while their shipping has actually declined! The immense difference must have been carried out and in from the empire somehow ; and if we turn to the column exhibiting the growth of foreign tonnage entering the British harbours during the same time, we find that it has more than doubled, having risen from 433,000 tons to 896,000 tons annually. This is a most lamentable result. From this it appears that the increase of our exports and imports, so far from adding to, is actually diminishing our strength; that it is carried on in foreign bottoms; and that while the vast increase of our manufactured exports has not added one ton or vessel to the British naval strength, it is augmenting that of our enemies in a most fearful progression; at a rate greater than the British shipping increased even during the most prosperous period of the war.‡

VESSELS BELONGING TO THE BRITISH EMPIRE.
UNITED KINGDOM AND POSSESSIONS IN

COLONIES.

EUROPE.

'Tons.

2,449,629 2,355,853

Ships. Tons.

3,384 204,564

3,404 203,641

3,500 203,893
3,496 211,273

3,579 214,875
3,657 224,183

3,675 279,362

4,449 324,891
4,343 317,041

4,547 330,227
4,792 357,608

356,208

Exports.

Imports.
L.31,484, 108
29,724,173

L.49,343,051
50,796,982

1822

39,401,264

52,770,416

* 1823

34,591,263

51,733,461

1824

36,141,339 58,218,633

1825 42,661,054 55,618,327

36,069,999 50,401,292

43,467,747

61,082,695

1828 43,396,527

61,957,805

1829

42,311,648

66,072,163

1830

44,815,397

69,028,423

1831 48,161,661 70,820,066

Ships.

25,036

24,642

24,542

24,776

24,280

24,625 23,199

24,095

23,453

23,721 24,242

24,655

British Shipping.

2,560,203

2,519,044

2,506,769

2,559,587

2,553,682

2,635,644

2,460,500

2,517,000

2,531,819

2,581,964

2,617,638

TOTAL.

Tons.

2,560,203 2,519,044

2,506,769

2,559,587

2,553,682

2,635,644

2,460,500

2,518,191

2,517,000

2,531,819

2,581,964

2,617,638

Foreign Shipping. Outward. Tons.

433,329

383,784

457,542

563,571

746,707

905,520

695,440

767,821

608,118

730,250

758,368

896,051

From 1792 to 1800, under the unparalleled stimulus of the war, the British tonnage increased only from 1,540,000, tons to 1,905,000, or a little more than a fourth; but the foreign shipping, in a similar period, under the fostering hand of the reciprocity system, has increased from 433,000 tons to 896,000, or more than doubled. The command of the ocean, and the monopoly of the trade of the world, could only do a quarter as much for our own navy in eight years of war, as the reciprocity system has done for our enemies in eight years of peace.

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British.
Tons.

Foreign
Tons.

Years.
1820 29,490

159,418

1821 28,411

140,776

1822 73,853

156,054

1823 63,606 165,609

153,475

1824 44,994 1825 38,943 1826 47,711 151,765

196,863

1827 73,204 217,535 1828 80,158 138,174 1829 61,343

162,327

1830 65,130

214, 166

1831 91,787

229,869

VOL. XXXV, NO. CCXXI.

37,956

48,325

48,666

43,069

58,243

59,734

63,131

71,911

65,498

63,566

72,895

Now, here is a progress which reminds us of the prosperous days of the British Empire. Here are various branches of trade carried on with our own colonies, and, of course, entirely in British vessels, in which the growth of our mercantile navy has been really prodigious. In twelve years the tonnage employed in the trade to New Holland has multiplied TENFOLD: in the same time, that employed in the Canada trade, has risen from 340,000 to 500,000 tons, or nearly a fifth of the whole trade of the Empire. This is the state of our Colonial trade; growing rapidly and steadily in every quarter except the West In

AMERICA.

course with foreign states, and all the countries to which the reciprocity system applies; and that the deficiency has been solely made up by the vast increase of the colonial trade, which hitherto fortunately has been preserved entire from the modern system. A few returns will at once demonstrate this important fact.

East Indies.

Tons.

70,348

41,588

The following table exhibits the growth of our colonial shipping and tonnage from 1820 to 1831.

PRUSSIA.

Canada.

Tons.

343,377

337,446

356,448

401,669

427,832

British.

Tons.

87,451

79,590

102,847

81,202

94,664

189,214

119,060

150,718

489,844

472,588

359,793

400,841

431,901

452,397

480,236

504,211

dies-a portion of the British empire, in which it has actually fallen off; the insane and oppressive policy so long pursued by our Government towards those splendid Colonies, having more than counterbalanced all the richest gifts of nature, -a virgin soil, a tropical sun, luxuriant vegetation, and scenery of almost fabulous beauty.

133,753

125,918

102,758

83,908

Contrast this striking and gratifying result with the working of the reciprocity system in the three countries which Mr Huskisson specified, as affording the inductive cause of the change of system, viz. America, Prussia, and the Netherlands :

West Indies. Tons.

240,510

245,321

232,426

233,790

244,971

232,357

243,448

243,721

272,800

263,338

253,872

249,079

229,117

Foreign.

Tons.

60,450

37,720

58,270

86,013

151,621

182,752

120,589

109,184

99,195

127,861

139,646

140,532

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Thus, it appears, that the reciprocity system, introduced, as Mr Huskisson stated, under the threat of retaliatory measures from Prussia, has had the effect of diminishing the British tonnage employed in the trade with that country, from 87,000 tons annually to 83,000, and of increasing the Prussian from 60,000 in 1820, to 140,000 in 1831. The Netherlands exhibited the same result till 1830; the British shipping having only increased during that time from 70,000 tons to 117,000, that is, somewhat more than a half; whereas the foreign had increased from 43,000 to 97,000, or more than doubled. Since the Revolution of 1830, almost the whole trade of the Netherlands has fallen into the hands of the British; a memorable instance of the insanity of manufacturing demagogues in urging on the adoption

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† 1810 1811

1812

Colonies. 248

275

209

243

342

536

588

529

464

416

367

376

This Table is highly instructive as to the working of the reciprocity system. It thence appears, that while the imports of the empire have increased, since 1820, a half, and the exports have risen in the same proportion, the ships annually built now are only a sixth greater in the British islands than at the commencement of that period, and, in fact, they are hardly so numerous at this time as they were twenty years ago, when our foreign trade was little more than half its present amount. This result is the more instructive as to

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L.30,171,000
37,613,000
25,840,000

69,028,000

70,820,000 76,071,000

the operation of the reciprocity system, because the ships built in the colonies during the same period have fully kept pace with the growth of our foreign trade, the quantity annually built in those distant possessions having increased from about 250 to 375, or just a half. If the ships built at home had kept pace with our foreign commerce, and not been depressed by some peculiar cause, instead of the quantity annually built being now 750, it would have been 1100.

We shall only add, that the num

The reciprocity was begun in 1820, by a separate regulation for America. See Mr Huskisson's Speech, June 6, 1823. Hansard, ix. 796.

Exports.

Ships Built.
685

870

760

Imports.

L.45,616,000 42,646,000

27,840,000

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