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Lat. 44. 45.
Libethrius where stood the statues of the Muses, and of the LIBRARII, among the ancients, were a sort of Liivrarii,
II nymphs surnamed Libethrides : a mountain probably copyists who transcribed in beautiful or at least legible Libiait.
conjoined with, or at least very near to, Helicon. characters, what bad been written by the notarii in
LIBITINA, in the Roman mythology, a goddess noies and abbreviatures.
the Egyptians. Osmanduas, king of Egypt, is said
pears rather to have been a depository of laws, char-
in the second of Esdras to have been built by Nehemiali,
tyrant Pisistratus; and yet Strabo refers the honour
ed by Xerxes into Persia, and was afterwards brought LIBRA, in Astronomy, one of the 12 signs of the back by Seleucus Nicanor to Athens. Long after, zodiac, and exactly opposite to Aries; so called be- it was plundered by Sylla, and re-established by Hacause when the sun is in this sign at the autumnal drian. Plutarch says, that under Eumenes there was equinox, the days and nights are equal as if weighed a library at Pergamus, containing 200,000 books. Tyin a balance. The stars in this constellation according rannian, a celebrated grammarian, cotemporary wiih to Ptolemy are 17, Tycho 19, Hevelius 20, and Flam- Pompey, had a library of 30,000 volumes. That of
Ptolemy Philadelphus, according to A. Gellius, contain. LIBRA also denotes the ancient Roman pound, bor- ed 700,000, all in rolls, burnt by Cæjar's soldiers. rowed from the Sicilians, who called it litra.
Constantine, and his successors, erected a magnificent
tained 300,000 volumes, all burnt by order of Leo
of the libraries of Paulus Æmilius, who conquered Per-
that of the Vatican, in 1450. It was destroyed by
of is written LABOR ABSQUE LABORE ; though it is now
Library. exceeded by that of the French king, begun by Fran. bers, and others : that of St Paul's, of Sion college ; Liban
cis I. augmented by Cardinal Richelieu, and completed the Queen's library, erected by Queen Caroline in by M. Colbert.
1737; and the Surgeons library, kept in their ball in libye The emperor's library at Vienna, according to Lam- the Old Bailey, &c. becius consists of 80,000 volumes, and 15,940 curious In Edinburgh there is a good library belonging to medals.
the university, well furnished with books; but it is deThe Bodleian library at Oxford, built on the foun. ficient in a catalogue. There is also a noble library of dation of that of Duke Humphrey, exceeds that of books and manuscripts belonging to the faculty of adany university in Europe, and even those of all the vocates. See ADVOCATE. The library belonging to sovereigns of Europe, except the emperor's and French the society of writers to the signet, although of less ex. king's, which are each of them older by 100 years. tent, yet in the judicious selection of the best books, It was first opened in 1602, and has since found a and the best editions, which by the attention of the sogreat number of benefactors ; particularly Sir Robert ciety are now kept in excellent order, is inferior to Cotton, Sir H. Savil, Archbishop Laud, Sir Kenelm none in the kingdom. Digby, Mr Allen, Dr Pococke, Mir Selden, and others. LIBRATION, in Astronomy, an apparent irregulaThe Vatican, the Medicean, that of Bessarion at Ve- rity of the moon's motion, whereby she seems to librate nice, and those just mentioned, exceed the Bodleian in about her axis, sometimes from the east to the west, and Greek manuscripts: which yet outdoes them all in ori. now and then from the west to the east. See Astroental manuscripts.
NOMY Inder. As to printed books, the Ambrosian at Milan, and LIBURNIA, in Ancient Geography, a district of Ilthat of Wolfenbuttle, are two of the most famous, and lyricum, extending towards the Adriatic between Istria yet both inferior to the Bodleian.
on the west, Dalmatia on the east, and Mount Albius King's LIBRARY, at St James's was founded by on the north. Liburni, the people. The apparitors, Henry, eldest son of James I. and made op partly of who at the command of the magistrate summoned the books, and partly of manuscripts, with many other people from the country, were called Liburni, because curiosities, for the advancement of learning. It has generally men of Liburnia.-Liburna, or Liburnica, received many additions from the libraries of Isaac (Horace), denoted a kind of light and swift skill, ed Casaubon and others.
by the Liburnians in their sea-roving or piracies, for Cottonian Library, originally consisted of 958 vo- which they were noted. Liburnum (Juvenal), was a lumes of original charters, grants, instruments, letters species of litter made in form of Liburnian skiffs, of sovereign princes, transactions between this and other wherein the noblemen of Rome were carried, and wbere kingdoms and states, genealogies, histories, registers of they sat at their ease either reading or writing. monasteries, remains of Saxon laws, the book of Gene- LIBURNUS, in Ancient Geography, a mountain of sis, thought to be the most ancient Greek copy extant, Campania. Also a port of Tuscany. Now Livorna, and said to have been written by Origen in the second or Leghorn. E. Long. 11. N. Lat. 43. 30. century, and the curious Alexandrian copy or manu- LIBYA, in general, according to the Greeks, de. script in Greek capitals. This library is kept in the noted Africa. An appellation derived from lub, British Museum, with the large and valuable library "thirst," being a dry and thirsty country. See Africa. of Sir Hans Sloane, amounting to upwards of 42,000 LIBYA, in a more restrained sense, was the middle volumes, &c. There are many public libraries be- part of Africa, extending north and west, (Pliny); Jonging to the several colleges at Oxford and Cam. between the Mediterranean to the north, and Ethiopia bridge, and the universities in North Britain. The to the east: and was twofold, the Hither or Exterior principal public libraries in London, beside that of the Libya ; and the Further or Interior. The former lay Museum, are those of the College of Heralds, of the between the Mediterranean on the north, and the Far. College of Physicians, of Doctors Commons, to which ther Libya and Ethiopia beyond Egypt on the south, every bishop, at the time of his consecration, gives at (Ptolemy). The Farther or Interior Libya was a vasi least 201. sometimes 50l. for the purchase of books; country, lying between the Hither Libya on the north, those of Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Inner Temple, the Atlantic ocean on the west, the Ethiopic on the and Middle Temple; that of Lambeth, founded by south, and Ethiopia, beyond Egypt on the east, (Pro- . Archbishop Bancroft in 1610, for the use of succeeding lemy). archbishops of Canterbury, and increased by the bene. LIBYA, in a still more restrained selse, called, for factions of Archbishops Abbot
, Sheldon, and Tennison, distinction's sake, Libya Propria, was a northerr diand said to consist of at least 15,000 printed books, and strict of Africa, and a part of the Hither Libya ; situ617 volumes in manuscript; that of Red-Cross street, ated between Egypt to the cast, the Mediterranean to founded by Dr Daniel Williams, a Presbyterian divine, the north, the Syriis Major and the Regio Tripoliand since enriched by many private benefactions ; that tana to the west, the Garamantes and Ethiopia beof the Royal Society, called the Arundelian or Norfolk yond Egypt to the south. Now the kingdom and desert library, because the principal part of the collection of Barca. This Libya was again subdivided into Libya formerly belonged to the family of Arundel, and was taken in the strictest sense of all, and into Marmarica given to the Society by Henry Howard, afterwards and Cyrenaica. Libya in the strictest sense, otherwise duke of Norfolk, in 1666, which library has been in- the Exterior, was the most eastern part of Linja Precreased by the valuable collection of Francis Aston, pria, next to Egypt, with Marmarica on the west, the Esq. in 1715, and is continually increasing by the Mediterranean on the north, and the Nubi, now called numerous benefactions of the works of its learned mem. Nubia, to the south, (Ptolemy).
LICENSE, in Law, an authority given to a person they could not cultivate it with care, nor poll up the Licinius to do some lawful act.
useless shoots (stolones) that grow from the roots of trees. V LICENSER OF BOOKS, bas been an officer in almost He is memorable also for enacting, that one of the con- Liddel. every civilized country, till the close of the last century, suls should always be of a plebeian family. He lived when it was abolished in Great Britain. It has been about 362 B. B. proved by Beckmann, that such an office was established, LICNON, in the Dionysian solemnities, the mystical not only in the Roman empire, but also in the republic van of Bacchus ; a thing so essential to all the solemniand the states of Greece. All the copies of the works of ties of this god, that they could not be duly celebrated Protagoras which could be procured, were burnt at A. without it. See Dionysia. thens by the public crier, ard the satirical works of La- LICNOPHORI, in the Dionysian solemnities, those bienus shared the same fate under the reign of the empe- who carried the licnon. ror Augustus. Not long after the invention of printing, LICOLA, or LAGO DI LICOLA, a lake in the kingJaws were enacted for subjecting books to examination ; dom of Naples, formerly famous for plenty of excellent a regulation which was proposed even by Plato, and fish; but in the year 1538 an explosion of a volcano vehich many have since wished for. It appears that the changed one part of it into a mountain of ashes, and liberty of the press is only a modern privilege, and that the other into a morass. It was anciently known by it has not been enjoyed in its utmost latitude in
the name of the Lucrine lake.
LICONIA, a genus of plants belonging to the pent-
LICENTIATE, one who has obtained the degree LICTORS, among the Romans, were oslicers esta-
they always carried along with them. 2. Animadversio,
to rise up, uncover, make way, and the like. 3. Precompleted the seventh month of ber pregnancy ; but ilio, or walking before the magistrates: this they did not his father, being an ingenious physician, wrapped bim confusedly, or altogether, nor liy two or three abreast, up in cotton, and nurtured him so, that he lived to be but singly, following one another in a straight line, 57 years of
He was trained with great care, and They also preceded the triumphal car in public triumphs;
a dictator had twenty-four, a master of the horse six, a
LIDD. See LYDD.
LIDDEL, DR DUNCAN, professor of mathematics
university of Francfort, where he spent three years in LICHTENBURG, a town of Germany, in the a diligent application to mathematics and philosophy. circle of Franconia, and margrarate of Cullembach. From Francfort he proceeded to Wratislaw, or Breslaw, E. Long. 12. 0. N. Lat. 30. 26.
in Silesia, where he is said to have made uncommon pro-
LICHTENSTEIN, a town of Swisserland, in paying the most intense application to the study of prysie
the students were dispersed, and Liddel retired to the uni-
cæus, who, though an excellent mathematician, did not LICINIUS STOLO, a famous Roman tribune, scruple to confess that he was instructed by Liddel in the styled Stolo on account of a law he made, while tribune, more perfect knowledge of the Copernican system, and that no Roman citizen should possess more than 500 other astronomical questions. In is go le returned once acres of land ; alleging, that when they occupied more, more to Francfort. But having there heard of the in
Liddel, creasing reputation of the Academia Julia, established at verge of it. The river here being pent up at the bridge is:
moved thither; and soon after his arrival was appointed of the water only is heard without being seen.
person you speak to has no right to know the trull,
, Hamburghi, 1607, 8vo. This per- or more properly where little or no inconveniency reformance is dedicated to King James VI. and is divided sults from the wani of conhdence in such cases; as into five books, viz. Introductio in totam liedicinam; where you tell a falschood to a madman for his own De Physinlog:a ; De Pathologiı; De Signorum doctri- advantage; to a robber, to conceal your property; lo na; De Therapeutic. 3. De Febribus Libri tres, Ham- an assassin, to defeat or to divert him from his purpose. burghi, 1610, 12mo. 4. Tractatus de dente aureo, It is upon this principle, that, by the laws of war, it Hamburghi, 1628, 12mo. This last performance Dr is allowed to deceive an enemy by feints, false colours, Liddel published in order to refute a ridiculous story spies, false intelligence, and the like; but, by no means, then current of a poor boy in Silesia, who, at seven in treaties, truces, signals of capitulation, or surrender: years of age, having lost some of his teetli, brought and the difference is, that the former suppose hostilities forth, to the astonishment of his parents, : new tooth to continue, the latter are calculated to terminale or susof pure gold. Jacobus Horstius, doctor and professor pend them. of niedicine in the Academin Juli, at the same time Many people indulge in serious discourse a habit of with our author, liad published a book, which he dedicated fiction and exaggeration, in the accounts they give of to the emperor Rudolphus Il. to prove that this won. themselves, of their acquaintance, or of the extraordiderful tooth was a prodigy sent from heaven to en- nary things which they have seen or beard; and so courage the Germans then at war with ihe Turks, and long as the facts they relate are indifferent, and their foretelling, from this golden tontii, the future victories narratives though false are inoflensive, it may seem a of the Christians, with the final destruction of the superstitions regard to truth to censure them merely Turkish empire and Mahometan faith, and a return for truth's sake. Yet the practice ought to be check of the golden age in 1700, preparatory to the end of ed; for, in the first place, it is almost impossible to the world. The imposture was soon after discovered pronounce beforehand, with certainty, concerning any 1 to be a thin plate of gold, skilfully drawn over the na- lie that it is inofensive; or to say what ill consetural tooth by an artist of that country, with a view io
11 quences may result from a lie apparently inoffensive: excite the public armiration and charity. 5. Artis con- And, in the next place, the babit, when once formed, 1 servandi Sanitatem, libri duo, Aberduniæ, 1651, 12mo; is easily extended to serve the designs of malice or inu posthumons work.
terest; like all habits, it spreads indeed of itself. Pious LIDFORD, a village of Devonshire in England, si- frauds, as they are improperly enough called, pretendtuated on the river Lid, two or three miles east of Brent ed inspirations, forged books, counterfeit miracles, are Tor, was formerly a famous town, with a castle. It impositions of a more serious nature. It is pussible was much destroyed by the Danes in 997. The vil- that they may sometimes, though seldom, have been lage is now small, but the lands in the parish are rich set up and encouraged with a design to do good: bus and fertile, the whole forest of Dartmore being in the the good they aim at requires that the belief of them
should be perpetual, which is hardly possible; and the they were obliged to do him all manner of service, as
detection of the fraud is sure to disparage the credit of if they were his domestics. He adus, this was formerly Les ail pretensions of the same nature. Christianity has called litigium servitium, and the person liige. In this
suffered more injury from this cause than from all other sense, the word is used, Leg. Edw. cap. 29. Judri causes put together.
sub tutela regis ligca debont esse; that is, wholly under
ception even of his sovereign; the other, by which he
In our old statutes lieges, and liege people, are
lim; 8 Henry VI. 14 Hen. VIII. &c. though private