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Lat. 44. 45.

Libethrius where stood the statues of the Muses, and of the LIBRARII, among the ancients, were a sort of Liivrarii,

II nymphs surnamed Libethrides : a mountain probably copyists who transcribed in beautiful or at least legible Libiait.

conjoined with, or at least very near to, Helicon. characters, what bad been written by the notarii in

LIBITINA, in the Roman mythology, a goddess noies and abbreviatures.
which presided over funerals. This goddess was the LIBRARY, an edilice or apartment destined for
same with the Venus infera or Epithymbia of the Greeks. holding a considerable number of books placed regular-
She has a temple at Rome, where was lodged a cer- ly on shelves; or the books themselves lodged in it.
tain piece of money for every person who died, wliose Some authors refer the origin of libraries to the
name was recorded in a resister called Libitinæ ratio. Hebrews; and observe, that the care these took for
This practice was established by Servius Tullius, in the preservation of their sacrel books, and the me-
order to obtain an account of the number of annual mory of what contained the actions of their ancestors,
deaths in the city of Rome, and consequently the rate became an example to other nations, particularly the
of increase or decrease of its inhabitants.

the Egyptians. Osmanduas, king of Egypt, is said
LIBITINARII, were undertakers whose office it to have taken the lint first; who according to Dio-
was to take care of funerals, prepare all things neces- dorus, had a library built in his palace, with this in-
ary upon this solemn occasion, and furnishi every ar- scription over the door, *YXHE IATPEION. Nor were
ticle required. They got their livelihood by this the Ptolemies, who reigned in the same country, less
gloomy business, and kept a number of servants to curious and magnificent in books.
perform the working part of the profession, such as The Scripture also speaks of a library of the kinge
the pollinctores, vespillones, &c. The nanie Libitinarü is of Persia, Ezra v. 17. vi. 1. which some imagine to
derived from Libitina, the goddess of funerals, in whose have consisted of the historians of that nation, and of
temple were sold all things relating to funerals. See memoirs of the affairs of state ; but, in ellect, it ap-

pears rather to have been a depository of laws, char-
LIBNA, in Ancient Geography, a sacerdotal city in gers, and ordinances of the king. The Hebrew text
the tribe of Judah, a place of strength, as appears from calls it the house of treasures, and afterwards the house
Sennacherib's laying siege to it, 2 Kings xix. Isaiah of the rolls, where the treasures were laid up. We
xxxvii. In Jerome's time, a village, called Lobna, may, with more justice, call that a library, mentioned
the territory of Eleutheropolis.

in the second of Esdras to have been built by Nehemiali,
LIBOURNE, a town of France, in Guienne, and and in which were preserved the books of the prophets,
in Bourdelois. It is a populous Trading town, and is and of David, and of the letters of their kings.
seated on the river Dordogne. W. Long. 0. 10. N. The first who erected a library at Athens was the

tyrant Pisistratus; and yet Strabo refers the honour
LIBRA, or BALANCE, one of the mechanical powers. of it to Aristotle. That of Pisistratus was transport-

ed by Xerxes into Persia, and was afterwards brought LIBRA, in Astronomy, one of the 12 signs of the back by Seleucus Nicanor to Athens. Long after, zodiac, and exactly opposite to Aries; so called be- it was plundered by Sylla, and re-established by Hacause when the sun is in this sign at the autumnal drian. Plutarch says, that under Eumenes there was equinox, the days and nights are equal as if weighed a library at Pergamus, containing 200,000 books. Tyin a balance. The stars in this constellation according rannian, a celebrated grammarian, cotemporary wiih to Ptolemy are 17, Tycho 19, Hevelius 20, and Flam- Pompey, had a library of 30,000 volumes. That of

Ptolemy Philadelphus, according to A. Gellius, contain. LIBRA also denotes the ancient Roman pound, bor- ed 700,000, all in rolls, burnt by Cæjar's soldiers. rowed from the Sicilians, who called it litra.

Constantine, and his successors, erected a magnificent
The libra was divided into 12 unciæ or ounces, and one at Constantinople; which in the eighth century con-
the ounce into 24 scroples.

tained 300,000 volumes, all burnt by order of Leo
The divisions of the libra were, the uncia, one twelfth; Isaurus; and, among the rest, one wherein the Iliad
the sextans, une sixth; the quadrans, one fourth; the and Odyssey were written in letters of gold, on the guts
triens, one third ; the quincunx, live ounces; the semis, of a serpent.
six; the septunx, seven ; the bes, vight; the dodrans, The most celebrated libraries of ancient Rome, were
nine ; the dextrans, ten; the deunx, eleven ; lastly, the the Ulpian, and the Palatine. They also boast much
as weighed twelve ounces or one libra.

of the libraries of Paulus Æmilius, who conquered Per-
The Roman libra was used in France for the pro- seus ; of Lucilius Lucullus, of Asinius Pollio, Atticus,
portions of their coin till the time of Charlemagne, Julius Severus, Domitius Serenus, Pamphilius Martyr,
or perhaps till that of Philip I. in 1093, their sols being and the emperors Gordian and 'Trajan.
80 proportioned, as that 20 of them were equal to the Anciently, every large church had its library; as
libra. By degrees it became a term of account: and appears by the writings of St Jerome, Anastasius, and
every thing of the value of twenty sols was called a others. Pope Nicholas laid the first foundation of

that of the Vatican, in 1450. It was destroyed by
Libra pensa, in our law books, denotes a pound of the constable Bourbon, in the sacking of Rome, and
money in weight. It was usual in former days not restored by Pope Sixtus V. and has been considerably
only to tell the money but to weigh it: because many enriched with the ruins of that of Heidelberg, plun-
cities, lorals, and bishops, liaving their mints, coined dered by Count Tilly in 1622. One of the most com-
money, and often very bad tou; for which reason, plete libraries in Europe, was said to be that erected at
thongh the pound consisted of 20 shillings, they always Florence by Cosmo de Medicis, over the gate where-
weighed it.

of is written LABOR ABSQUE LABORE ; though it is now
SU 2


stead 51.

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Library. exceeded by that of the French king, begun by Fran. bers, and others : that of St Paul's, of Sion college ; Liban

cis I. augmented by Cardinal Richelieu, and completed the Queen's library, erected by Queen Caroline in by M. Colbert.

1737; and the Surgeons library, kept in their ball in libye The emperor's library at Vienna, according to Lam- the Old Bailey, &c. becius consists of 80,000 volumes, and 15,940 curious In Edinburgh there is a good library belonging to medals.

the university, well furnished with books; but it is deThe Bodleian library at Oxford, built on the foun. ficient in a catalogue. There is also a noble library of dation of that of Duke Humphrey, exceeds that of books and manuscripts belonging to the faculty of adany university in Europe, and even those of all the vocates. See ADVOCATE. The library belonging to sovereigns of Europe, except the emperor's and French the society of writers to the signet, although of less ex. king's, which are each of them older by 100 years. tent, yet in the judicious selection of the best books, It was first opened in 1602, and has since found a and the best editions, which by the attention of the sogreat number of benefactors ; particularly Sir Robert ciety are now kept in excellent order, is inferior to Cotton, Sir H. Savil, Archbishop Laud, Sir Kenelm none in the kingdom. Digby, Mr Allen, Dr Pococke, Mir Selden, and others. LIBRATION, in Astronomy, an apparent irregulaThe Vatican, the Medicean, that of Bessarion at Ve- rity of the moon's motion, whereby she seems to librate nice, and those just mentioned, exceed the Bodleian in about her axis, sometimes from the east to the west, and Greek manuscripts: which yet outdoes them all in ori. now and then from the west to the east. See Astroental manuscripts.

NOMY Inder. As to printed books, the Ambrosian at Milan, and LIBURNIA, in Ancient Geography, a district of Ilthat of Wolfenbuttle, are two of the most famous, and lyricum, extending towards the Adriatic between Istria yet both inferior to the Bodleian.

on the west, Dalmatia on the east, and Mount Albius King's LIBRARY, at St James's was founded by on the north. Liburni, the people. The apparitors, Henry, eldest son of James I. and made op partly of who at the command of the magistrate summoned the books, and partly of manuscripts, with many other people from the country, were called Liburni, because curiosities, for the advancement of learning. It has generally men of Liburnia.-Liburna, or Liburnica, received many additions from the libraries of Isaac (Horace), denoted a kind of light and swift skill, ed Casaubon and others.

by the Liburnians in their sea-roving or piracies, for Cottonian Library, originally consisted of 958 vo- which they were noted. Liburnum (Juvenal), was a lumes of original charters, grants, instruments, letters species of litter made in form of Liburnian skiffs, of sovereign princes, transactions between this and other wherein the noblemen of Rome were carried, and wbere kingdoms and states, genealogies, histories, registers of they sat at their ease either reading or writing. monasteries, remains of Saxon laws, the book of Gene- LIBURNUS, in Ancient Geography, a mountain of sis, thought to be the most ancient Greek copy extant, Campania. Also a port of Tuscany. Now Livorna, and said to have been written by Origen in the second or Leghorn. E. Long. 11. N. Lat. 43. 30. century, and the curious Alexandrian copy or manu- LIBYA, in general, according to the Greeks, de. script in Greek capitals. This library is kept in the noted Africa. An appellation derived from lub, British Museum, with the large and valuable library "thirst," being a dry and thirsty country. See Africa. of Sir Hans Sloane, amounting to upwards of 42,000 LIBYA, in a more restrained sense, was the middle volumes, &c. There are many public libraries be- part of Africa, extending north and west, (Pliny); Jonging to the several colleges at Oxford and Cam. between the Mediterranean to the north, and Ethiopia bridge, and the universities in North Britain. The to the east: and was twofold, the Hither or Exterior principal public libraries in London, beside that of the Libya ; and the Further or Interior. The former lay Museum, are those of the College of Heralds, of the between the Mediterranean on the north, and the Far. College of Physicians, of Doctors Commons, to which ther Libya and Ethiopia beyond Egypt on the south, every bishop, at the time of his consecration, gives at (Ptolemy). The Farther or Interior Libya was a vasi least 201. sometimes 50l. for the purchase of books; country, lying between the Hither Libya on the north, those of Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Inner Temple, the Atlantic ocean on the west, the Ethiopic on the and Middle Temple; that of Lambeth, founded by south, and Ethiopia, beyond Egypt on the east, (Pro- . Archbishop Bancroft in 1610, for the use of succeeding lemy). archbishops of Canterbury, and increased by the bene. LIBYA, in a still more restrained selse, called, for factions of Archbishops Abbot

, Sheldon, and Tennison, distinction's sake, Libya Propria, was a northerr diand said to consist of at least 15,000 printed books, and strict of Africa, and a part of the Hither Libya ; situ617 volumes in manuscript; that of Red-Cross street, ated between Egypt to the cast, the Mediterranean to founded by Dr Daniel Williams, a Presbyterian divine, the north, the Syriis Major and the Regio Tripoliand since enriched by many private benefactions ; that tana to the west, the Garamantes and Ethiopia beof the Royal Society, called the Arundelian or Norfolk yond Egypt to the south. Now the kingdom and desert library, because the principal part of the collection of Barca. This Libya was again subdivided into Libya formerly belonged to the family of Arundel, and was taken in the strictest sense of all, and into Marmarica given to the Society by Henry Howard, afterwards and Cyrenaica. Libya in the strictest sense, otherwise duke of Norfolk, in 1666, which library has been in- the Exterior, was the most eastern part of Linja Precreased by the valuable collection of Francis Aston, pria, next to Egypt, with Marmarica on the west, the Esq. in 1715, and is continually increasing by the Mediterranean on the north, and the Nubi, now called numerous benefactions of the works of its learned mem. Nubia, to the south, (Ptolemy).





LICENSE, in Law, an authority given to a person they could not cultivate it with care, nor poll up the Licinius to do some lawful act.

useless shoots (stolones) that grow from the roots of trees. V LICENSER OF BOOKS, bas been an officer in almost He is memorable also for enacting, that one of the con- Liddel. every civilized country, till the close of the last century, suls should always be of a plebeian family. He lived when it was abolished in Great Britain. It has been about 362 B. B. proved by Beckmann, that such an office was established, LICNON, in the Dionysian solemnities, the mystical not only in the Roman empire, but also in the republic van of Bacchus ; a thing so essential to all the solemniand the states of Greece. All the copies of the works of ties of this god, that they could not be duly celebrated Protagoras which could be procured, were burnt at A. without it. See Dionysia. thens by the public crier, ard the satirical works of La- LICNOPHORI, in the Dionysian solemnities, those bienus shared the same fate under the reign of the empe- who carried the licnon. ror Augustus. Not long after the invention of printing, LICOLA, or LAGO DI LICOLA, a lake in the kingJaws were enacted for subjecting books to examination ; dom of Naples, formerly famous for plenty of excellent a regulation which was proposed even by Plato, and fish; but in the year 1538 an explosion of a volcano vehich many have since wished for. It appears that the changed one part of it into a mountain of ashes, and liberty of the press is only a modern privilege, and that the other into a morass. It was anciently known by it has not been enjoyed in its utmost latitude in


the name of the Lucrine lake.
country but Great Britain.

LICONIA, a genus of plants belonging to the pent-
Licevser of the Press. See Liberty of the Press. andria class. See BOTANY Index.

LICENTIATE, one who has obtained the degree LICTORS, among the Romans, were oslicers esta-
of a license.—The greatest number of the officers of blished by Rumulus, who always attended the chief ma-
justice in Spain are distinguished by no other title ban gistrates when they appeared in public.
ibat of licentiute. In order to pass licentiate in common The duty of their office consisted in the three fol.
law, civil law, and physic, they must have studied seven lowing particulars : 1. Submolio, or clearing the way for
years, and in diyimity ten. Among us a licentiate usual- the magistrate they attended : this they did by word
ly means a plıysician who has a license to practise, grant- of mouth ; or, if there was occasion, by using the rods
ed by the college of physicians.

they always carried along with them. 2. Animadversio,
LICETUS, a celebrated physician of Italy, was or causing the people to pay the usual respect to the
born at Rappollo, in the state of Genoa, 1577. He magistrate, as to alight, if on horseback, or in a chariot ;
came, it seems, into the world, before bis mother bad

to rise up, uncover, make way, and the like. 3. Precompleted the seventh month of ber pregnancy ; but ilio, or walking before the magistrates: this they did not his father, being an ingenious physician, wrapped bim confusedly, or altogether, nor liy two or three abreast, up in cotton, and nurtured him so, that he lived to be but singly, following one another in a straight line, 57 years of


He was trained with great care, and They also preceded the triumphal car in public triumphs;
became a very distinguished man in his profession; and and it was also part of their office to arrest criminals,
was the author of a great number of works: his book and to be public executioners in beheading, &c. Their
De Monstris every body must have beard of. He was ensigns were the FASCES and SecuriS.
professor of philosophy and physic at Padua, wbere he As to the number of lictors allowed each magistrate,
died in 1655.

a dictator had twenty-four, a master of the horse six, a
LICHEN, LIVERWORT, a genus of plants belonging consul : velve, a prætor six ; and each vestal virgin,
to the natural order of algae, in the cryptogamia class. when she appeared abroad, bad one.
See Botany Inder.


LIDDEL, DR DUNCAN, professor of mathematics
LICHTENBERG, a castle of France, in Lower and of medicine in the university of Helmstadt, was
Alsace, and the chief place of a county of the same born in the year 1561 at Aberdeen, where he received
name ; seated on a rock, near the mountains Vosges, the first part of his education in languages and philo-
and looked upon as impregnable. E. Long. 7. 35. sophy. About the age of eighteen he repaired to the
N. Lat. 48. 55.

university of Francfort, where he spent three years in LICHTENBURG, a town of Germany, in the a diligent application to mathematics and philosophy. circle of Franconia, and margrarate of Cullembach. From Francfort he proceeded to Wratislaw, or Breslaw, E. Long. 12. 0. N. Lat. 30. 26.

in Silesia, where he is said to have made uncommon pro-
LICHTENFELS, a town of Germany, in the gress in his favourite study of mathematics, under the di-
circle of Franconia, a bishopric of Bamberg, seated rection of a very eminent professor, Paulus Wittichius,
on the river Mayne, in E. Long. 11. 10. N. Lat. 50. Having studied at Breslaw for the space of one year, he

LICHTENSTEIN, a town of Swisserland, in paying the most intense application to the study of prysie
Tockerberg, seated on the river Thour. E. Long. A contagious distemper having broken out at that place,
2. 15. N. Lat. 47. 25.

the students were dispersed, and Liddel retired to the uni-
LICHSTALL, a handsome town of Swisserland, versity of Rostock. Here he sentwed his studies, rather
in the county of Basil; seated on the river Ergetz, in as a companion than as a pupil of the celebrated Bru.
E. Lons. 7. 57. N. Lat. 47. 40.

cæus, who, though an excellent mathematician, did not LICINIUS STOLO, a famous Roman tribune, scruple to confess that he was instructed by Liddel in the styled Stolo on account of a law he made, while tribune, more perfect knowledge of the Copernican system, and that no Roman citizen should possess more than 500 other astronomical questions. In is go le returned once acres of land ; alleging, that when they occupied more, more to Francfort. But having there heard of the in


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Liddel, creasing reputation of the Academia Julia, established at verge of it. The river here being pent up at the bridge is:
Lidford. Helmstadt hy Henry duke of Bruns:vick, Mr Liddel re- with rocks, has made itself so deep a fall, that the noise 1

moved thither; and soon after his arrival was appointed of the water only is heard without being seen.
to the first or lower professorship of mathematics. From LIDKOPING, a town of West Gothland in Sire.
thence he was promoted to the second and more digni- den, seated on the lake Wenar, in E. Long. 13. 40.
fied mathematical chair, which he occupied for nine N. Lat. 58. 25.
years, with much credit to himself and to the Julian LIDNEY, a town of Gloucestershire in England,
Academy.. In 1596 he obtained the degree of M. D. 77 miles from London, is seated on the west bank of
was admitted a member of that faculty, and began pub- the river Severn. In the neighbourhooil are the re-
licly to teach physic. By his teaching and his writings mains of a large Roman encampment, with foundations
he was the chief support of the medical school at Helm- of many ancient buildings, among which are the rains
stadt; was employed as first physician at the court of of a Roman hypocaust of an oval form; and Roman
Brunswick, and had much practice among the principal antiquities and coins are often found. Mr Bathurst bas
inhabitants of that country. Having been several times a fine seat here called Sydney. Park, in the midst of ex-
elected dean of the faculties both of philosophy and phy- tensive woods. Population 820 in 1811.
sic, he had in the year 1604 the bonour of being chosen LIE, in morals, denotes a criminal breach of veraci.
protector of the university. But neither academical ho- ty.--Archdeacon Paley, in treating of this subject, ob-
nours, nor the profits of an extensive practice abroad, serves, that there are falsehoods which are not lies; that
could make Dr Liddel forget bis native country. In is, which are not criminal: and there are lies wbich are
the year 1660 he took a final leave of the Academia Ju- not literally and directly false.
lia; and after travelling for some time through Germany I. Cases of the first class are those, 1. Where no one
and Italy, he at lenytlı settled in Scotland. He died in is deceived: as, for instance in parables, fables, novels,
the year 1613, in the 52d year of his age. By his last jests, tales to create mirth, or ludicrous embellishments
will be bestowed certain lands purchased by liim near of a story, in which the declared design of the speaker
Aberdeen upon the university there, in all time com- is not to inform, but to divert; complimente in the
ing, for the education and support of six poor scho- subscription of a letter; a prisoner's pleading not guil-
fars. Among a variety of regulations and injunctions ty; an advocate asserting the justice, or his belief of
for the management of this charity, he appoints the the justice, of his client's cause. In such instance no
magistrates of Aberdeen his trustees, and solemnly de- confidence is destroyed, because none was reposed's no
nounces the curse of God on any person who shall abuse promise to speak the truth is violated, because none
or misapply it. His works are, i. Disputationes Medi- was given or understood to be giren. 2. Where the
cinales, Helmstadt, 1603, 4to. 2. Ars Medica succinctè

person you speak to has no right to know the trull,
et perspicuè explicatul

, Hamburghi, 1607, 8vo. This per- or more properly where little or no inconveniency reformance is dedicated to King James VI. and is divided sults from the wani of conhdence in such cases; as into five books, viz. Introductio in totam liedicinam; where you tell a falschood to a madman for his own De Physinlog:a ; De Pathologiı; De Signorum doctri- advantage; to a robber, to conceal your property; lo na; De Therapeutic. 3. De Febribus Libri tres, Ham- an assassin, to defeat or to divert him from his purpose. burghi, 1610, 12mo. 4. Tractatus de dente aureo, It is upon this principle, that, by the laws of war, it Hamburghi, 1628, 12mo. This last performance Dr is allowed to deceive an enemy by feints, false colours, Liddel published in order to refute a ridiculous story spies, false intelligence, and the like; but, by no means, then current of a poor boy in Silesia, who, at seven in treaties, truces, signals of capitulation, or surrender: years of age, having lost some of his teetli, brought and the difference is, that the former suppose hostilities forth, to the astonishment of his parents, : new tooth to continue, the latter are calculated to terminale or susof pure gold. Jacobus Horstius, doctor and professor pend them. of niedicine in the Academin Juli, at the same time Many people indulge in serious discourse a habit of with our author, liad published a book, which he dedicated fiction and exaggeration, in the accounts they give of to the emperor Rudolphus Il. to prove that this won. themselves, of their acquaintance, or of the extraordiderful tooth was a prodigy sent from heaven to en- nary things which they have seen or beard; and so courage the Germans then at war with ihe Turks, and long as the facts they relate are indifferent, and their foretelling, from this golden tontii, the future victories narratives though false are inoflensive, it may seem a of the Christians, with the final destruction of the superstitions regard to truth to censure them merely Turkish empire and Mahometan faith, and a return for truth's sake. Yet the practice ought to be check of the golden age in 1700, preparatory to the end of ed; for, in the first place, it is almost impossible to the world. The imposture was soon after discovered pronounce beforehand, with certainty, concerning any 1 to be a thin plate of gold, skilfully drawn over the na- lie that it is inofensive; or to say what ill consetural tooth by an artist of that country, with a view io

11 quences may result from a lie apparently inoffensive: excite the public armiration and charity. 5. Artis con- And, in the next place, the babit, when once formed, 1 servandi Sanitatem, libri duo, Aberduniæ, 1651, 12mo; is easily extended to serve the designs of malice or inu posthumons work.

terest; like all habits, it spreads indeed of itself. Pious LIDFORD, a village of Devonshire in England, si- frauds, as they are improperly enough called, pretendtuated on the river Lid, two or three miles east of Brent ed inspirations, forged books, counterfeit miracles, are Tor, was formerly a famous town, with a castle. It impositions of a more serious nature. It is pussible was much destroyed by the Danes in 997. The vil- that they may sometimes, though seldom, have been lage is now small, but the lands in the parish are rich set up and encouraged with a design to do good: bus and fertile, the whole forest of Dartmore being in the the good they aim at requires that the belief of them






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should be perpetual, which is hardly possible; and the they were obliged to do him all manner of service, as

detection of the fraud is sure to disparage the credit of if they were his domestics. He adus, this was formerly Les ail pretensions of the same nature. Christianity has called litigium servitium, and the person liige. In this

suffered more injury from this cause than from all other sense, the word is used, Leg. Edw. cap. 29. Judri causes put together.

sub tutela regis ligca debont esse; that is, wholly under
II. As there may be falsehoods which are not lies, his protection.
so there may be lies without literal or direct falsehood. Byʻliege homage, the vassal was obliged to serve his
An opening is always left for this species of prevarica- lord towards all, and against all, excepting his father.
tion, when the literal and grammatical signification of In which sense, the word was used in opposition to
a sentence is different from the popular and customary simple homage; which last only obliged the vassal to
meaning. It is the wilful deceit that makes the lie; pay the rights and accustomed due to his lord; and
and we wilfully dective, when our expressions are not not to bear arms against the emperor, prince, or other
true, in the sense in which we believe the liearer ap- superior lord: so that a liege man was a person wholly
prehends them. Besides, it is absurd to contend for devoted to his lord, and entirely under his command.
a1.y sense of words, in opposition to usage ; for all Omnibus, &c. Reginaldus, rex Insularum, salutem.
senses of all words are founded upon usage, and upon Sciatis quod deveni homo ligeus domini regis Angliæ
nothing elp. Or a man may act a lie ; as by pointing Johannis, contra omnes mortales, quamdiu vixero ; et
his finger in a wrong direction, wben a traveller in- inde ei fideliiatem et sacramentum prestiti, fc. AIS.
quires of him his road; or when a tradesman shuts up penes I. Dugdale.
hic windows, to induce his cjeditors to believe that he But it must be observed, there were formerly two
is abroad: for to all moral purposes, and therefore as kinds of liege bomage : the one, by which the vassal
to veracity, speech and action are the same; speech was obliged to serve liis lord, against all, without ex-
being only a mode of action.

ception even of his sovereign; the other, by which he
LIECHTENAU, a town of Germany, in the circle was to serve him against all, except such other lords as
of Franconia and margravate of Anspaclı, subject to he had formerly owed liege homage to,
Nuremberg. E. Long. 9. 5. N. Lat. 48. 43.

In our old statutes lieges, and liege people, are
LILGE (Ligius), in Law, properly signifies a vas. ternis peculiarly appropriated to the king's subjects; as
sa', who holds a kind of fee, that binds him in a closer being liges, ligi, or ligati, obliged to pay allegiance to
obligation to his lord than other people.

lim; 8 Henry VI. 14 Hen. VIII. &c. though private
The term seems to be derived from the French lier, persons had their lieges 100. Reinaldus, Dei gratia,
6 to bind ;" on account of a ceremony used in render- abbas Ramesiæ, præposito et hominibus de Bruncestre,
ing faith or homage ; which was by locking the vassal's et omnibus vicinis Francis et Anglis salutem. Sciatis
thumb or his band in that of the lord, to show that he me dedisse terram Ulfe, in depedenc (hodie depedale)
was fast bound by his oath of fidelity. Cajas, Vigenere, huic Boselino, et uxori ejus Alfnie-ea conditione quod
and Bignon, choose rather to derive the word from the effecti sint homines legis. Lib. Rames.
same source with leudis or leodi, " loyal, faithful.” But Liege-Poustie, in Scots Law, is opposed to death-
Du Cange falls in with the opinion of those who derive bed; and signifies a person's enjoying that state of
it from liti, a kind of vassals, so firmly attached to health in which only he can dispose of his property at
their lord, on account of lauds or fees held of him, that pleasure.

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