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ment for an attempt at larceny, "put their hands" into the prosecutor's pocket, may be sustained by evidence that while all participated in the act, only one put his hand in the pocket.j

If the attempt is a felony, co-defendants are responsible according to the laws of principal and accessary.

3. Adaptation. § 2710. If the instrument by which an attempt is effected is apparently adapted to the end (e. g. a gun to shooting), this is a sufficient primâ facie case. The defendant must prove that the gun was not loaded, and known not to be so.k

VII. VERDICT.

$ 2711. The topic of verdict, in cases where an assault or attempt is proved on an indictment for a greater offence (e. g. felony), is elsewhere noticed. I It may now be specially stated, that while by the old common law there can be technically no conviction of an attempt on a count for felony, this power is given to juries in many jurisdictions by statute.m But unless the attempt be averred in the indictment, there can be no conviction of the attempt on statutes which simply give power to convict of minor offences inclosed in major. n

It has been held in England, that under an indictment charging H. with rape, and U. with aiding and abetting, H. could be convicted under the stat. 32 & 33 Vict. c. 29, of attempting to commit the rape, and U. of aiding him in the attempt.nl

VIII. PUNISHMENT OF ATTEMPT. $ 2712. For the reasons beretofore given, the punishment of an attempt should be less than that of the consummated crime. The attempt involves neither the duration of premeditation, nor the obduracy of purpose, which belong to the crime when complete. And the policy of the law is by assigning more lenient punishment to the incomplete offence, to arrest offences in the process of completion. This view, so long neglected in English į Com. v. Fortune, 105 Mass. 592. C. 89; State v. Wilson, 30 Conn. 500;

k Caldwell v. State, 5 Texas, 18. Wolf v. State, 41 Alab. 412. Ante, $ 2694.

n Ante, $ 389. | Ante, $ 388, 400.

n2 R. v. Hapgood, L. R. 1 C. C. m Ante, § 388. See R. v. Bird, 2 221. Den. C. C. 94; R. v. Reid, 2 Den. C.

876 sq. :

law, and which Anglo-American judges, acting on what is called the preventive policy, even now sometimes lose sight of, o is essential to a sound ethical jurisprudence. p o See post, $ 3374.

sommé ? Cela est possible; si l'on p See Geib, ut supra, $ 99. Plato de veut, probable; mais rien de plus : legg. IX. p.

εάν TuS diavonucis Th car, si c'est une vraie tentative, l'auβουλήσει κτείναι τινά φίλιον, πλήν ών ο teur pouvait aussi se désister.

Се νόμος εφίησι, τρώση μεν, αποκτείναι δε surplus de volonté, de degre ultérieur αδυνατήση, τον διανοηθέντα τε και τρώ- de perseverance, et d'iniquite comσαντα ούτως ούκ άξιον ελεειν, ουδε αιδούpevov üniws û kaðýtep úrokteivavta, iné. lateur. Ainsi toute la partie de l'im

ment l'imputer ? Point de fait révéχειν την δίκην φόνου αναγκάζειν. τήν δε ου παντάπασι κακήν τύχην αυτού σεβόμενον, putation qui dépasse Γ'instant de la και τον δαίμονα, ος αυτόν και τον τρωθέντα suspension de la tentative, est une imEhehoas á Tórponoc aurois éyéveto, MT Tô putation hasardée ; c'est imparter ce Mèv úvíatov inkoç yevéojal, Štúpatoi que l'on ignore; c'est punir la penτύχην και ξυμφοράν, τούτω δή χάριν τω sée par conjecture. Cependant si la δαίμονι διδόντα, και μη εναντιούμενον, τον peine doit etre la méme que celle du μέν θάνατον αφελείν του τρώσαντος, μετάσ- crime consomme, il faut la meme cerτασιν δε εις την γείτονα πόλιν αυτώ γιγνεσ. titude non-seulement sur la volonté de θαι, διά βίου καρπούμενον άπασαν την αυτού

l'agent, mais sur la persévérance de kthou. So Beccaria dei delitti e delle cette volonté. Sans cela, on peut pene, $ 37. ($ 14.) p. 139: “Perchè le croire faire une loi utile; mais il ne leggi non puniscono l'intenzione, non faut point parler de justice .... De è però che un delitto, che cominci con l'autre côté, si l'on prend en considérqualche azione, che ne manifesti la ation le mal matériel produit par la volontà di eseguirlo, non meriti una tentative, comment en conclure qu'elle pena, benchè minore all'esecuzione doit être punie comme le crime même? medesima del delitto. L'importanza La violation du droit menacé n'est pas di prevenire un attentato autorizza accomplie ; peut-être même n'y a-t-il una pena; ma siccome tra l'attentato encore d'autre mal objectif que le e l'esecuzione vi può essere un inter- danger et l'alarme. Ainsi, soit qu'on vallo, cosi la pena maggiore riserbata considère la partie morale, soit qu'on al delitto consumato può dar luogo al s'arrête à la partie matérielle de l'acte, pentimento.” So Rossi Traité de droit rien ne justifie aux yeux de la justice pénal, II. p. 318–334; III. p. 7–12: humaine laprétendue parité de la ten« La tentative est suspendue par un tative et du crime. La loi qui la événement fortuit; mais sans cet évé- sanctionne n'est donc plus qu'une nement le crime aurait-il été con

mesure d'utilité et de convenance." 55

865

e

VOL. II.

BOOK

VII.

OFFENCES AGAINST GOVERNMENT.

CHAPTER I.

TREASON.

I. TREASON AGAINST THE UNITED

STATES, § 2715.
CONSTITUTION AND STATUTES.
UNITED STATES.

Treason: in what it consists, $ 2715.
Evidence and punishment, $ 2716.
Concealment of treason, $ 2717.
Seditious conspiracies, $ 2717.
Enlisting persons to serve against

United States, $ 2717.
Aiding rebellion, $ 2717 a.
Corresponding with rebels abroad,

$ 2717 b.
1. LEVYING WAR, $ 2719.
(a.) Term to be accepted according

to prior judicial meaning, 2719. (6.) War is essential; but if there be

an overt act of war, then all contributing to the common design

are principals, $ 2721.
.c.) Number necessary to constitute,

$ 2723.
(d.) What is “leying," § 2724.

Direct, $ 2724.

Constructive, $ 2725. (e.) Belligerent insurgents, $ 2728. 2. ADHERING TO ENEMIES, S 2730. (a.) Does not cover aid to rebels, $

2730. (6.) But covers all voluntary aid to a

foreign hostile state, $ 2732. 3. EXTRA-TERRITORIAL POLITICAL OFFENCES BY SUBJECTS, $ 2734.

4. INFRA-TERRITORIAL POLITICAL OF

FENCES BY ALIENS, $ 2735.
5. INDICTMENT, § 2736.
6. EVIDENCE, Ş 2738.
(a.) Confederacy and overt acts,

2738.
(6.) Witnesses, $ 2739.
(c.) Confessions and declarations,

2740. 7. VENUE, S 2741. 8. NO DEFENCE THAT THE DEFEND

ANT BELIEVED HE WAS EXERCISING

A CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT, $ 2743. II. TREASON AGAINST THE PARTIC

ULAR STATES, § 2766.
1. AN OFFENCE AT COMMON LAW, $

2766.
2. DOES NOT NECESSARILY INCLUDE

TREASON AGAINST

STATES, $ 2768. 3. BUT DOES INCLUDE A COMMON LAW TREASON AGAINST

THE GOVERN-
MENT EXCEPT SUCH AS IS DISTINCT-
IVELY AIMED AT THE FEDERAL AU-

THORITY, § 2769.
4. Is NOT ABSORBED

IS TREASON
AGAINST UNITED STATES, 2771.
5. CLEARLY COVERS CASES OF ARMED

ATTEMPTS TO OVERTHROW STATE

GOVERNMENTS, § 2772. 6. ANALOGIES FROM FOREIGN JURIS

DICTION, $ 2773. 7. PLEADING AND EVIDENCE, $ 2774.

THE UNITED

I. TREASON AGAINST THE UNITED STATES.

CONSTITUTION AND STATUTES.

$ 2715. Treason : in what it consists. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. a No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. (Const. U. S. art. 3, sect. 3, cl. 1.)

Evidence and punishment. - If any person or persons, owing allegiance al to the United States of America, shall levy war against them, or shall adhere to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort within the United States or elsewhere, and shall be convicted on confession in open court, or on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act of treason whereof he or they shall stand indicted, such person or persons shall be adjudged guilty of treason against the United States, and shall suffer death. (Act 30th April, 1790, sect. 1.)

$ 2716. Punishment of treason. Every person who shall hereafter commit the crime of treason against the United States, and shall be adjudged guilty thereof, shall suffer death, and all his slaves, if any, shall be declared and made free; or, at the discretion of the court, he shall be imprisoned for not less than five years, and fined not less than ten thousand dollars, and all his slaves, if any, shall be declared and made free; said fine shall be levied and collected on any or all of the property, real and personal, excluding slaves, of which the said person so convicted was the owner at the time of committing the said crime, any sale or conveyance to the contrary notwithstanding. (Act 17th July, 1862, sect. 1; 12 Stat. 589.)

$ 2717. Concealment of treason. - If any person or persons, having knowledge of the commission of any of the treasons aforesaid, shall conceal, and not, as soon as may be, disclose and make known the same to the President of the United States, or some one of the judges thereof, or to the president or governor of a particular state, or some one of the judges or justices thereof, such person or persons, on conviction, shall be adjudged guilty of misprision of treason, and shall be imprisoned not exceeding seven years, and fined not exceeding one thousand dollars. (Act 30th April, 1790, sect. 2.)

a A rebel, being a citizen of the them aid and comfort.” But such United States, cannot be viewed as an a rebel may be convicted under the enemy under the Constitution of the phrase relating to “ levying war.” U. United States; and hence a onvic- S. v. Greathouse, 2 Abbott U. S. 364 tion of treason, in promoting a rebel- (U. S. Cir. Ct. Cal., 1863; Field and lion, cannot, it has been held, be sus- Hoffman, JJ.). See post, § 2724. tained under that branch of the con- al See Sprague, J., 23 Law Rep. stitutional definition which includes 705; U. S. v. Villato, 2 Dall. 370. " adhering to their enemies, giving

Seditious conspiracy punished. If two or more persons, within any state or territory of the United States, shall conspire together to overthrow, or to put down, or to destroy by force, the government of the United States ; or to levy war against the United States ; or to oppose by force the authority of the government of the United States; or by force to prevent, hinder, or delay the execution of any law of the United States ; or by force to seize, take, or possess any property of the United States, against the will or contrary to the authority of the United States; or by force, or intimidation, or threat to prevent any person from accepting or holding any office, or trust, or place of confidence under the United States; each and every person so offending shall be guilty of a high crime, and upon conviction thereof in any district or circuit court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof, or district or supreme court of any territory of the United States having jurisdiction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not less than five hundred dollars and not more than five thousand dollars, or by imprisonment, with or without hard labor, as the court shall determine, for a period not less than six months nor greater than six years, or by both such fine and imprisonment. (Act 31st July, 1861, sect. 1 ; 12 Stat. 284. As to overt acts, see ante, s 2287 a.)

Punishment for enlisting persons to serve against the United States. If any person shall be guilty of the act of recruiting soldiers or sailors, in any state or territory of the United States, to engage in armed hostility against the United States, or who shall open a recruiting station for the enlistment of such persons, either as regulars or volunteers, to serve as aforesaid, shall be guilty of a high misdemeanor, and, upon conviction in any court of record having jurisdiction of the offence, shall be fined a sum not less than two hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, and contined and imprisoned for a period not less than one year ·nor more than five years. (Act 6th August, 1861, sect. 1; 12 Stat. 317.)

Punishment of those so enlisting. — The person so enlisted, or en. gaged as regular or volunteer, shall be fined in a like manner a sum of one hundred dollars, and imprisoned not less than one nor more than three years. (Ibid. sect. 2.)

2717 a. Aiding rebellion against the government. If any person shall hereafter incite, set on foot, assist, or engage in any rebellion or insurrection against the authority of the United States, or the laws thereof, or shall give aid or comfort thereto, or shall engage in, or give aid and

a

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