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way affect any institution's right to determine qualifications for admission, to select or reject applicants for admission, or to pass on suitability of a course desired by an applicant. The sole obligation imposed on an institution by the section is to continue to meet its own standards and to submit to the State Department of Education of its State, periodic progress reports on war-service persons it accepts for enrollment, and also to report any determination it makes that a war-service person's progress or conduct does not justify his continuance as a student. The section makes it the duty of the State Department to notify the War-Service Education and Training Agency when it determines from the reports that the progress of a war-service person does not justify his continued eligibility. The agency, when so notified, would discontinue payment of tuition and subsistence for such person.
PERIOD OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Section 6: The maximum period of education and training which is prescribed by this section would be equal to 108 weeks, that is 3 normal school years of 36 weeks. Thus an equitable basis would be afforded war-service persons to complete their education or to take necessary refresher or retraining courses This basis rather than a flat time limitation is prescribed in view of the fact that education and training may be on a part-time basis, on a normal school year basis. or on the accelerated basis which is today largely followed. Under the section the same maximum amount of actual school attendance would be available for each group.
The section would permit continuance of training after the initial period equal to 54 weeks where the institution makes certification of satisfactory completion of this initial period. Thus, under the proposed legislation. whether the war-service person continues on a course would depend upon whether he was satisfactorily progressing, and this matter would be determined locally and not by a Federal agency in Washington.
The section provides ample time for initial enrollment for education or training, which may be at any time within 2 years after the termination of hostilities in case the individual's active service ends before such termination, or 2 years after his discharge or release from active service, if such discharge or release occurs after termination of hostilities.
The section makes it clear that persons eligible for education and training under part VII of Veterans Regulations 1 (a) because of injury or disability, may elect between the benefits under that part and the benefits under the new provisions. To avoid an election for training under the new part being made merely to increase the monthly payment for subsistence, the section provides that the amount shall not be increased beyond the amount of additional pension which would be payable under part VII. PAYMENTS TO WAR-SERVICE PERSONS AND APPROVED EDUCATIONAL
OR TRAINING INSTITUTIONS Section 7 provides for subsistence payments to persons receiving education and training, under the proposed legislation, on a full-time
basis. It also provides for payment of tuition, laboratory, and similar fees to the institution in the case of persons receiving education and training on a full-time basis and in the case of persons attending on a part-time basis.
The subsistence payments to persons attending on a full-time basis is fixed at the rate of $50 per month in the case of persons without dependents. For persons with a dependent or dependents the rate would be $75 per month. The section provides that payment will be made only during actual full-time attendance and not to exceed 30 days for holidays and leave in any calendar year.
Payments would also be made to the institution, under this section. These payments would normally cover the customary tuition, laboratory, library, health, infirmary, and similar fees of the institution. The fees which would be payable the institution would be those recommended by the cognizant State department of education and approved by the Director. This provision, it is felt, should safeguard both the schools and the Government. The Government would be safeguarded against inequitable fees being charged, the schools would be insured against arbitrary amounts being fixed in Washington.
A maximum rate of $500 per ordinary school year of 36 weeks is prescribed by the section. This provision has the flexibility necessary to apply equitably to schools with accelerated courses, schools operating on a two-semester basis, and schools with varying school years. It also covers equitably schools which provide courses for part-time students.
The section recognizes that some public institutions and private nonprofit institutions have established rates that cannot be maintained in an expanded program because of inadequacy of the tuition in meeting actual costs of the education and training given. It accordingly provides that the Director, after recommendation of the cognizant State department of education, may pay a fair and reasonable amount in such cases, subject to the maximum on payments previously referred to.
The section also makes it clear that payments to institutions shall not include such items as board, travel, lodging, or other personal expenses of the student.
STATE PLANS Section 8 prescribes the requirements that are to be met by State plans and enumerates duties which are to be performed by the State departments of education or, if some other agency is designated by the State legislature, the duties to be performed by it under the State plan.
The section requires that the standards to be followed by the State agency in approving institutions be presented in detail, and that the policies and methods to be followed in this connection and in otherWise carrying out the plan are to be shown. It requires that the State standards for State personnel administering the plan likewise be shown, but safeguards the State against any exercise of Federal authority in the selection, methods of selection, or compensation of such State personnel. The section also safeguards the persons who would be trained by requiring that no business or other establishment providing training on the job shall be approved unless the establishment compensates
trainees at rates required by approved Federal and State laws, and unless they meet all such laws and regulations relating to health, safety, and other conditions of labor.
It is also required that the State plan provide for the appointment of an advisory committee which shall be broadly representative of the various types and levels of education and training institutions in the State. Such committee would aid and advise the State department of education in the administration of the State plan.
Subsection (b) of the section specifies some of the more important duties of the State agency in administering and supervising and controlling the State plan. The agency is required to promptly (1) establish lists of approved institutions within the State; (2) review the work of the institutions in the State to determine whether or not they are meeting educational standards; (3) to make recommendations with respect to fees charged by these institutions in accordance with section 7; and (4) to transmit the reports and certifications of the institutions in the State with respect to persons receiving education and training. It is also made their duty to transmit to the Director lists of the war-service persons attending the institutions under the program, and the institution which each is attending: Also, the State agency is required to submit the names and other data relating to dependents of the war-service person where he claims to have such dependents.
Subsection (c) makes special provision for the establishment of a representative board to submit and carry out the State plan for the District of Columbia. This subsection safeguards the local publicschool system by requiring approval by the District of Columbia Board of Education of the portion of the plan affecting the publicschool system of the District.
LIMITATION OF FEDERAL AUTHORITY
Section 11 specifically provides that no department, agency, or officer of the United States, in carrying out the provisions of the
proposed legislation, shall exercise any supervision or control over any Štate educational agency or apprenticeship agency or any educational or training institution in any State with respect to personnel, curriculum, or methods or material of instruction. While such a provision might be regarded as unnecessary in view of the careful distribution of authority made under other sections of the act, it was felt advisable to place this specific limitation to insure that there will be no Federal encroachment in these matters.
REPORTS TO CONGRESS
Section 12 requires reports to be made at least once each 6 months to the Senate and House of Representatives as to the program which the proposed legislation would establish. It is required that these reports give information, both as to the total number of war-service persons receiving education and training under the program and the number of such persons in each State.
PROVIDING FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AID FOR THE READJUSTMENT IN CIVILIAN LIFE OF RETURNING WORLD WAR II VETERANS
May 5, 1944.—Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the state
of the Union and ordered to be printed
Mr. RANKIN, from the Committee on World War Veterans' Legis
lation, submitted the following
(To accompany S. 1767)
The Committee on World War Veterans' Legislation having had under consideration S. 1767, entitled "An act to provide Federal Government aid for the readjustment in civilian life of returning World War II veterans, report the bill with an amendment in the nature of a substitute and as amended recommend that the bill do pass.
As indicated in the print of the bill herein, the amendment is to strike out of the bill as it passed the Senate everything after the enacting clause and to substitute the language shown in italics.
EXPLANATION OF COMMITTEE ACTION
The bill as reported by the committee is the result of arduous study over an extended period of time. Hundreds of bills have been filed and numerous proposals were before the committee dealing with the same general subject of post-war benefits for veterans of the present conflict, including better care for those disabled in service. Public hearings on the general subject were held by the committee early in the year, but some of the proposals were beyond the then jurisdiction of the committee. Immediately after the passage of S. 1767, that bill was referred to the committee, and public hearings were conducted daily for a week or more in order to give all interested parties a full opportunity to present their views, including a number of Members of Congress who desired to speak on the bill or to suggest amendments
After the recess, executive sessions were held daily over a period of approximately 3 weeks, under permission of the House, afternoon sessions being held also. The Senate bill was studied section by section, and several of the titles were recast in what is believed to be simpler, more direct form for the purpose of insuring more adequate administration, as well as for purposes of economy in administration.
The problem before the committee consisted of three principal fundamentals:
(1) To insure adequate administration of existing laws for the benefit of disabled veterans and the dependents of deceased veterans.
(2) Supplementation of existing statutes to provide for readjustment into the civilian economy of veterans returning from service in the present war.
(3) Concentration in one agency, namely the Veterans Administration, of all responsibility for the administration of veterans' benefits as such
There was, and can be, it is believed, no divergency of opinion on the necessity for this last point, inasmuch as the only way to avoid the confusion which existed after the close of World War I in connection with veterans' benefits is to have one agency to which the veterans individually may look for all rights extended to them by statute and which the Congress may hold responsible for the proper administration of such benefits.
The first essential named, that of insuring adequate administration of existing laws providing benefits for disabled veterans, is covered by the first title of the bill which, in its essentials is the same as passed by the Senate but with somewhat minor clarifying amendments to several sections of the title. Likewise, title VI, dealing with general administrative provisions, was adopted with amendments believed essential and tying in with the principal titles of the bill.
The remaining portion of the bill—titles II to V, inclusive-deals with the additional benefits for veterans in the post-war period. This problem is a tremendous one and has been the subject of great controversy. The object sought is the same in any event, namely, the reintegration of the discharged soldier, sailor, and marine into the civilian economy in the most prompt and adequate manner. Many plans were advocated, the general consensus appearing to be that, considering length and character of service, together with comparable sacrifices, the plan which would guarantee the most nearly uniform consideration would be an adjusted service pay. Thorough and painstaking exploration of this field, however, demonstrated that now is not the time to consider such plan for there are too many unforeseeable factors which might have a direct bearing upon any such proposal. Furthermore, it is not clear that the tremendous expense involved in such plan can be borne by the national economy should the war continue beyond present expectations.
Alternatives were therefore favorably considered as the least which may be necessary to accomplish the end desired. Briefly, these are as follows:
(1) Education or training, including apprenticeship training.
(2) Loans for the purpose of buying, constructing, or repairing homes, buying or leasing farms or business properties, and purchasing or leasing implements and equipment therefor.